TOEFL Grammar

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<p>+ </p> <p>1.</p> <p>Ch ng (subject). 7</p> <p>1.1 Danh t m c v khng m c.</p> <p>1.2 Qun t a (an) v the1.3 Cch s dng Other v another. 1.4 Cch s dng litter/ a litter, few/ a few 1.5 S hu cch</p> <p>1.6 Some, any2. ng t ( verb)</p> <p>+</p> <p> 2.1 Hin ti (present) 2.1.1 Hinti n gin (simple present) 2.1.2 Hin ti tip din (present progressive) 2.1.3 Present perfect ( hin ti hon thnh) 2.1.4 Hin ti hon thnh tip din ( preset perfect progressive) 2.2 Qu kh ( Past) 2.2.1 Qu kh n gin (simple past) 2.2.2 Qu kh tip din (Past progresive). 2.2.3 Qu kh hon thnh (past perfect). 2.2.4 Qu kh hon thnh tip din (past perfect progressive). 2.3 Tng lai 2.3.1 Tng lai n gin (simple future)</p> <p> 2.3.2 2.3.3</p> <p>Tng lai tip din ( future progressive) Tng lai hon thnh (future perfect) Ch ng ng tch khi ng t. Cc danh t lun i hi ng t v i t s it. Cch s dng none, no Cch s dng cu trc either ... or v neither ... nor. Cc danh t tp th Cch s dng A number of/ the number of Cc danh t lun dng s nhiu. Cch dng cc thnh ng There is, there are i t nhn xng ch ng (Subject pronoun) i t nhn xng tn ng Tnh t s hu i t s hu i t phn thn (reflexive pronoun) ng t nguyn th lm tn ng Ving dng lm tn ng 3 ng t c bit Cc ng t ng ng sau gii t Vn i t i trc ng t nguyn th hoc Ving lm tn</p> <p>+ </p> <p>3. S ho hp gia ch ng v ng t. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4</p> <p>+</p> <p>4. i t</p> <p>+</p> <p>5. ng t dng lm tn ng</p> <p>5.5 ng.</p> <p>+ +</p> <p>6. Cch s dng ng t bn khim khuyt need v dare need Dare</p> <p> 6.1 6.2</p> <p>7. Cch dng ng t to be + infinitive</p> <p>+</p> <p>8. Cu hi Cu hi yes v no Cu hi thng bo who v what lm ch ng. Whom v what l tn ng ca cu hi Cu hi dnh cho cc b ng (when, where, why, how) Cu hi gin tip (embedded questions) Cu hi c ui Li ni ph ho khng nh. Li ni ph ho ph nh Cu ph nh Mnh lnh thc Mnh lnh thc trc tip. Mnh lnh thc gin tip. ng t khim khuyt. Din t thi tng lai. Din t cu iu kin. iu kin c th thc hin c thi hin ti. iu kin khng th thc hin c thi hin ti. iu kin khng th thc hin c thi qu kh. Cc cch dng c bit ca Will, would v sould trong cc Cch s dng thnh ng as if, as though. Thi hin ti. Thi qu kh. Cch s dng ng t To hope v to wish. Thi tng lai.</p> <p> 8.1 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.3 8.4</p> <p>+ +</p> <p>9. Li ni ph ho khng nh v ph nh.</p> <p> 9.1 9.210. 11.</p> <p>++</p> <p> 11.1 11.212.</p> <p> 12.1 12.2 12.2.1 12.2.2 12.2.3 12.2.4</p> <p>mnh if</p> <p>+ +</p> <p>13.</p> <p> 13.1 13.214.</p> <p> 14.1</p> <p> 14.2 14.3</p> <p>Thi hin ti Thi qu kh. Cch s dng thnh ng used to v get/be used to used to. get / be used to. Cch s dng thnh ng Would rather Loi cu c mt ch ng. Loi cu c 2 ch ng Cch s dng Would Like</p> <p>+ + + +</p> <p>15.</p> <p> 15.1 15.216.</p> <p> 16.1 16.217.</p> <p>18. Cch s dng cc ng t khim khuyt din t cc trng thi hin ti.</p> <p> 18.1 18.2 18.3</p> <p>Could/may/might. Should Must</p> <p>+ + + + </p> <p>19. Cch s dng cc ng t khim khuyt din t cc trng thi thi qu kh. 20. 21. 22. 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 23. 24. tnh t v ph t (adjective and adverb). ng t ni. So snh ca tnh t v danh t So snh bng. So snh hn, km So snh hp l Cc dng so snh c bit So snh a b So snh kp (cng ....th cng) No sooner ... than (va mi ... th; chng bao lu ... th) Dng nguyn, so snh hn v so snh hn nht. Cc danh t lm chc nng tnh t</p> <p>+ +</p> <p>+ +</p> <p>25. 26.</p> <p>Enough vi tnh t, ph t v danh t Cc t ni ch nguyn nhn Because/ because of Mc ch v kt qu (so that- ) Cause and effect Mt s t ni mang tnh iu kin Cu b ng ng t gy nguyn nhn Have/ get / make Let Help Ba ng t c bit Cu trc phc hp v i t quan h thay th That v Which lm ch ng ca cu ph That v wich lm tn ng ca cu ph Who lm ch ng ca cu ph Whom lm tn ng ca cu ph Mnh ph bt buc v mnh ph khng bt buc Tm quan trng ca du phy trong mnh ph Cch s dng All / both/ several / most ... + of + whom / What v whose Cch loi b cc mnh ph Cch s dng phn t 1 trong mt s trng hp c bit Cch s dng nguyn mu hon thnh Nhng cch s dng khc ca that That vi t cch ca mt lin t (rng) Mnh c that</p> <p> 26.1 26.2 26.3</p> <p>+ + +</p> <p>27. 28. 29.</p> <p> 29.1 29.2 29.3</p> <p>+ + </p> <p>30. 31. 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.5 31.6</p> <p>31.7 which</p> <p> 31.8</p> <p>+ + + +</p> <p>32. 33. 34. 35.</p> <p> 35.1 35.2</p> <p>+ </p> <p>36. 36.1 36.2 36.3 36.4 36.5 37.</p> <p>Cu gi nh Cu gi nh dng would rather that Cu gi nh dng vi ng t trong bng. Cu gi nh dng vi tnh t Dng vi mt s trng hp khc Cu gi nh dng vi it is time Li ni bao hm Not only ... but also (khng nhng ... m cn) As well as (cng nh, cng nh l) Both ... and ( c ... ln ) Cch s dng to know v to know how Mnh nhng b Despite / in spite of (mc d) although, even though, though Nhng ng t d gy nhm ln Mt s ng t c bit khc. Phn II</p> <p>+</p> <p> 37.1 37.2 37.3</p> <p>+ + + +</p> <p>38. 39.</p> <p> 39.1 39.240. 41.</p> <p>Ting Anh vitI. Cc li thng gp trong ting anh vit</p> <p>+ + + + +</p> <p>42. 43. 44. 45. 46.</p> <p>S ho hp ca thi ng t Cch s dng to say, to tell T i trc gii thiu i t nhn xng one v you Cch s dng phn t m u cho mnh ph V+ing m u mnh ph Phn t 2 m u mnh ph ch b ng ng t nguyn th ch mc ch m u cho mnh ph</p> <p> 46.1 46.2 46.3</p> <p> 46.4</p> <p>Ng danh t hoc ng gii t m u mnh ph ch s Phn t dng lm tnh t Dng phn t 1 lm tnh t Dng phn t 2 lm tnh t Tha (redundancy) Cu trc cu song song Thng tin trc tip v thng tin gin tip Cu trc tip v cu gin tip Phng php chuyn i t cu trc tip sang cu gin tip ng t vi tn ng trc tip v tn ng gin tip Ph t o ln u cu Cch chn nhng cu tr li ng Nhng t d gy nhm ln Cch s dng gii t During - trong sut (hnh ng xy ra trong mt qung thi From (t) &gt;&lt; to (n) Out of (ra khi) &gt;&lt; into (di vo) by In ( trong, ti) - ngha xc nh hn at on at - ti (thng l bn ngoi, khng xc nh bng in) Ng ng t S kt hp ca cc danh t, ng t v tnh t vi cc gii</p> <p>tng ng</p> <p>+ + + +</p> <p>47.</p> <p> 47.1 47.248. 49. 50.</p> <p> 50.1 50.2 50.3</p> <p>+ + +</p> <p>51. 52. 53. 54.</p> <p>+ </p> <p> 54.1gian) 54.2 54.3 54.4 54.5 54.6 54.7 55. 56.</p> <p>+ +</p> <p>t</p> <p>GRAMMAR REVIEWCu trc cu ting Anh Subject + Verb as predicate + Complement + Modifier.Ch ng ng t v ng tn ng b ng</p> <p>1.Ch ng (subject) ng u cu lm ch ng v quyt nh vic chia ng t. Ch ng c th l 1 cm t, 1 ng t nguyn th (c to), 1 V+ing, song nhiu nht vn l 1 danh t v 1 danh t c lin quan ti nhng vn sau:</p> <p>1.1 Danh t m c v khng m c.- Danh t m c c th c dng vi s m do c hnh thi s t, s nhiu. N c th dng c dng vi a (an) v the. - Danh t khng m c khng dng c vi s m do n khng c hnh thi s nhiu. Do , n khng dng c vi a (an). - Mt s cc danh t m c c hnh thi s nhiu c bit v d: person - people women mouse - mice tooth - teeth foot feet man - men. woman </p> <p>-Sau y l mt s danh t khng m c m ta cn bit. Sand News measles food soap mumps information economics physics Air Meat advertising* mathematics politics homework money</p> <p>* Mc d advertising l danh t khng m c, nhng advertisement li l danh t m c. V d: There are too many advertisements during television shows. There is too much advertising during television shows. - Mt s danh t khng m c nh food, meat, money, sand, water, i lc c dng nh cc danh t m c ch cc dng khc nhau ca loi danh t . V d:</p> <p>This is one of the foods that my doctor has forbidden me to eat. (ch ra mt loi thc n c bit no ) He studies meats ( chng hn pork, beef, lamb. vv...) Bng sau l cc nh ng dng c vi danh t m c v khng m c. Danh t m c (with count noun) a (an), the, some, any this, that, these, those, none,one,two,three,... many a lot of plenty of a large number of a great number of, a great many of. (a) few few ... than more ... than Danh t khng m c (with non-count noun) the, some, any this, that non much (thng dng trong cu ph nh hoc cu hi a lot of a large amount of a great deal of (a) little less ... than more ... than</p> <p>- Danh t time nu dng vi ngha thi gian l khng m c nhng nu dng vi ngha s ln hoc thi i li l danh t m c. V d: We have spent too much time on this homework. She has been late for class six times this semester.</p> <p>1.2Qun t a (an) v the1- a v an an - c dng: - trc 1 danh t s t m c bt u bng 4 nguyn m (vowel) a, e, i, o - hai bn nguyn m u, y - cc danh t bt u bng h cm. v d: u : an uncle. h : an hour - hoc trc cc danh t vit tt c c nh 1 nguyn m. V d: an L-plate, an SOS, an MP a : c dng: - trc 1 danh t bt u bng ph m (consonant). - dng trc mt danh t bt u bng uni. a university, a uniform, a universal, a union. - trc 1 danh t s t m c, trc 1 danh t khng xc nh c th v mt c im, tnh cht, v tr hoc c nhc n ln u trong cu.</p> <p>- c dng trong cc thnh ng ch s lng nht nh. V d : a lot of, a couple, a dozen, a great many, a great deal of. - dng trc nhng s m nht nh, c bit l ch hng trm, hng ngn. V d: a hundred, a thousand. - trc half khi n theo sau 1 n v nguyn vn. V d: a kilo and a half v cng c th c l one and a half kilos. Ch : 1 /2 kg = half a kilo ( khng c a trc half). - dng trc half khi n i vi 1 danh t khc to thnh t ghp. V d : a half-holiday na k ngh, a half-share : na c phn. - dng trc cc t s nh 1/3, 1 /4, 1/5, = a third, a quarter, a fifth hay one third, one fourth, one fifth . - Dng trong cc thnh ng ch gi c, tc , t l. V d: five dolars a kilo; four times a day. - Dng trong cc thnh ng trc cc danh t s t m c, dng trong cu cm thn. V d: Such a long queue! What a pretty girl! Nhng: such long queues! What pretty girls. - a c th c t trc Mr/Mrs/Miss + tn h (surname): V d: a Mr Smith, a Mrs Smith, a Miss Smith. a Mr Smith ngha l ngi n ng c gi l Smith v ng l ng ta l ngi l i vi ngi ni. Cn nu khng c a tc l ngi ni bit ng Smith. 2- The - c s dng khi danh t c xc nh c th v tnh cht, c im, v tr hoc c nhc n ln th 2 trong cu. - The + noun + preposition + noun. V d : the girl in blue; the man with a banner; the gulf of Mexico; the United States of America. - The + danh t + i t quan h + mnh ph V d: the boy whom I met; the place where I met him. - Trc 1 danh t ng ch mt vt ring bit. V d: She is in the garden. - The + tnh t so snh bc nht hoc s t th t hoc only way. V d : The first week; the only way. - The + dt s t tng trng cho mt nhm th vt hoc vt th c th b the v i danh t sang s nhiu. V d: The whale = Whales, the shark = sharks, the deep-freeze = deep - freezes. Nhng i vi danh t man (ch loi ngi) th khng c qun t (a, the) ng trc. V d: if oil supplies run out, man may have to fall back on the horse. - The + danh t s t ch thnh vin ca mt nhm ngi nht nh. V d: the small shopkeeper is finding life increasingly difficult.</p> <p>- The + adj i din cho 1 lp ngi, n khng c hnh thi s nhiu nhng c coi l 1 danh t s nhiu v ng t sau n phi c chia ngi th 3 s nhiu. V d: the old = ngi gi ni chung; The disabled = nhng ngi tn tt; The unemployed = nhng ngi tht nghip. - Dng trc tn cc khu vc, vng ni ting v mt a l hoc lch s. V d: The Shahara. The Netherlands. The Atlantic. - The + East / West/ South/ North + noun. V d: the East/ West end. The North / South Pole. Nhng khng c dng the trc cc t ch phng hng ny, nu n i km vi tn ca mt khu vc a l. V d: South Africal, North Americal, West Germany. - The + tn cc hp xng, cc dn nhc c in, cc ban nhc ph thng. V d: the Bach choir, the Philadenphia Orchestra, the Beatles. - The + tn cc t bo ln/ cc con tu bin/ khinh kh cu. V d: The Titanic, the Time, the Great Britain. - The + tn h s nhiu c ngha l gia nh h nh ... V d: the Smiths = Mr and Mrs Smith (and their children) hay cn gi l gia nh nh Smith. - The + Tn s t + cm t/ mnh c th c s dng phn bit ngi ny vi ngi khc cng tn. V d: We have two Mr Smiths. Which do you want? I want the Mr Smith who signed this letter. - Khng dng the trc 1 s danh t nh Home, church, bed, court, hospital, prison, school, college, university khi n i vi ng t v gii t ch chuyn ng (ch i ti lm mc ch chnh). V d: He is at home. I arrived home before dark. I sent him home. to bed ( ng) to church ( cu nguyn) to court ( kin tng) to hospital (cha bnh) to prison (i t) to school / college/ university ( hc) in bed at church in court in hospital at school/ college/ university</p> <p>We go</p> <p>Tng t We can be</p> <p>We can be / get back (hoc be/ get home) from school/ college/university. We can leave school leave hospital</p> <p>be released from prison. Vi mc ch khc th phi dng the. V d: I went to the church to see the stained glass. He goes to the prison sometimes to give lectures. Student go to the university for a class party. Sea Go to sea (thy th i bin) to be at the sea (hnh khch/ thu th i trn bin) Go to the sea / be at the sea = to go to/ be at the seaside : i tm bin, ngh mt. We can live by / near the sea. Work and office. Work (ni lm vic) c s dng khng c the trc. Go to work. nhng office li phi c the. Go to the office. V d: He is at / in the office. Nu to be in office (khng c the) ngha l ang gi chc. To be out of office - thi gi chc. Town The c th b i khi ni v th trn ca ngi ni hoc ca ch th. V d: We go to town sometimes to buy clothes. We were in town last Monday. Go to town / to be in town - Vi mc ch chnh l i mua hng. Bng dng the v khng dng the trong mt s trng hp c bit. Dng the Trc cc i dng, sng ngi, bin, vnh v cc h s nhiu. V d: The Red sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the Persian Gulf, the Great Lackes. Trc tn cc dy ni. V d: The Rockey Moutains. Trc tn 1 vt th duy nht trn th gii hoc v tr. Khng dng the Trc tn 1 h (hay cc h s t). V d: Lake Geneva, Lake Erie Trc tn 1 ngn ni V d: Mount Mckinley Trc tn cc hnh tinh hoc cc chm sao</p> <p>V d: The earth, the moon, the Great Wall Trc School/college/university + of + noun V d: The University of Florida. The college of Arts and Sciences. Trc cc s th t + noun.</p> <p>V d: Venus, Mars, Earth, Orion. Trc tn cc trng ny khi trc n l 1 tn ring. V d: Coopers Art school, Stetson University. Trc cc danh t m sau n l 1 s m.</p> <p>V d: The first world war. The third chapter. Trc cc cuc chin tranh khu vc vi iu kin tn cc khu vc phi c tnh t ho. V d: The Korean war. Trc tn cc nc c t 2 t tr ln. Ngoi tr Great Britain. V d: The United States, the United Kingdom, the Central Africal Republic. Trc tn cc nc c coi l 1 qun o. V d: The Philipin. Trc cc ti liu hoc s kin mang tnh lch s. V d: The constitution, the Magna Carta. Trc tn cc nhm dn tc thiu s. V d: The Indians, the Aztecs. Nn dng trc tn cc nhc c. V d: To play the piano. Trc tn cc mn hc c th. V d: The applied Math. The theoretical Physics.</p> <p>V d: World war one chapter three. Khng nn dng trc tn cc cuc chin tranh khu vc nu tn khu vc nguyn.</p> <p>Trc tn cc nc c 1 t nh : Sweden, Venezuela v cc nc c ng trc bi new hoc tnh t ch phng hng. V d: New Zealand, South Africa.</p> <p>Trc tn cc lc a, tiu bang, tnh, thnh ph, qun, huyn. V d: Europe, California. Trc tn bt c mn th thao no. V d: Base ball, basket ball. Trc tn cc danh t mang tnh tru tng tr nhng trng hp c bit. V d: Freedom, happiness. Trc tn cc mn hc chung. V d: Mathematics, Sociology. Trc tn cc ngy l, tt. V d: Christmas, thanksgiving.</p> <p>1.3Cch s dng Other v another.Hai t ny tuy ging nhau v mt ng ngha nhng khc nhau v mt ng php. Dng vi danh t m c Dng vi danh t khng m c</p> <p>another + dt2 s it = 1 ci na, 1 ci khc, 1 ngi na, 1 ngi khc. V d: another pencil other + dt2 s nhiu = my ci na, my ci khc, my ngi na, my ngi khc. V d: other pencils = some more. the other + dt2 s nhiu = nhng ci cui cng, nhng ngi cui cng cn li. V d: the other pencils = all remaining pencils</p> <p>the other + dt 2s t = ngi cui cng, ci cui cng ca 1 b, 1 nhm. other + dt khng 2 = 1 cht na. V d: other water = some more water. other beer = some more beer. the other + dt khng 2 = ch cn st li. V d: The other beer = the remaining beer....</p>