Thực trạng các loài cây thuốc quý hiếm tại tỉnh Thái Nguyên

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  • Tp ch Khoa hc HQGHN, Khoa hc T nhin v Cng ngh 28 (2012) 173-194

    173

    Thc trng cc loi cy thuc qu him ti tnh Thi Nguyn

    L Th Thanh Hng1, Trn Th Ngc Anh1, Nguyn Th Ngc Yn1, Nguyn Trung Thnh2,*, Nguyn Ngha Thn2

    1Trng i hc Khoa hc, i hc Thi Nguyn, Tp. Thi Nguyn

    2Khoa Sinh hc, Trng i hc Khoa hc T nhin, HQHN, 334 Nguyn Tri, H Ni, Vit Nam

    Nhn ngy 22 thng 02 nm 2012

    Tm tt. Thi Nguyn l mt tnh trung du min ni vng ng Bc Vit Nam, vi din tch rng t nhin ca tnh l 102.190 ha, thun li cho s pht trin ca cy thuc. Trong nhng nm gn y tnh trng ph rng, khai thc dc liu t, ng thi cha c k hoch ti sinh pht trin cc loi cy thuc mc t nhin nn nhiu loi dc liu qu ang b suy gim nghim trng. Trong bi bo ny, chng ti ghi nhn mt s kt qu nghin cu v thc trng cc loi cy thuc qu him ti tnh Thi Nguyn. Kt qu bc u xc nh c 25 loi thc vt bc cao c mch s dng lm thuc cn c phi bo tn. Trong , theo Sch Vit Nam c 20 loi (cp EN c 6 loi, cp VU c 11 loi v cp K c 3 loi); theo Ngh nh s 32/2006/N-CP c 6 loi (1 loi mc nghim cm khai thc s dng - IA v 5 loi hn ch khai thc s dng - IIA); theo Danh lc cy thuc c 15 loi (cp EN c 10 loi v cp VU c 5 loi).

    T kha: Thi Nguyn, ti nguyn, thc trng cy thuc qu.

    1. t vn

    Vit Nam nm trong vng nhit i gi ma, c thin nhin ban tng cho mt ngun ng, thc vt phong ph v s a dng v thnh phn loi. Trong s ngun ti nguyn cy thuc chim mt s lng khng nh. Vng t Thi Nguyn, t xa xa ni ting vi nhiu sn vt qu c th s dng lm thuc cha bnh. Tuy nhin, hin nay tnh trng khai thc v bun bn t pht ti a phng lm suy gim ngun ti nguyn cy thuc, suy gim tnh a dng sinh hc ca cc h sinh thi. V

    _______ Tc gi lin h. T: 84-4-38582178. E-mail: thanhntsh@gmail.com

    vy, vic nghin cu cy thuc qu ti tnh Thi Nguyn s to c s khoa hc cho vic qun l v bo tn ngun ti nguyn qu gi ny.

    2. Ni dung v phng php nghin cu

    2.1. Ni dung nghin cu

    iu tra v pht hin nhng cy thuc thuc din qu him ang phn b ti a bn tnh Thi Nguyn.

    Thu thp thng tin v thc trng cc loi cy thuc qu; tnh hnh khai thc v s dng cy thuc qu theo kinh nghim ca mt s dn tc ti tnh Thi Nguyn.

  • L.T.T. Hng / Tp ch Khoa hc HQGHN, Khoa hc T nhin v Cng ngh 28 (2012) 173-194

    174

    2.2. Phng php nghin cu

    Phng php iu tra phng vn: Phng vn ngi dn c bit l cc ng lang b m ngi dn tc Dao, Ty, Nng, Sn Chay v nhng ngi dn c kinh nghim v s dng cy thuc cc huyn ca tnh Thi Nguyn.

    Phng php thu thp v x l mu vt: Tin hnh thu thp cc cy thuc qu theo s ch dn ca cc thy thuc bn a v theo danh lc phng vn ti cc x trong huyn i T, Ph Lng, ng H, nh Ho, V Nhai ca tnh Thi Nguyn [1]. Thi gian thu mu t thng 4 nm 2011 n thng 02 nm 2012. X l mu thu c v xc nh c tn khoa hc ca 25 loi cy thuc qu ti Phng th nghim ca Khoa Khoa hc S sng, Trng i hc Khoa hc, i hc Thi Nguyn.

    Phng php phn tch v phn loi mu: Phn loi mu da trn phng php hnh thi truyn thng, kt hp vi kinh nghim ca cc chuyn gia v cc b Thc vt ch chuyn ngnh nh: Cy c Vit Nam (Phm Hong H, 1999-2000) [2]; Iconographia Cormophytorum Sinicorum (ICS, 1972-1976) [3]; T in cy

    thuc (V Vn Chi, 1996) [4]; Nhng cy thuc v v thuc Vit Nam ( Tt Li, 2005) [5]; Danh lc cc loi thc vt Vit Nam (2001-2005) [6], Sch Vit Nam, Phn II Thc vt (2007) [7], Cy thuc v ng vt lm thuc Vit Nam, Tp I-II ( Huy Bch v cng s, 2006) [8] Tin hnh xc nh tn khoa hc v lp danh lc cy thuc qu him ti Thi Nguyn.

    Phng php nh gi mc nguy cp:

    Theo Sch Vit Nam [7], Ngh nh 32/2006/N-CP [9] v Danh lc cy thuc Vit Nam trong cm nang cy thuc cn bo v Vit Nam ca Nguyn Tp (2007) [10].

    3. Kt qu nghin cu

    Kt qu iu tra nghin cu, theo cc ti liu nh: Sch Vit Nam (Phn II Thc vt, 2007), Ngh nh 32/2006/N-CP v Danh lc cy thuc Vit Nam trong Cm nang cy thuc cn bo v Vit Nam ca Nguyn Tp (2007), chng ti thng k c 25 cy thuc cn bo v trong (Bng 1).

    Bng 1. Cc loi cy thuc cn bo v ti tnh Thi Nguyn

    Cp quy nh

    TT Tn khoa hc/ Tn Vit Nam SVN

    32 N/CP

    DLCT Cng dng

    Polypodiophyta - ngnh Dng x 1. Polypodiaceae - h Rng nhiu chn

    1. Drynaria fortunei (Kuntz ex Mett.) J.Sm. - Tc k foctun

    EN A1,c,d EN A1c,d Cha khp, cc bnh v thn kinh

    2. Drynaria bonii H. Christ - Tc k bonii

    VU A1a,c,d VU A1c,d Cha khp v cc bnh v thn kinh

    Angiospermae - ngnh Ht kn I. Dicotyledones - lp Hai l mm 1. Annonaceae - h Na

    3. Goniothalamus vietnamensis Ban - B bo en3

    VU A1a,c,d B1 + 2b,e

    B mu, kch thch tiu ha, thoi ha ct sng, au dy thn kinh ta

  • L.T.T. Hng v nnk. / Tp ch Khoa hc HQGHN, Khoa hc T nhin v Cng ngh 28 (2012) 173-194 175

    2. Aristolochiaceae - h Mc hng 4. Asarum glabrum Merr. - Hoa tin VU A1c,d Thuc b, cha vi ct

    sng, au lng, au xng khp

    5. Asarum petelotii O. C. Schmidt - T hoa petelot

    IIA EN A2c,d B2a,b Cha thp khp, au rng, au u, lit

    3. Berberidaceae - h Hong lin gai 6. Podophyllum tonkinense Gagnep.

    - Bt gic lin EN A1a,c,d EN B2a,b Gii c

    4. Fabaceae - h u 7. Callerya speciosa (Champ. ex

    Benth.) Schot - Ct sm2 VU A1a,c,d Ngm ru ung lm

    thuc b 5. Loganiaceae - h M tin 8. Strychnos nitida G. Don - M

    tin lng3 EN B1+2b Cha au u

    6. Menispermaceae - h Tit d 9. Stephania dielsiana Y. C. Wu -

    C dm VU B1+2b,c IIA EN A3c,d Cha au bng, u nang

    bung trng, cha vi ct sng

    10. Stephania kwangsiensis H. S. Lo - Bnh vi qung ty

    IIA VU A1c,d Cha au u, an thn

    11. Fibraurea tinctoria Lour. - Hong ng1,2

    IIA Tiu vim, gii c, au bng, au u

    12. Tinospora crispa (L.) Miers - Dy k ninh2,3,4

    K Cha bnh v xng khp, bnh st rt.

    13. Tinospora sinensis ( Lour.) Merr - Dy au xng2,3,4

    K Cha bnh v xng khp, chn tay t ph

    7. Myrsinaceae - h n nem 14. Ardisia silvestris Pitard - L

    khi1,3 VU A1a,c,d+2d

    VU A1c,d

    Cha au d dy. Tm , cha bnh gan, bnh tim, thiu mu

    8. Opiliaceae - h Sn cam 15. Melientha suavis Pierre - Rau

    sng VU B1+2e Nu canh n c tc

    dng mt 9. Polygonaceae - h Rau rm 16. Fallopia multiflora (Thunb.)

    Haraldson - H th VU A1c,d EN A3a,c,d B mu

    17 Reynoutria japonica Houtt. - Ct kh c

    K Cha ung th d con

    10. Portulacaceae - h Rau sam 18. Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.)

    Gaertn. - Sm mng ti VU A1a,c,d Nu canh n mt, gip

    gii nhit 11. Rubiaceae - h C ph 19. Morinda officinalis How - Ba

    kch EN A1a,c,d Cha lit ngi gi

    II. lp Mt l mm - Monocotyledones

    12. Acoraceae - h Thy xng b

    20. Acorus macrospadiceus (Yam.) F. N. Wei & Y. K. Li - Thy

    EN B1+2b,c EN B2a,b Tm

  • L.T.T. Hng / Tp ch Khoa hc HQGHN, Khoa hc T nhin v Cng ngh 28 (2012) 173-194

    176

    xng b l to

    13. Araceae - h Ry 21. Homalomena gigantea Engl. &

    K. Krause - Thin nin kin l to VU A1c,d1+2b,c

    EN A1c,d B2a,b Cha thp khp, au lng, au xng

    14. Convallariaceae - h Mch mn ng 22. Disporopsis longifolia Craib -

    Hong tinh hoa trng VU A1c,d IIA EN A2a,c,d Cha phong thp, au

    xng khp 15. Orchidaceae - h Lan 23. Anoectochilus calcareus Aver. -

    Kim tuyn vi EN A1d IA Lm thuc cha bnh

    16. Taccaceae - h Ru hm 24. Tacca subflabellata P. P. Ling &

    C. T. Ting, 1982 - Ph la VU A1a,c,d VU A1c,d

    B2a,b Cha bnh tim

    17. Trilliaceae - H Trng lu

    25. Paris polyphylla Smith - Trng lu nhiu l

    EN A1c,d EN B2a,b Dng r ngm ru lm thuc b cha rn cn

    Ch thch:

    1: Ty; 2: Nng; 3: Dao; 4: Sn Ch; SVN: Sch Vit Nam; 32 N-CP: Ngh nh 32 ca Chnh Ph; DLCT: Danh lc cy thuc; EN - Nguy cp - Endangered; VU - Sp nguy cp - Vulnerable; Nhm IA: Nghim cm khai thc v s dng; Nhm IIA: Hn ch khai thc v s dng.

    Ti khu vc nghin cu, chng ti ghi nhn c 25 loi cy thuc cn c u tin bo tn thuc 18 h, 21 chi. S loi c tn trong Sch Vit Nam (2007): 6E + 11V = 16 loi; chim 64,0% tng s loi cy thuc qu him pht hin c. C th, c 6 loi mc nguy cp (EN) chim 24,0%, trong c 4 loi tnh trng suy gim qun th t nht 50% v theo c on trong vng 10 nm cui (EN/A1), c 2 loi m khu phn b b thu hp xung cn 5.000km2 b chia ct hoc b tn ti khng qu 5 a im (EN/B1). C 11 loi mc s nguy cp (VU) chim 44,0%, trong c 1 loi s nguy cp v ni phn b b thu hp di 20.000 km2 hay tn ti khng qu di 10 a im (VU/B1), 9 loi s nguy cp trong trng thi suy gim qun th t nht 20% theo quan st v c tnh trong 10 nm cui (VU/A1) v 1 loi s nguy cp trong tnh trng qun th gim t nht 20% theo quan st v c tnh trong 10 nm cui v khu phn b c tnh

    di 20.000 km2 b suy gim lin tc v ch tn ti khng qu 10 im [7]. S loi c tn trong Ngh nh 32/2006/N-CP l 6 loi (chim 24%). Trong , mc IA - Nghim cm khai thc s dng l c 1 loi (chim 16,67%) v mc IIA - Khai thc hn ch v s dng c kim sot l 5 loi chim (83,33%). C 15 loi c tn Danh lc cy thuc Vit Nam (2007), trong c 10 loi mc nguy cp chim 66,7% v 5 loi cn li mc s nguy cp chim 33,3%.

    Kt qu nh sau:

    1. Tc k foctun

    Tn khoa hc: Drynaria fortunei (Kuntz ex Mett.) J. Sm.

    Thuc h Rng nhiu chn (Polypodiaceae)

    Tn a phng: Cc c bng (Dao), Tc k (Ty)

    Mi trng sng: rng

  • L.T.T. Hng v nnk. / Tp ch Khoa hc HQGHN, Khoa hc T nhin v Cng ngh 28 (2012) 173-194 177

    Ni thu mu: x Hp Tin, huyn ng H; x Linh Thng, huyn nh Ha, Thi Nguyn.

    B phn dng v cng dng: ng bo dn tc Dao v Ty s dng r cha cc bnh v khp, au dy thn kinh ta, vi ct sng.

    nh gi tr lng: Tc k foctun tng i t gp. Trong nghin cu ny, ghi nhn c 3 c th ca loi. Trong , c 2 c th c tm thy ti x Hp Tin, huyn ng H v 1 loi c tm thy ti x Linh Thng, huyn nh Ha.

    Tc k foctun - Drynaria fortunei (Kuntz ex Mett.) J. Sm.

    2. Tc k bonii

    Tn khoa hc: Drynaria bonii H. Christ

    Thuc h Rng nhiu chn (Polypodiaceae)

    Tn a phng: Tc k (Sn Chay, Ty, Nng).

    Mi trng sng: rng, ni .

    Ni thu mu: x Tn Long v x Nam Ho, huyn ng H; x Tc Tranh, huyn Ph Lng v x Linh Thng, huyn nh Ho (Thi Nguyn).

    B phn dng v cng dng