Tiểu luận Xử lý chất thải nguy hại

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<p>MC LC M U Phn 11.1. 1.2.</p> <p>TNG QUAN V X L SINH HC CHT THI NGUY HI Cht thi nguy hi Qun l cht thi nguy hi ti Vit Nam X l sinh hc cht thi nguy hi</p> <p>1.3.</p> <p>Phn 2 NG DNG K THUT PHN T X L SINH H CHT THI NGUY HI 2.1. Vi sinh vt v k thut phn t ng dng trong s l sinh hc cht thi nguy hi 2.2. Tim nng s dng cc phng php sinh thi hc vi sinh vt mc phn t x l sinh hc cht thi nguy hi Phn 3 KT LUN TAI LIU THAM KHO</p> <p>M U</p> <p>Cng ngh sinh hc c th c nh ngha l ng dng nguyn l k thut v khoa hc trong vic x l cc vt liu bng tc nhn sinh hc cung cp sn phm v phc v. (Cator,2000). Trong lch s, cng ngh sinh hc u tin s dng nm men ln men bia, ru, vuwr dng vi khun to sa chua. Nm 1972, l nm sinh ra cng ngh DNA ti t hp a cng ngh sinh hc ti mt tm cao mi v hnh thnh mt nn cng nghip mi. s tin b trong cng ngh sinh hc thc s c ghi nhn. Trong vng 4 nm khm ph ra k thut DNA ti t hp, cc vi sinh vt chuyn gen (GMOs) to ra insulin ngui, interferon, v hocmon sinh trng ngi. Ngy nay, cng ngh DNA ti t hp v cc sn phm ca n nh GMOs c ng dng rng ri trong cng ngh sinh hc mi trung (Glick v Pasternark,1988; Cowan,2000). X l sinh hc cht thi nguy hi l mt trong nhng lnh vc pht trin mnh nht trong cng ngh sinh hc mi trng. S dng x l sinh hc cht thi nguy hi lm sch mi trng rt c ph bin nh chi ph thp v c con ngi chp nhn. Thc s, x l sinh hc cht thi nguy hi t hiu qu cao, nhanh hn na khi c h tr bi k thut phn t vn c pht trin trong nhiu lnh vc khc nhau trong cng ngh sinh hc. Nhng nm 1990 l thp k cho sinh thi vi sinh vt phn t pht trin. Vic p dng k thut phn t gip cc nh khoa hc nhn ra rng cng ng vi sinh vt trong mi trng t nhin c th phc v tt hn nhiu cc phng php nui cy truyn thng. S dng cc phng php sinh thi hc phn t, nh tch chit DNA trc tip t mu mi trng, in di gel gradient bin tnh (DGGE), phng php PCR, phng php lai phn t, chng ta c th nghin cu qun th vi sinh vt c kh nng phn hy cht thi trong mi trng. Nhng phng php ny ha hn s hiu bit iu khin tt hn cc qu trnh cng ngh sinh hc mi trng, nh cho php vic x l sinh hc mi trng b nhim v cc cht thi c hiu qu v t tn km hn.</p> <p>Phn 11.1.</p> <p>TNG QUAN V X L SINH HC CHT THI NGUY HI</p> <p>Cht thi nguy hi</p> <p>1.1.1.nh ngha - Theo UNEP Cht thi c hi l nhng cht thi (khng k cht thi phng x) c hot tnh ha hc, hoc c tnh c hi, chy n, n mn gy nguy him hoc c th gy nguy him n sc khe hoc mi trng khi hnh thnh hoc tip xc vi cc cht thi khc. Cht thi khng bao gm trong nh ngha trn: + Cht thi phng x c xem l cht thi c hi nhng khng bao gm trong nh ngha ny bi v hu ht cc quc gia qun l v kim sot cht phng x theo qui c, iu khon, qui nh ring. + Cht thi rn sinh hot c th gy nhim mi trng do cha mt t cht thi nguy hi tuy nhin n c qun l theo h thng cht thi ring. mt s quc gia s dng thu gom tch ring cht thi nguy hi trong rc sinh hot. - Theo Lut bo v mi trng CTNH l cht thi cha yu t c hi, phng x, d chy, d n, d n mn, d ly nhim, gy ng c hoc c tnh nguy hi khc (khon 11, iu 3, chng 1 Lut Bo V Mi Trng). QLCTNH gm cc hot ng lin quan n vic phng nga, gim thiu, phn loi, thu gom, vn chuyn, lu gi, x l (k c ti ch, thu hi), tiu hu CTNH (khon 1, iu 2, chng 1 Thng T 12/2006/TT-BTNMT). 1.1.2.c tnh ca cht thi nguy hi - Cht c kh nng gy chy: cht c nhit bt chy 12,5; cht c th n mn thp. Dng thng gp l nhng cht c tnh axit hoc bazo - Cht c tnh c hi: Nhng cht thi m bn thn n c tnh c c th c xc nh qua cc bc kim tra. Cht thi c phn tch thnh phn trong cc</p> <p>pha hi, rn v lng. Khi c thnh phn ha hc no ln hn tiu chun cho php th cht thi c xp vo loi cht thi nguy hi. Cht c hi gm: Cc kim loi nng nh thy ngn, cadmium, asenic, ch v cc mui ca chng; dung mi hu c nh toluen, benzen, axeton, cloroform; Cc cht c hot tnh sinh hc (thuc st trng, tr su, ha cht nng nghip); Cc cht hu c rt bn trong iu kin t nhin nu tch ly trong m m n mt nng nht nh th s gy bnh (PCBs: Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls). - Cht c kh nng gy ung th v t bin gen: Dioxin (PCDD), Asen, cadmium, benzen, cc hp cht hu c cha clo 1.1.3.Ngun gc pht sinh cht thi nguy hi Theo khong 2, Quyt nh s 23/2006/Q-BTNMT, ngy 26/12/2006, Cht thi nguy hi pht sinh t 19 nhm: 1) Cht thi t ngnh thm d, khai thc, ch bin khong sn, du kh v than. 2) Cht thi t ngnh sn xut ho cht v c. 3) Cht thi t ngnh sn xut ho cht hu c. 4) Cht thi t ngnh nhit in v cc qu trnh nhit khc. 5) Cht thi t ngnh luyn kim. 6) Cht thi t ngnh sn xut vt liu xy dng v thu tinh. 7) Cht thi t qu trnh x l, che ph b mt, to hnh kim loi v cc vt liu khc. 8) Cht thi t qu trnh sn xut, iu ch, cung ng, s dng cc sn phm che ph (sn, vc ni, men thu tinh), cht kt dnh, cht bt kn v mc in. 9) Cht thi t ngnh ch bin g, sn xut cc sn phm g, giy v bt giy. 10)Cht thi t ngnh ch bin da, lng v dt nhum. 11) Cht thi xy dng v ph d (k c t o t cc khu vc b nhim). 12) Cht thi t cc c s ti ch, x l, tiu hu cht thi, x l nc cp sinh hot v cng nghip. 13) Cht thi t ngnh y t v th y (tr cht thi sinh hot t ngnh ny). 14) Cht thi t ngnh nng nghip, lm nghip v thu sn. 15) Thit b, phng tin giao thng vn ti ht hn s dng v cht thi t hot ng ph d, bo dng thit b, phng tin giao thng vn ti. 16) Cht thi h gia nh v cht thi sinh hot t cc ngun khc. 17) Du thi, cht thi t nhin liu lng, cht thi dung mi hu c, mi cht lnh v cht y (propellant). 18) Cc loi cht thi bao b, cht hp th, gi lau, vt liu lc v vi bo v. 19) Cc loi cht thi khc. 1.1.4.Phn loi Trn thc t, c nhiu h thng phn loi cht thi nguy hi. H thng phn loi theo tiu chun Vit Nam phn loi theo cc c tnh ca cht thi, TCVN 6706:2009 chia CTNH thnh 7 nhm sau:</p> <p>Bng 1: H thng phn loi CTNH theo TCVN 6706:2009 M s TT Nhm loi M t tnh cht nguy hi BASEL 1 Cht thi d bt la, d chy (C)</p> <p>1.1 H 3</p> <p>Cht thi lng d chy</p> <p>Cht thi lng c nhit bt chy di 60oC Cht thi khng l cht lng, d bc chy khi b ma st trong iu kin vn chuyn, khi b m, b t th xy ra t phn ng v bc chy, chy nhit v p sut kh quyn. Cht thi c kh nng t bc chy do t nng ln trong iu kin vn chuyn bnh thng, hoc t nng ln do tip xc vi khng kh v c kh nng bc chy. Cht thi khi gp nc, to ra phn ng gii phng kh d chy hoc kh t chy. Cht thi (bng phn ng ha hc) gy ra s n mn khi tip xc vi vt dng, bnh cha, hng ha hoc m sng ca ng vt, thc vt. Cht thi lng c pH bng hoc nh hn 2. Cht thi th lng c th n mn thp vi tc ln hn 6,35 mm/nm nhit 55oC. L cht rn hoc lng hoc hn hp rn lng t phn ng ha hc to ra nhiu kh, nhit v p sut c th gy n.</p> <p>1.2 H 4.1</p> <p>Cht thi d chy</p> <p>1.3 H 4.2 Cht thi c th t chy</p> <p>1.4 H 4.3 2 H8 Cht thi to ra kh d chy Cht thi gy n mn (AM)</p> <p>2.1 2.2</p> <p>Cht thi c tnh axit Cht thi c tnh n mn H1 Cht thi d n (N)</p> <p>3</p> <p>4</p> <p>Cht thi d b xi ha (OH)</p> <p>4.1 H 5.1</p> <p>Cht thi c cha clorat, pecmanganat, Cht thi cha cc tc nhn oxy peoxyt v c, nitrat v cc cht oxy ha ha v c khc khi tip xc vi khng kh, tch ly oxy th kch thch chy cc cht hoc vt liu khc. Cht thi cha peoxyt hu c Cht thi gy c cho ngi v sinh vt () Cht thi hu c c cu trc phn t - O O - khng bn vi nhit nn c th b phn hy v to nhit nhanh.</p> <p>4.2 H 5.2</p> <p>5</p> <p>5.1 H 6.1</p> <p>Cht thi gy c tnh cp</p> <p>Cht thi c cha cht c c th gy t vong hoc tn thng trm trng khi tip xc qua ng tiu ha, h hp hoc qua da vi liu nh.</p> <p>5.2 H 11</p> <p>Cht thi c cha cc cht gy nh hng Cht thi gy c chm hoc c chm hoc mn tnh, hoc gy ung th mn tnh do tip xc qua ng tiu ha, h hp hoc qua da. Cht thi cha chc thnh phn m khi tip xc vi khng kh hoc tip xc vi nc th gii phng ra kh c i vi ngi hoc sinh vt. Cht thi c hi cho h sinh Cht thi cha cc thnh phn m c th thi (S) gy ra tc ng c hi nhanh hoc t t i vi mi trng thng qua tch ly sinh hc v/hoc gy nh hng n cc h sinh vt. Cht thi ly nhim bnh (LN) Cht thi c cha cc vi sinh vt sng hoc c t ca chng, c bit hoc nghi ng Cht thi sinh ra kh c</p> <p>5.3 H 10</p> <p>6</p> <p>H 12</p> <p>7</p> <p>H 6.2</p> <p>l c cc mm bnh c th gy bnh c ngi v cho gia sc.</p> <p>1.1.5.nh hng ca cht thi nguy hi Tc ng ca mt vi cht thi nguy hi n mi trng: Kh SO2 + SO2 l cht kh khng mu, c mi hng v cay khi nng trong kh quyn l 1ppm. Sunfur l mt trong nhng ngun nhim chnh trong kh quyn v gy nh hng ti sc khe con ngi, bn vt liu v l nhn t chnh gy nn ma axit theo c cu sau: SO2 + H2O ------&gt; H2SO3 H2SO3 -----&gt; H+ + HSO3- ------&gt; 2H+ + SO32SO32- + H2O ------&gt; H2SO4 + Hi axit gp lnh s ngng t thnh sng m axit, chng tn ti l lng trong khng kh hoc hp th thm hi nc to thnh nhng git axit long H2O - H2SO4 v l nguyn nhn gy nn nhng cn ma axit. + SO2 tng i nng nn thng gn mt t, ngang vi tm sinh hot ca con ngi. Sunfur c kh nng ho tan trong nc cao hn cc kh gy nhim khc, nn d phn ng vi cc c quan h hp ca ngi v ng vt. Khi hm lng thp SO2 lm sng nim mc, khi hm lng cao (&gt;0,5 mg/m3) SO2 gy tc th, ho, vim lot ng h hp. + Khi c mt ng thi SO2 v SO3, ch cn nng thp chng cng s c tc ng hp lc, phn ng sinh l pht sinh mnh hn so vi phn ng ca tng cht ring bit, thm ch gy co tht ph qun mnh v nng cao c th dn n nguy him cht ngi. Cc hp cht cha Halogen + Khi ht phi Cl, n s i vo ph qun, ph nang. Clo s tip xc vi cc cht nhy t m sng ca c th, to ra HClO vt qua mng t bo v ph hy cc t bo, Cl to nn dn sut nit clo ha. + Cc hp cht kh cha halogen ch cn nng rt nh cng gy c, nhim c nng v c kh nng gy nhim trn phm vi rng ln. + HF gy bnh sn xng, vim ph qun, tn thng rng. HF hn ch sinh trng ca cy, lm rng qu, lp qu. + HCl lm gim bng m ca l, gy thng tn cho cy trng, tn thng vt nui v lm gim lng sa. Cc hp cht hu c + Cc hp cht hu c thng rt c vi c th ngi v vt. Mt s hp cht hu c nh Bezen v PAH (hp cht cacbuahydro thm a nhn) c th l nguyn nhn gy bnh ung th.</p> <p>+ Mt s cht hu c halogen l xc tc cho qu trnh phn hy ozon tng bnh lu. Mt s cht hu c hot tnh khc, li xc tin cho qu trnh phn ha vt cht v c bit mt s cht hu c gy nhim do mi nh cc mecaptan v alhyt. Mi ny gy cm gic kh chu v i khi cn km theo c nhim c v l nguyn nhn gy bnh cho ngi. + Dioxin v furan l nhng cht rt c. hm lng thp cng gy cc bnh v da, ph n c thai khi tip xc vi vi cc cht ny s sinh con thiu thng hoc qui thai. Nhim c nng s gy nn cc bnh v gan, mu, k c ung th v dn n t vong. ng vt b nhim Dioxin v Furan s gim trng lng ti 50% v s cht trong vng 2 3 tun. Kim loi nng + Kim loi nng l khi nim ch cc kim loi c nguyn t lng cao, thng c c tnh i vi s sng, v thng c lin quan n vn nhim mi trng. Ngun gc pht thi ca kim loi nng c th l t nhin (nh asen-As), hoc t hot ng ca con ngi, ch yu l t cng nghip (cc cht thi cng nghip) v t nng nghip, hng hi (trn du) + Vic s dng nhiu loi ch phm trong cng nng nghip lm nc v t nhiu vng, nht l trong cn lng ca cc dng sng, b nhim kim loi nng mc rt cao. + C mt s hp cht kim loi nng th ng v ng li trong t, song c mt s hp cht c th ho tan di tc ng ca nhiu yu t khc nhau, nht l do chua ca t, ca nc ma. iu ny to iu kin cc kim loi nng c th pht tn rng vo ngun nc ngm, nc mt v gy nhim t. + Mt s cht ty ra gia dng c cha cc tc nhn to phc mnh (nh EDTA, NTA) khi thi ra gp phn lm tng kh nng pht tn ca kim loi nng. + Cc kim loi nng c mt trong nc, t qua nhiu giai on khc nhau trc sau cng i vo chui thc n ca con ngi. Chng hn cc vi sinh vt c th chuyn thu ngn (Hg) thnh hp cht metyl thy ngn (CH 3)2Hg, sau qua ng vt ph du, tm, c... m thu ngn i vo thc n ca con ngi. S kin ng c hng lot Vnh Manimata (Nht Bn) nm 1953 l mt minh chng rt r v qu trnh nhim thy ngn t cng nghip vo thc n ca con ngi. + Khi nhim vo c th, kim loi nng c th tch t li trong cc m. ng thi vi qu trnh c th li o thi dn kim loi nng. Nhng cc nghin cu cho thy tc tch t kim loi nng thng nhanh hn tc o thi rt nhiu. Thi gian o thi c mt na lng kim loi nng khi c th c xc nh bng khi nim chu k bn thi sinh hc, v d vi thu ngn chu k ny vo khong 80 ngy, vi cadimi l hn 10 nm. iu ny cho thy cadimi tn ti rt lu trong c th nu b nhim phi. Bng 2: Tc hi ca mt s kim loi nng</p> <p>c t kim loi Mc nguy Triu chng/Hu qu lu di nng hi Arsenide Asen XXXXX (III) Arsenide Asen X (V) Lead Pb Ch XXX Nguy hi cho da, h thng thn kinh, tim mch v thm ch gy ung th sau 3 5 nm. Tr em: Chm pht trin th cht, tr tu v tinh thn Ngi ln: Gy hi thn v tim mch Ngn hn: Tiu chy, tn thng gan Di hn: Gy bnh thn, tim mch, gan Di hn: Gim cn, hi tim, phi, gan Di hn: Gim cn, hi tim, phi, gan Rng tc, mng tay chn, ngn tay, ngn chn v vn tim mch Tng Cholesterol trong mu v gim ng huyt Tng huyt p Nguy hi h thn kinh Gy d ng, mn nga Chuyn mu nc t nu en gy cn en v v tanh Mu cam trong nc, c vng st, v tanh Gy xn rng, vng V tanh, vng mu xanh Gy xn da, chm nu trong lng trng mt Nc i mu V tanh</p> <p>Cadmium Cd XXX Cadmi Nickel Ni XX Niken Nickel Ni XX Niken Selenium Se Antimony Sb Barium Ba Bari Cyanide (free) Syanua Chromium Cr(VI) Crm Manganese Mn Mangan Iron Fe St Floride F Flo Copper Cu ng Hg Thy ngn Aliuminium Al Nhm Zinc Zn Km XX XX XX XX XX X X X X X X X</p> <p>S kin b ng c cadimi trn th gii l s kin cng xy ra Nht Bn vi bnh Itai - Itai ni ting c lin quan n nhim ngun nc bi cadimi. Cadimi d dng to ra cc tng tc vi protein v chuyn vo gan, thn. Thu ngn v ch li d i vo h thn kinh do to thnh cc hp cht alkyl i lipit. Cc kim loi nng nh ch, cadimi c th tp trung trong xng, c ch emzym axit 5-</p> <p>amino-levulin v gy bnh thiu mu. Cadimi c kh nng ui km khi mt s emzym v gy bnh mu heamatopoiesis, v.v 1.2. Qun l cht thi nguy hi ti Vit Nam Nc ta ang trong qu trnh chuyn i t nn kinh t k hoch tp trung sang nn kinh t th trng. Vi mc tiu phn u n nm 2020, v c bn Vit Nam s tr thnh mt nc cng nghip ha v tt yu l s th ha cc thnh ph ln. Theo d bo, n nm 2020 t l th ha ca nc ta s t 45% tng ng vi quy m dn s th nm 2020 l khong 46 triu ngi. Vi quy m th ha ca nc ta, gia tng dn s v cng nghip ha nh trn th lng cht thi ni chung v cht thi nguy hi ni ring s tng ln nhanh chng. Vic x l cht thi nguy hi ny s l mt p lc rt ln vi cng tc bo v mi trng nc ta hin nay v trong tng lai. Theo s liu iu tra ca Cc Mi trng, ring tng lng cht thi rn nguy hi (CTRNH) pht sinh hng nm ch yu ti 3 khu vc kinh t trng im chnh l H Ni, Hi Phng, Qung Ninh pha Bc, thnh ph H Ch minh, ng Nai, B Ra - Vng Tu pha Nam v Qung Nam, Nng, Qung Ngi min Trung. Trong , CTRNH pht sinh khu vc kinh t trng im pha Nam khong 80.332 tn/ nm, ln gp 3 ln khu vc pha Bc v ln gp 20 ln lng pht sinh khu vc min Trung. Theo Thng k ca Cc Mi trng, tng lng CTRNH pht sinh hng nm trn ton quc l 152.000 tn, bao gm cht thi ca cc ngnh cng nghip nh (60.000 tn), ha cht (45.000 tn), c kh luyn kim (26.000 tn), y t (10.000 tn), cht thi sinh hot th (5.000 tn) v cht thi ch bin thc phm, in - in t c s lng t nht trong s cc ngnh trn (2.000 tn) nhng li cha cc cht hu c kh phn hy nh PCB v kim loi nng, l cc cht c bit nguy hi ti sc khe con ngi v mi trng. Bn cnh cc cht thi ca cc ngnh trn cn c cht thi t thuc bo v thc vt (BVTV) tn lu. Theo s liu ca Cc Mi trng v cc s cng nghip a phng, ch trong 2 nm 2000 - 2001 , tng lng thuc BVTV tn lu trn phm vi 61 tnh/ thnh ph l khong 300 tn, trong thuc BVTV dng lng l 9.7.374 lt thuc BVTV dng bt l 109.145 kg; cc bao b cha thuc BVTV 2.137.850 (bao gm c hp, chai v l). Lng cht thi rn y t pht sinh trn phm vi ton quc theo c tnh ca B Y t nm 2001 l khong 12.500 tn/ nm. Theo s liu iu tra ca B Y t cho thy, hin nay c khong 61 l t cht thi y t c lp t trn ton quc, trong c 41 l ng k thm nh v c 20/41 l t cc yu cu v mt k thut. Tnh n</p> <p>thng 6 nm 2002, tng cng sut x l ca cc l l 30 tn/ ngy. Tuy nhin, ti nhiu c s y t, CTRNH vn cn b ln vi cc cht thi khc ti khu vc chn lp v c chn lp ti cc bi rc sinh hot. CTRNH s pht sinh ngy cng tng trn phm vi ton quc n nm 2020, ph thuc vo cc yu t nh; dn s th, trnh vn minh, phong tc tp qun cng nh thi quen sinh hot v t...</p>

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