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Ting anh ngnh ha

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GS. TS Nguyn Th Hin (ch bin). GS.TS. Nguyn Trng n; ThS. L Th Lan Chi

THE LANGUAGE OF CHEMISTRY,FOOD AND BIOLOGICAL TECHNOLOGY IN ENGLISH(NGN NG TING ANH CHUYN NGNH CNG NGH HA HC, CNG NGH THC PHM V CNG NGH SINH HC)

I HC BCH KHOA H NI 2009

LI NI UCun sch Ting Anh The language of Chemistry, Food and Biological Technology in English (TACN) c bin son cung cp nhng kin thc c bn thuc cc chuyn ngnh Ha, Thc phm v Cng ngh sinh hc. Cun sch ny c th dng lm ti liu cho sinh vin v cc bn c quan tm n cc chuyn ngnh trn. Cun sch c chia lm bn phn chnh theo kinh nghim cc gio trnh ting Anh chuyn ngnh Ha, Thc phm ca cc trng i hc k thut Ha Thc phm Praha Tip Khc, Ba Lan, Nga, c, Anh. Phn 1: Cc bi kha c bn - gm 60 bi kha gii thiu bc tranh ton cnh ca chuyn ngnh Ha, Thc phm v Cng ngh sinh hc. T cc ngnh Ha n cc nguyn t; t k thut ngnh Ha ni chung n vic chng ct hoc khi nim to ra mt sn phm c th ni ring trong cc lnh vc khoa hc v cng ngh thc phm v cng ngh sinh hc, vi cc ngn t v kt cu quan trng, cch din t bng ting Anh. Phn 2: Tm tt ng php ting Anh p dng trong khoa hc - l th ng php mang c th ca ngnh vi cch vit tt, cch c cc cng thc ha hc, cc nguyn t ha hc, cch pht m cc t chuyn ngnh c gc La tinh, Hy lp. Phn 3: Bi tp - gm mt s bi tp luyn cch pht m, cch c cc t vit tt, cng thc ha hc, cc nguyn t ha hc, s v phn s, cc bi dch Anh-Vit, Vit-Anh... v mt s bi kim tra ngi c t nh gi kh nng ngn ng ca mnh, tng kh nng dch v c ting Anh chuyn ngnh. Phn 4: T vng - bao gm cc t v cc cm t dng trong cc bi kha c lit k theo th t A, B, C. Ngha ca t v cm t l ngha vn cnh ca ngnh khoa hc c lin quan n cc bi kha. H thng phin m quc t cng c dng gip cho vic t hc v tra cu ca ngi c v c gi c th hiu v c chnh xc cc t ting Anh chuyn mn ny. Mi bi phn 1 c kt cu nh sau: (i) Bi kha gii thiu ch (ii) Bi tp: A- c v dch t ting Anh sang ting Vit B- Tr li cu hi theo ni dung bi kha C- Dch t ting Vit sang ting Anh Khi bin son cun TACN, cc tc gi ch cung cp ng liu ca ngnh Ha, Thc phm v Cng ngh sinh hc trong nhng ngn cnh ca chuyn ngnh ny gip ngi c hnh thnh cc k nng c hiu vi cc cu trc c bn nht hay gp trong cc ti liu khoa hc. Cc cu hi theo ni dung bi hc nhm gip ngi hc pht trin k nng nghe ni. Cc cu dch bc u chun b cho ngi hc hnh thnh k nng vit theo vn phong khoa hc ca ngnh. Mc du cun sch ny bt u c bin son t nhng nm 1980, a vo dy sinh vin ngnh Cng ngh ln men t nhng nm 1990 v cho n nay c hon chnh dn phc v chnh thc cho sinh vin chnh quy t nm 1997. Cun sch c bin son gm 40 bi kha v 20 bi c thm vi cc chuyn ngnh hp vi mong mun dy cho sinh vin t hc k 5 n hc k 8, mi hc k 45 tit. Cng vi mi bi kha c bi luyn v n ng php c bn, nh vy sinh vin hc n nm th 5 chuyn ngnh s c th c sch k thut tt hn nhiu. Vic bin son cun sch ny cng khng trnh khi khim khuyt,vi ln in th nht vo dp 45 nm HBK H ni v ln th 2 ti Nh xut bn KHKT v dng ging dy cho cc trng i Hc v Cao ng c hiu qu t Bc n Nam v n nay tc gi nhn c s gp xy dng ca c gi v ngi hc . Chng ti rt king nghim dy trn 10 nm qua v c b sung, sa cha d cun sch ny b ch nht cho Sinh vin ngnh chuyn mn tng ng hc v bn hc, c khc quan tm.

GS.TS. NGUYN TH HIN Nguyn ch nhim B Mn CNSH-Thc phm. i Hc Bch Khoa H Ni H Ni 2009

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LI CM NCun sch The language of Chemistry, Food and Biological Technology in English c bin son dnh cho sinh vin ngnh Ha hc - Thc phm CN Sinh hc, cc c gi Vit Nam c quan tm n ngnh hc ny cng cc ngnh khc c lin quan. Tp th tc gi: GS.TS. Nguyn Th Hin, GS. Nguyn Trng n, Ths. L Th Lan Chi (th k) xin chn thnh cm n s gip ca: - Ban gim hiu trng i hc bch khoa H Ni Ban ch nhim khoa Cng ngh Ha hc - Thc phm - Sinh hc trng i hc bch khoa H Ni B mn Cng ngh Sinh hc thc phm trng i hc bch khoa H Ni c bit cm n GS. Nguyn Trng n - Trng khoa ting Anh trng i hc ngoi thng H Ni, GS.TS. Lu Dun - HBK H Ch Minh v GS.TS. Nguyn Trng Cn - H Thy sn Nha Trang to iu kin cho ch bin bin son phn chnh cun sch. Nh xut bn khoa hc k thut.

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Tp th tc gi cm n cc thy c, cc bn ng nghip trong v ngoi trng, cc bn sinh vin ng gp nhiu kin v khch l chng ti trong vic hon thin cun sch. Tp th tc gi mong nhn c s gp xy dng cho cun sch c hon chnh hn trong nhng ln ti bn sau ny. Mong rng cun sch s tr thnh cng c hu ch cho sinh vin v cc c gi khc. Cc tc gi

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CONTENTPage number Introduction PART 1: THE BASIC UNITS..................................................... .. Unit 1: Chemistry and Its Branches Unit 2: Hydrogen Unit 3: Water Unit 4: Classification of Matter Unit 5: Solutions Unit 6: Isolation and Purification of Substances Unit 7: The Rate of Chemical Reactions Unit 8: Hydrocarbons Unit 9: Equipments of Chemical Laboratory Unit 10: Chemical Nomenclature Unit 11: Water treatment Unit 12: Types of Reactors Unit 13: Relationship of Chemical Industry to Other Industries Unit 14: Inventories Unit 15: The Laboratory Notebook Unit 16: Study Outline of Chemistry Unit 17: Sewage Treatment Unit 18: Safety in the Laboratory Unit 19: Chemical Engineering Unit 20: Gas Manufacture Unit 21: Sulfuric Acid Unit 22: Glass Unit 23: Rapid method of Determination of Potassium in Minerals Unit 24: The use of Radioactive Elements as Tracers Unit 25: Acetone Unit 26: Acetic acid Unit 27: M- Bromonitrobenzene Unit 28: Synthetic Rubber Unit 29: Classification of Fuels Unit 30: Petroleum Unit 31: Main Biological Molecules Unit 32: Study Outline of Microorganisms Unit 33: Food Manufacture and Nutrition Unit 34: Jellies, Jams, Preserves, Marmalades and Fruit butters Unit 35: The Importance of Biotechnology Unit 36: The Development Strategy of a Microbial Process Unit 37: Bioreactor Unit 38: Ethyl Alcohol Unit 39: Distillation Unit 40: Beer and Ale Unit 41: Post-harvest System 2 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 27 29 32 34 36 37 40 44 47 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 75 80 83 85 88 92 95 97 99 101

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Unit 42: Unit 43: Unit 44: Unit 45: Unit 46: Unit 47: Unit 48: Unit 49: Unit 50: Unit 51: Unit52:

Secondary Processing - Cereal Based Foods Processing Techniques and Equipment Introduction to Biscuit - Making Vegetable Processing Introduction to Food Safety Some Main Operations of Cane Sugar Production Methods of Oil Extraction and Processing Tea, Coffee and Cocoa Meat and Fish Products Traditional Fermented Milk Products General Principles for Industrial Production of Microbial Extracellular Enzymes Unit 53: Citric Acid (C6H8O7) Unit 54: Plant and Animal Cell Cultures Unit 55: Antibiotics Unit 56: Single-Cell Protein: Production, Modification and Utilization Unit 57. Immobilization of Enzyme and Cells Unit 58 : Genetic Manipulation- Isolation and Transfer of Cloned Genes Unit 59 : Biologica Regulation and Process Control Unit 60: Product Recovery in Biotechnology PART 2: GRAMMAR ............................................................... I. Abbreviation II. Reading chemical and mathematical signs and Formulas III. Mt s qui lut pht m IV. S to thnh danh t s nhiu ca mt s danh t c bit V. Mc so snh VI. i t quan h VII. i t khng xc nh some, any, no VIII. Cch c s t IX. ng t nguyn mu v tr ng t X. ng t th hin thay i trng thi XI. Cc th, th cch ca ng t XII. iu kin cch XIII. Gi nh thc XIV. ng t nguyn th XV. Phn t XVI. Danh ng t XVII. Th b ng XVIII. Cc loi cu - th t - cch chia XIX. Cu phc hp c cc mnh ch XX. There is; there are XXI. S bin i ca mt s loi t XXII. Cc tip u ng c bn XXIII. Cc tip v ng PART 3: THE EXERCISES........................................................ Exercise 1 - 33

105 108 111 114 118 121 124 128 132 135 139 143 146 151 156 158 161 163 167 155 156 156 157 160 160 160 161 165 166 170 171 175 175 175 177 179 180 181 181 183 183 184 184 187 188

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Table of Elements PART 4: VOCABULARY ........................................................... Reference

199 201 169

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PART 1 THE BASIC UNITS

CC BI KHA C BN

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UNIT 1 : CHEMISTRY AND ITS BRANCHESChemistry is the science of substances - of their structure, their properties, and the reactions that change them into other substances. The study of chemistry may be divided into the following branches: - General chemistry, which is an introduction to the entire science. - Qualitative analysis, giving the methods of testing for the presence of chemical substances. - Quantitative analysis, giving the methods of accurate determination of the amounts of different substances present in a sample of material. - Inorganic chemistry, which is the chemistry of elements other than carbon, and their compounds. - Organic chemistry, which is the chemistry of the compounds of carbon. - Physical chemistry, which studies the quantitative relations among the properties of substances and their reactions. - Biochemistry, which is the chemistry of the substances comprising living organisms. - Structural chemistry, which deals with the molecular structure and its relation to the properties of substances. - Radiochemistry, which is the chemistry of radioactive elements and of reactions involving the nuclei of atoms. - Industrial chemistry, which is concerned with industrial processes. Although chemistry is a very large and complex subject, which still continues to grow as new elements are discovered or made, new compounds are synthesized, and new principles are formulated. The chemists or chemical engineers need to have some knowledge of all its branches, even if he may be specialized in a particular line. Chemistry science cannot do without physics and mathematics, and is also closely linked to some other sciences, e.g. inorganic chemistry is linked closely to geology, mineralogy, and metallurgy, while organic chemistry is linked to biology in general.

EXERCISES A. Read and translate into Vietnamesesubstances, reaction, chemistry, analysis, method, determination, material, inorganic, element, compound, organic, biochemistry, organism, molecular, radioa