Tong Quan Mang Luoi Song

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TNG QUAN MNG LI SNG SUI TNH PH TH I- M uNc l ngun ti nguyn v cng qu gi ca mi Quc gia. L yu t mi trng nh hng trc tip n mi hot ng ca con ngi; ng vai tr quan trng trong s pht trin kinh t x hi ca bt k mt a phng no. Cc thng tin v ti nguyn nc mt ni chung v tng quan mng li sng ni ring trn a bn mi tnh v cng quan trng. L c s rt cn thit cho vic qui hoch pht trin kinh t x hi bn vng, khai thc s dng ti nguyn nc mt hp l, phng chng v gim nh thin tai hiu qu. Ph Th l tnh c ti lp li nm 1997, thnh ph Vit Tr l trung tm kinh t chnh tr nm cch H Ni 85 km v pha Ty Bc. a gii hnh chnh c gii hn bi cc to a l: 104052105027 kinh ng; 20055 21045 v Bc. Ph Th l ni trung chuyn v giao lu kinh t gia cc tnh ng bng v cc tnh min ni pha Bc. Pha Bc gip Tuyn Quang, Yn Bi; pha ng gip Vnh Phc, H Ty; pha Nam v Ty Nam gip Ho Bnh; pha Ty gip Sn La, Yn Bi. c im ni bt ca a hnh Ph Th l chia ct kh mnh, cao gim dn t Ty Bc xung ng Nam. Nm pha cui dy Hong Lin Sn, ni chuyn tip gia vng ni cao v vng ni thp, g i. Cn c vo a hnh Ph Th c th chia thnh 2 tiu vng sau: Tiu vng min ni c cao trung bnh so vi mt nc bin t 200- 500 m; tiu vng trung du ng bng c cao trung bnh so vi mt nc bin t 50-200m. Cng nh nhng tnh khc Bc b, c im kh hu Ph Th c tnh cht nhit i m, gi ma. Lng ma trung bnh nm kh ln, phn b khng u theo khng gian v thi gian. a hnh chia ct, cu to a cht d b phong ho, xi mn to cho Ph Th c h thng sng ngi rt phong ph, a dng. Trong cun c im thu vn tnh Vnh Ph c phn vit rt s lc v mng li sng tnh Vnh Ph nhng qu c khng cn ph hp vi iu kin thc t. Chuyn Tng quan mng li sng sui tnh Ph Th nhm thng k li h thng sng sui trong a bn tnh Ph Th vi nhng thng tin cn thit nh: di, din tch lu vc, ni bt ngun, hng chy, cc ph lu, ..

Qua chng ta thy c nhng c im c bn nht ca h thng sng sui trong a bn tnh. y l nhng thng tin rt quan trng nh gi ngun nc mt tnh Ph Th.

II- S lc v h thng sng ca Vit NamNc ta c mt mng li sng ngi dy c th hin s chia ct a hnh phc tp. l kt qu ca s tng tc lu di ca kh hu nhit i gi ma, nng m v cu trc a cht, a hnh ca lnh th Vit Nam. a hnh nc ta ch yu l i ni, vi din tch chim ti din tch ton lnh th. Kh hu nc ta li nng m, ma nhiu, lng ma trung bnh nm xp x 2000mm. Lng ma ln li phn b khng u theo khng gian. Ni c lng ma ln nht lng ma nm ln ti 4000- 5000 mm, trung tm ma Bc Quang ( H Giang) vi lng ma nm khong 4750mm; ni t nht gn 1000 mmm. Lng bc hi tng i t, thng t hn lng ma trn hu khp lnh th Vit Nam. y l nguyn nhn chnh hnh thnh mng li sng ngi dy c nc ta. Mng li sng ngi nc ta kh a dng, c cu trc khc nhau ty theo iu kin t nhin ca tng khu vc, tng ng vi s phn ho ca kh hu v cu trc a cht - a hnh. S a dng th hin qua c trng hnh thi ca mi lu vc sng. Hu ht cc sng ngi ca nc ta ch yu l sng nh, chim ti 90 % tng s sng ca c nc. C 9 h thng sng ln vi din tch khong 10.000 km2. l cc h thng sng: K Cng- Bng, Hng, Thi Bnh, M, C, Thu Bn, Ba, ng Nai v Cu Long. C khong 76% din tch t lin nc ta thuc cc h thng sng ny. Mt sng sui trung bnh ton lnh th l 0.6 km/ km2. Ch tnh nhng sng sui c dng chy thng xuyn th mt sng sui t 0.2 - 4.0 km/ km2. Trn phn ln lnh th t 1.0 -1.5 km/ km2. Hu ht sng ngi nc ta u ra bin ng, dc b bin c khong 23 km li c mt ca sng.

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III- c im c bn a l thu vn lu vc sng Hng2.1 c im a l thu vn Lu vc sng , sng Hng c ti din tch nm ngoi lnh th Vit Nam. Phn cn li c th chia thnh 2 vng kh r rt. 2.1.1 Vng trung v thng lu ( tnh n Vit Tr) C din tch l 63.000 km2, nm trn trn vng ni, trung du ca khu vc Ty Bc v Vit Bc. cao trung bnh ton lu vc khong 1090m. Trong c ti 60 % din tch c cao trn 500 m. Hng chung ca ton b h thng l Ty Bc- ng Nam. Cc dy ni ln nh Hong Lin Sn, Pu Lung, Con Voi c hng khp dn v ng nam, to nn lu vc c dng hnh nan qut rt in hnh. Thm thc vt trn lu vc sng Hng b tn ph rt nng n, th nhng ph bin l t vng. Kh hu trn lu vc l kh hu nhit i gi ma, nng m. Trn lu vc thng ngun c mt s tm ma ln ng ch : - Trn lu vc L- Gm: Trung tm ma Bc Quang( H Giang) vi lng ma nm khong 4750mm, thuc loi ln nht min Bc Vit Nam. Cc trung tm ma khc nh Lc Yn, H Giang lng ma khong 18002000 mm/ nm. - Trn lu vc sng Thao: Trung tm in hnh l Sa Pa vi lng ma nm 1850 mm. Cc trung tm ma khc nh Bt St, Mng Khng khong 1700- 1800 mm. V pha h lu sng Thao lng ma gim dn. - Trn lu vc sng c mt s trung tm ma ln sn pha Ty Hong Lin Sn, trn cc nhnh Nm Na, Nm Mu vi lng ma nm ln ti 2200- 3000mm. C th: Ti Phong Th 2200mm, ti Pa Tn xp x 3000 mm, ti Sn H khong 2700 mm, thng ngun Nm Mu 2700- 2800 mm 2.1.2 Vng h lu Vi din tch 11.390 km2 thuc chu th sng Hng tng i bng phng. cao trung bnh so vi mt bin t 3-5 m, d b ngp ng. Vng ven bin chu nh hng ca thu triu. Nt in hnh ca a hnh ng bng chu th sng Hng l c h thng bo v cc vng dn c v ng rung. Lng ma trung bnh nm h lu thp hn so vi vng thng lu v ph bin khong 1800- 2000 mm. 3

2.2 H thng sng Hng Dng chnh sng Hng v cc ph lu ln nht nh sng , sng L u bt ngun t Vn Nam Trung Quc, chy vo Vit Nam theo hnh nan qut v qui t Vit Tr. Do c im a hnh, mng li sng ngi lu vc sng , sng Hng ht sc phc tp. Mi sng trong h thng sng u c nhng c im ring: 2.2.1 Sng Sng nm trong vng a hnh ni cao, chia ct mnh, dc ln, thung lng su, hp. Lng ma ln tp trung vo my thng ma ma trong nm, to iu kin hnh thnh mt mng li sng ngi dy c, t sng ln. Hng ca cc sng sui trng vi hng ca lu vc. Sng c cc nhnh ln nm bn t ngn: Sng Nm Na v sng Nm Mu. Pha hu ngn c cc nhp lu ln l sng Nm Mc, sng Nm P. Sng c mun dng chy thuc loi ln nht Vit Nam vi mun dng chy ln nht ln ti 2000-3000l/s/ km2. Lng gia nhp khu gia on Lai Chu- Ho Bnh ch yu lu vc thuc lnh th Vit Nam. 2.2.2 Sng L Lu vc sng L c gii hn pha ng l cnh cung Ngn Sn v cnh cung sng Gm, pha ng Nam l dy ni Tam o v pha Ty l dy Con Voi. Hng dc chung theo hng Ty Bc- ng Nam. cao bnh qun lu vc 500-1000 m. Dng chnh sng L c thung lng rt hp, c ni ch cn 4-5 km. Pha thng ngun sng c nhiu thc ghnh, dc ln. Cng v h lu dc gim dn, lng sng v thung lng m rng dn. Sng Chy v sng Gm l 2 ph lu ln nht ca sng L. 2.2.3 Sng Thao Lu vc sng Thao nm kp gia hai dy ni cao, bn t ngn l Con Voi, bn hu ngn l Hong Lin Sn, to hnh lng chim di v hp. Trong a phn Vit Nam lu vc lch v hu ngn v rt hp v pha t ngn. Sn dc cao, dc ln nn tp trung nc trn lu vc v trong sng kh nhanh. Pha hu ngn sng c cc nhp lu ln: Ngi Nh, Ngi Ht, Ngi Thia, sng Ba. 4

IV-Tng quan mng li sng sui tnh Ph ThTrn phm vi tnh Ph Th c ba sng ln chy qua l sng pha ng Nam, l gianh gii vi tnh H Ty, sng L pha ng Bc v sng Hng (sng Thao) chy qua trung tm tnh. Sng Ba v sng Chy l 2 ph lu nht ca lu vc sng Hng v sng L. A - Sng Thao L dng chnh ca sng Hng bt ngun t dy ni Ngu Sn- Vn Nam Trung Quc, chy qua a phn tnh Lo Cai, Yn Bi, Ph Th. on chy qua tnh Ph Th di 92 km. Lu vc sng Thao nm kp gia hai dy ni cao Hong Lin Sn v Con voi, sn dc cao, dc ln. Sng Thao c bt u tnh t X Hu Bng- Huyn H Ho v vo sng Hng ti Phng Bch Hc Thnh ph Vit Tr. Lu vc hu sng Thao c mt h thng ngi kh dy, cc ph lu chnh gm: Ngi Vn, Ngi M, Ngi Lao, Ngi Ginh, Ngi Me, Ngi C, sng Ba. Lu vc pha t sng Thao h thng sui, ngi tha hn; ph lu ln nht l Ngi Mn Ln. Sp xp theo th t t thng v h lu; t b hu n b t, cc ph lu chnh ca sng Thao nh sau: 1- Ngi Vn: Bt ngun t ni Hm (810 m), ni Bng (736m), ni Na (977m) thuc x Vit Hng- Huyn Vn Chn- Tnh Yn Bi. vo sng Thao b phi cch Vit Tr 100km v pha thng lu, thuc x Hin Lng- Huyn H Ho- Tnh Ph Th. Tng din tch lu vc Ngi Vn l 91,5 km2; phn thuc phm vi tnh Ph Th l 9.0 Km2. Tng chiu di l 17,5 km; phn thuc tnh Ph Th l 2,5 km. 2- Ngi M: Bt ngun t x Qun Kh - Huyn H Ho - Tnh Ph Th. vo sng Thao ti x ng Lm - Huyn H Ho- Tnh Ph Th. Lu vc Ngi M nm gn trong phm vi tnh Ph Th vi din tch l 25,3 km2. Chiu di Ngi M l 10,5 km. 3- Ngi Lao: Bt ngun t ni Banh (2202 m) thuc x Vc TunTrn Yn- Yn Bi. vo sng Thao cch ng ba Vit Tr 85 km v pha thng lu, thuc x Bng Gi- Huyn H Ho- Tnh Ph Th. Tng din tch lu vc Ngi Lao l 650,0 Km2; phn thuc tnh Ph Th l 118,8 km2. Tng chiu di l 69,0 km; trong phm vi tnh Ph Th l 21,5 km. 5

4- Ngi Ginh (Ngi Giam): Bt ngun t vng ni cao hn 800m ( ni u), thuc x Ngha Tn- Huyn Vn Chn- Tnh Yn Bi. vo sng Thao b phi, cch Vit Tr 78 km v pha thng lu, thuc X Tin LngHuyn H Ho- Tnh Ph Th. Tng din tch lu vc Ngi Ginh l 293,0 km2, phn thuc phm vi tnh Ph Th l 274,8 km 2. Tng chiu di Ngi Ginh l 44 km, phn trong tnh Ph Th l 39,5 km. 5- Ngi Me: Bt ngun t X Phc Khnh- Huyn Yn Lp- Tnh Ph Th. Nhp lu vo sng Thao ti x Tnh Cng- Huyn Cm Kh- Tnh Ph Th. Lu vc Ngi Me nm trn trong tnh Ph Th vi din tch l 142,0 km2; chiu di l 26 km. 6- Ngi C: Bt ngun ti x Minh Ho- Huyn Yn Lp- Tnh Ph Th. vo sng Thao ti x Tnh Cng- Huyn Cm Kh- Tnh Ph Th. Lu vc Ngi C nm trn trong tnh Ph Th vi din tch l 93,0 km2; chiu di l 22,5 km. 7- Sng Ba: Bt ngun t Ni To, Ph Yn- Sn La. Nhp lu vo sng Thao ti x T M- Huyn Tam Nng- Tnh Ph Th. Tng din tch lu vc sng Ba l 1370,0 km2; phn thuc phm vi tnh Ph Th l 1172,5 km2. Tng chiu di l 10 km, phn trong tnh Ph Th l 73,5 km. Sng Ba c 13 ph lu ln, trong c ti 10 ph lu ln thuc a phn tnh Ph Th. 8- Ngi Mn Ln: Bt ngun t x Thanh Vn- Huyn Thanh Ba-Tnh Ph Th. vo sng Thao ti x Mn Ln- Huyn Thanh Ba- Tnh Ph Th. Ngi Mn Ln nm trn trong tnh Ph Th vi din tch lu vc l 158,0 km2; chiu di l 21 km. B -Sng L Sng L bt ngun t tnh Vn Nam Trung Quc, chy vo nc ta qua a phn cc tnh H Giang, Tuyn Quang, Ph Th, nhp vo sng Hng ti Vit Tr-Ph Th. Chiu di sng L on t oan Hng n khi nhp lu vo sng Hng l 55 km. Lu vc sng L nm gia cnh cung Ngn Sn, cnh cung Sng Gm, dy ni Tam o v dy ni Con Voi. Hng dc chung theo hng Ty Bc ng Nam. cao bnh qun lu vc 500-1000 m. Sng L c cc ph lu chnh sau: Sng Gm nhp lu vi sng L ti Khe Lau (Tuyn Quang); sng Chy chy qua a phn tnh Yn Bi, nhp 6

vo sng L ti oan Hng. Trong a phn tnh Ph Th sng L c 4 ph lu chnh v mt s sui, sng Chy l ph lu ln nht. 1- Sng Chy bt ngun t Trung Quc, chy qua vng ni cao tnh H Giang- Tuyn Quang, v Lo Cai- Yn Bi, nhp vo sng L ti th trn oan Hng- Tnh Ph Th. Tng din tch lu vc l 6.500 km2; din tch trong lnh th Vit Nam l 4.580 km2; trong tnh Ph Th l 159,4 km2. Chiu di sng l 319 km, trong a bn tnh Ph Th l 18 km. Sng Chy c 5 ph lu, trong a phn tnh Ph Th c 3 ph lu ng k. 2- Ngi Rm: Nm trn trong tnh Ph Th, din tch lu vc l 64,9 km2; chiu di 10,5 km. 3- Ngi Du: Bt ngun t X Minh