Tong Quan ve PR

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<p>PR IN PRACTICEMc tiu ca kha o to PR thc hnh ny l cung cp cc khi nim v PR v cng c PR trong hot ng thc tin; ng dng PR vo thc tin; xy dng k hoch PR thnh cng v lm vic tt hn vi cc cng ty PR.</p> <p>DN NHP: V TR CA PR TRONG H THNG CHIN LCTrong gio trnh PR in business, ta hc v s 4P ca marketing nh sau:</p> <p>S trn t PR vo v tr rt lp v so vi cc hot ng khc ca doanh nghip, trong khi ngy nay PR thc s tr thnh mt thnh phn quan trng ca doanh nghip. Trong s di y, chin lc marketing c sp xp li c mt gc nhn khc v hot ng PR (theo , PR cng nm trong h thng chin lc chiu th ca cng ty, nhng tnh tng h ca n cao hn).</p> <p>Nguyn tc 6 s 1 (theo quan im ca mt Gim c Cng ty PR): 1 iu mi m trong cuc sng 1 nm: Trong 1 nm, bn hy hc 1 iu mi m (vit sch, hc ma, yoga, nghin cu kinh Thnh, trng hoa, t lm nc mm/bnh m...). iu ny s khng nh kh nng vn ln ca bn. 1 thng n th vin 1 ngy: Hy c sch c cm gic bnh yn. Bn c th vit chin lc ng vin bn lm cng vic hng ngy chm ch v bt nhm chn. 1 k ngh php trn vn: Lun lun hoch nh trc k ngh ca mnh v khng hy n. Khi i ngh, khng li s in thoi, email... hy ngh trn vn lm mi mnh, sng to v nm bt xu hng mi khi quay tr v vi cng vic. Khch hng s 1 = gia nh: ng v tnh lm tn thng ngi thn. Hy chuyn TV sang ch mute, t t bo xung khi v/chng/con ci hi chuyn mnh. Hy xy dng tnh yu thng v rn luyn ngh thut Bit Lng Nghe ngay t trong gia nh mnh. 1 gi mi ngy suy ngm: Ln k hoch, suy ngh, tnh ton, xem xt mc tiu ra. 1 cun s tay tng c o: Ghi li tt c cc tng, k hoch, mc tiu, m c... www.tinhvi.com - 1</p> <p>CC KHI NIM C S1) Tng quan v marketing: Marketing l qu trnh pht hin ra cc nhu cu v tha mn cc nhu cu ca khch hng bng ton b n lc, ng thi em li li nhun cho doanh nghip. Mc tiu: Tha mn khch hng. Ginh thng li trong cnh tranh. Li nhun lu di. C 2 quan im v marketing: - Marketing c in: coi trng vic sn xut v bn hng (nhn t trong ra). Doanh nghip Hon thin sn phm QC v bn hng Li nhun - Marketing hin i: coi trng khch hng v nhu cu ca h (nhn t ngoi vo) Khch hng Nhu cu, s tha mn Cc hot ng Marketing Mix Li nhun 2) Tng quan v thng hiu: Thng hiu chnh l s bo m v cht lng ca sn phm/dch v c th. Thng hiu l mt khi nim, mt biu tng cho kh nng ca sn phm/dch v tha mn nhu cu no ca ngi tiu dng. Thng hiu gip cho doanh nghip th hin c tnh v ng cp ca mnh trong x hi/thng trng. C 5 yu t to nn sc mnh ca mt thng hiu: Mc nhn bit thng hiu. Hnh nh ca thng hiu. Tnh cch ca thng hiu. im khc bit ca thng hiu. Sc sng ca thng hiu. Tham kho: 5 thnh phn ca vic xy dng cu trc thng hiu - Cc du hiu nhn bit thng hiu (Brand attributes): mu sc, kiu dng, ngn ng, hnh nh, m nhc... phi mang tnh ng nht v c kh nng gip ngi tiu dng nhn bit c thng hiu (tc l phi phn bit c thng hiu ca doanh nghip gia mt rng thng hiu). - Cc li ch thng hiu (Brand benefits): khch hng phi hiu c chc nng v cm nhn c li ch ca thng hiu. - Nim tin thng hiu (Brand beliefs): phi hnh thnh c iu ny. VD: khi a rau sch vo siu th, phi lm sao ngi tiu dng tin c y l rau sch tht s. - Tnh cch ca thng hiu (Brand personalization): xy dng tnh cch thng hiu (nhn cch thng hiu) t c mc tiu khch hng s yu thch tnh cch , tc s thy c s trung thnh vi thng hiu. - Tnh cht ca thng hiu (Brand essence): chng hn khi cp n my git Electrolux th khch hng s nh ngay n tnh cht bn b Gi m mi th u bn nh Electrolux. Xem thm ti liu Qun tr thng hiu ti http://www.tinhvi.com/nhansu/thuonghieu.pdf Th no l mt thng hiu mnh: L mt thng hiu c nhiu ngi bit n v c nhiu ngi s dng. Thng hiu c nhng hnh nh ng nht t mu bao b, hnh dng sn phm, mu qung co... cho n hnh nh nhn vin, ngi tiu dng... Thng hiu c nhng tnh cch mnh v c sc thuyt phc khch hng mc tiu. www.tinhvi.com - 2</p> <p>Phi c im mnh to nn s khc bit r rt so vi cc i th cnh tranh. Thng hiu mnh lun i mi v pht trin khng ngng, theo kp nhng xu th pht trin ca th trng cng nh nhu cu ca ngi tiu dng. Cc bc cn thit xy dng chin lc thng hiu: Phn tch thng tin v th trng. Phn tch v nh gi cc i th cnh tranh. Tm hiu, nghin cu v la chn nhm khch hng mc tiu. Sng to ra chin lc nh v thng hiu, t pht trin chin lc tip th. Pht trin chin lc qung co da trn chin lc nh v v chin lc tip th: o Qung co sng to. o Chin lc truyn thng. o Cc chng trnh h tr khc. 3) Phn khc th trng: Phn khc th trng l quy trnh phn chia th trng thnh nhng nhm ngi mua c cng nhu cu v c im. Khi phn khc th trng, ta phi xc nh/m t r rng tng nhm ngi. Kt qu ca nghin cu phn khc th trng s c ng dng vo vic pht trin qung co v PR. Phn khc th trng v hiu ngi tiu dng, ti sao li cn thit? Nm c cc th hiu khc nhau ca khch hng khc nhau. Gip cho vic phc v khch hng c tt hn. Phi phn khc th trng v ngun lc ca doanh nghip c gii hn. Tp trung n lc tha mn nhu cu ca mt nhm i tng tiu dng tim nng. Phn khc th trng gip hiu r nhu cu ca cc nhm i tng tim nng, gip doanh nghip pht trin cc chng trnh marketing ring p ng nhu cu ca phn khc chn. y l iu m doanh nghip khng th lm c cho ton b th trng. Li ch ca phn khc th trng: C th xc nh mt cch chnh xc hn nhu cu, mong mun v hnh vi ca mt nhm khch hng c th. Cc ngun lc ca doanh nghip c th phn b mt cch hiu qu hn cho cc hot ng marketing, tha mn nhu cu v mong mun ca phn khc chn. Cc nhn t phn khc th trng: Phn khc theo nhn t ngi tiu dng: li ch tm kim, li ch mong mun, tm l x hi, thi quen, nhn khu hc (tui, gii tnh, ngh nghip, tn gio...). Phn khc theo tn sut mua sn phm. Phn khc theo t l s dng: thng xuyn, khng thng xuyn, t s dng... Phn khc theo s trung thnh: v iu kin, tng i, khng c nh, khng trung thnh. Phn khc theo mc sn sng ca ngi mua: mong mun, quan tm, khng sn sng... Phn khc theo thi ca ngi mua: vui mng, bng quan, th ght... Tiu chun mt phn khc l kh thi: Khc bit v nhu cu ca cc phn khc s to nn khc bit trong sn phm, nhng s khc bit ny phi c ngha v phi phn bit r rng. Cc phn khc c th o c, tnh ton c (tc l khng c tru tng). Phn khc phi nhm ti c, t ti c, vi ti c. Phn khc c tim nng v ang pht trin. Tng tc c vi tng yu t trong Marketing Mix. tin hnh phn khc, ta cn xc nh cc thng tin sau: H l ai (nhn khu hc)? Lm sao i thoi hiu qu nht vi h? Thi quen s dng cc phng tin truyn thng/gii tr ca h? www.tinhvi.com - 3</p> <p>Tim nng ca phn khc (tiu th): s lng, s tin, mc thay th... Nhn hiu ang dng ca h l g? Mc hi lng/trung thnh ca h i vi sn phm hin ti? Quan nim v phn ng ca h v gi c? C hi cho sn phm m ta ang d tnh cung cp cho h? Knh phn phi no ang p dng cho nhm khch hng ny? C 2 phng php c bn phn khc th trng: Phn khc sn c (pre-defined segmentation) Th trng c phn khc theo cc tiu ch m nh sn xut chn trc, nh: chng loi, nhn hiu ang dng; s lng ngi dng (t, nhiu); thu nhp... a) Ma trn SWOT: Phn tch SWOT l phng php phn tch kch bn trn c s kho st cc yu t lin quan nhm xy dng cc kch bn chin lc kh thi.OYu t 1 Yu t 2 ...</p> <p>Phn khc to mi (post-hoc segmentation) - Khm ph phn khc. - Tp hp cc nhn t cng tnh cht to ra mt phn khc ring (v li ch mong mun, nhu cu, thi , thi quen...).</p> <p>4) Mt s cng c xy dng &amp; thc hin chin lc marketing:</p> <p>TYu t 1 Yu t 2 ...</p> <p>S (Strengths): im mnh W (Weaknesses): im yu O (Opportunities): c hi T (Threats): e da</p> <p>SYu t 1 Yu t 2 ...</p> <p>S/O</p> <p>S/T</p> <p>WYu t 1 Yu t 2 ...</p> <p>W/O</p> <p>W/T</p> <p>S/O: dng im mnh khai thc c hi (y l trng hp tt nht). S/T: dng im mnh dp tt e da. W/O: c gng duy tr c hi, khi c hi ny ri vo im yu ca ta. W/T: y l trng hp xu nht, cn phi chp nhn v c gng gim thiu thit hi. b) Ma trn BCG: Dng ma trn ny ti cu trc th trng, ngnh hng v iu chnh danh mc vn u t (khng th dng ma trn BCG trong trng hp doanh nghip mi tham gia th trng).</p> <p>c) Ma trn GE: Ma trn GE da trn 2 yu t: v th cnh tranh v hp dn ca th trng. Mi yu t c chia lm 3 mc (thp, trung bnh, cao) v do c tt c 9 . Thang im dng cho ma trn ny c gi tr t 1-5. Cng dng: xc nh cc loi chin lc cho cc chin lc SBU v cho ton b doanh nghip. Nhm chin lc tn cng: s 1, 2, 4. Nhm chin lc phng th - u t: s 3, 5, 7. Nhm chin lc rt lui: s 6, 8, 9. www.tinhvi.com - 4</p> <p>cao TB thp cao d) Chui gi tr: Chui gi tr ca doanh nghip l tp hp cc hot ng c bn ca doanh nghip, hiu qu ca tng yu t v mi quan h gia cc yu t trong chui gi tr to ra sc mnh ca doanh nghip. Phn tch chui gi tr cho ta bit im mnh v im yu ca doanh nghip. Xem chi tit cc cng c trn trong ti liu Qun tr Chin lc ti a ch: http://www.tinhvi.com/ nhansu/chienluoc.pdf 5) Cc chin lc marketing: a) Chin lc Marketing Mix: - Chu k sng ca mt sn phm: TB thp</p> <p>Doanh s Chi ph marketing Li nhun Loi khch hng S lng i th</p> <p>Ra i/gii thiu THP CAO THP KH KHAI PH T</p> <p>Pht trin TNG NHANH TRUNG BNH TNG KH MUA SM + KH A S LN 1 TNG</p> <p>Bo ha/chn mui BO HA CAO CHNG LI KH A S LN 2 CHNG LI</p> <p>Suy thoi GIM NHANH THP GIM KH CHM TR, BO TH GIM</p> <p>www.tinhvi.com - 5</p> <p>Chin lc Marketing Mix c th tm lc trong bng sau y:4P Sn phm Gi Phn phi Chiu th Ra i/gii thiu a SP mi ra th trng Gi a vo chi ph l ch yu Xy dng knh phn phi c la chn Xy dng ch n SP trn ton t.trng Pht trin - Pht trin SP - a dng ha Gi xm nhp Pht trin ti a knh phn phi Xy dng ch v s khc bit SP Bo ha/chn mui - Gim SP khng h.qu - Tng DV h tr Gi cnh tranh Gim bt knh phn phi khng hiu qu Nhn mnh ti a v s khc bit SP Suy thoi Gim ti a SP khng hiu qu Gim gi Loi b ti a knh phn phi khng hiu qu Gim chi ph tip th, tp trung vo KH trung thnh</p> <p>b) Chin lc marketing cnh tranh: - Chin lc th trng dn dt:</p> <p>- Chin lc th trng thch thc: Doanh nghip c th la chn cc hnh thc tn cng i th nh sau: Tn cng trc din. Tn cng chc sn. Tn cng bao vy. Tn cng ng vng. Tn cng du kch. - Chin lc th trng theo ui: Theo ui bm st. Theo ui c khong cch. Theo ui c la chn - Chin lc th trng theo hc/ngch: Phn ra nhng phn khc rt hp (theo khch hng, khu vc a l, sn phm...), chuyn mn ha phc v th trng . Th trng ny tuy khng ln, kh pht trin nhng duy tr n nh v tng i an ton (do cc i th ln thng khng ch tm n cc phn khc qu hp). 6) K nng xy dng v lp k hoch marketing: a) nh gi v phn tch: Marketing Audit (kim ton) v Marketing Analysis (phn tch) dng phn tch, nh gi cc hot ng marketing v cc hot ng thng hiu v hiu qu u t trong giai on trc . T a ra cc quyt nh u t tip tc vo cc hot ng marketing v thng hiu. C th: - Mc nhn bit thng hiu: nhn bit c h tr (aided awareness), nhn bit khng cn h tr (unaided awareness). - Cc yu t hnh nh nhn hiu (brand image attributes). www.tinhvi.com - 6</p> <p>- Phn tch hnh vi tiu dng: Trial: mc dng th. Lapsed usage: mc dng trng lp 2 nhn hiu, hoc 2 yu t. Repeated usage: mc s dng lp li. Loyal usage: mc s dng trung thnh. Upgrading usage: mc nng cp nhu cu c th i vi mt sn phm, mt chc nng, hoc mt nhn hiu. b) T k hoch kinh doanh n k hoch marketing: - iu chnh cc mc tiu ca k hoch: y l mt vic lm mang tnh tng h. Vic xc nh li cc mc tiu c th trong nm k tip c th nh hng n mc tiu di hn m cng ty t ra. - Nhn nh chin lc di hn v iu chnh chin lc: Vic sm a ra nhn nh v th trng trong mt nm sp ti rt quan trng, nhm xc nh chin lc kh thi hoc iu chnh chin lc kinh doanh, chin lc marketing cho ph hp. C nhng dng th trng tiu biu nh sau: Th trng cn nguyn thy. Th trng mi pht trin. Th trng ang pht trin. Th trng n nh. Th trng ang b thu hp. Th trng cnh tranh cao. c) Xc nh cc mc tiu: - Mc tiu doanh s v doanh thu: Thng c th hin bi bng d bo doanh s (Sales forecast) trong 12 thng sp ti, ni dung trnh by nh sau: Chi tit mi thng trong 12 thng sp ti. Chi tit theo tng n v sn phm. Chi tit theo khu vc. - Mc tiu li nhun: Ngi trc tip lp k hoch marketing khng trc tip hoch nh li nhun. Tuy nhin, anh ta cn phi c bit mc tiu li nhun, hay t nht l t sut li nhun tng SKU trong ton b sn phm ca cng ty trong nm ti chnh sp ti.SKU = Stock Keeping Unit (n v hng tn kho). y l n v phn loi hng ha tn kho bng vic kt hp tnh duy nht v hnh dng, s thch hp, chc nng. V d, mt cng ty c 3 loi bn phm, 3 loi mn hnh, 3 loi CPU. Nu cc n v tn kho ny ch dng bn l th ta c 9 SKU. Nu chng cn dng bn s th ta c thm 9 SKU na. Tuy nhin, nu khch hng khng th phn bit c 2 mt hng, hoc nu bt k cc thuc tnh hu hnh no ca 2 mt hng ny u khng quan trng i vi khch hng v lm cho h tin rng hai mt hng ny l ging nhau, th chng c th coi nh c cng SKU.</p> <p>- Mc tiu c cu sn phm v c cu gi: Vic xc nh mt c cu sn phm, gi v nhn hiu hp l s mang li nhiu li ch. Ph kn cc phn khc v cc knh phn phi. H tr phn phi, gim chi ph phn phi, gim chi ph pht trin th trng ni chung. Tn dng cng sut my mc thit b v k nng sn xut. p ng c chin lc marketing di hn. d) Mc tiu khch hng v phn phi: - Mc tiu v khch hng: S lng nh phn phi v i l. S lng ca hng bn l hoc khch hng c bit. Phn nh cc cp trung gian ca knh phn phi trong tng khu vc. www.tinhvi.com - 7</p> <p>- Mc tiu v phn phi: ph v mc sn c ca sn phm trn th trng. Mc nhn thy sn phm im bn l. Mc tiu v mc vn xa n th trng nng thn. e) Mc tiu mc nhn bit nhn hiu v hnh nh nhn hiu: Da trn kt qu ca Marketing Audit, sau khi phn tch cc mc tiu khc, chng ta c th xc nh cc mc tiu v mc nhn bit v hnh nh nhn hiu mt cch xc thc hn. Tuy nhin, y l mt vn kh mi m, ch c cc cng ty hot ng lu nm theo nh hng marketing mi coi trng vn ny. 7) Ngn sch marketing: Kho st mt cng ty X c c cu nhn hiu gm 3 nhn hng A, B v C. Tng c cu ngn sch (100%) c chia lm 5 phn nh sau: - Corporate Marketing (chi ph tip th chung cho cng ty): 7,5% Corporate brand building (xy dng thng hiu cng ty) 50% o Corporate brand name, logo, identities (tn, thng hiu, nh danh) o Corporate communication (truyn thng) o Company website (trang web ca cng ty) o Gifts &amp; premium items (qu tng &amp; phn thng) Corporate brand development (pht trin thng hiu cng ty) 40% o Corporate PR (external &amp; internal) (chi ph PR bn trong v ngoi) o Corporate social activities (cc hot ng x hi) o Donations (tng t thin) o Sponsorships (bo tr) Other (khc) 10% - Overhead marketing (chi ph tip th ton b): 12,5% Marketing research (nghin cu tip th) 25% o Market size research (nghin cu quy m th trng) o Retail census (iu tra bn l) o Outlet data &amp; mapping (d liu v bn v i l/ca hng) o U &amp; A study (nghin cu v Usage v Attitude) Product &amp; Brand development (pht trin thng hiu v sn phm) 20% o Product/Brand development before the Launch Proposal (pht trin thng hiu/sn phm trc khi lp KH khai trng) Recruitment &amp; Training (tuyn dng v o to) 5% Below-The-Line BTL (overhead) (tng ngn sch cho BTL) 30% o Merchandising for all brands (trng by cho tt c nhn hng) o Outlet signage for all brands (bng hiu cho tt c nhn hng) Trade marketing &amp; Direct marketing (tip th thng mi v trc tip) 20% o Direct phone line (ng dy in thoi trc tip) o Service center (trung tm dch v khch hng) o Trade promotion (for all brands) (xc tin thng mi) o Direct marketing campaigns (chin dch marketing trc tip) o Trade fair &amp; Road shows (hi ch TM v show ng ph) o Sales conference &amp; Distribution development (hi ngh KH v p.trin PP) - Budget for brand A (ngn sch cho nhn hng A): Above-The-Line ATL (ngn sch cho ATL) o Media (production, running) (truyn thng: SP, qun l) o Outdoor (production, rental) (ngoi tri: SP, thu) www.tinhvi.com - 8 25% 70%</p> <p>o Brand PR, advertorial, information (PR v truyn thng thng tin) Below-The-Line BTL (ngn sch BTL) 25% o Brand POS items (POS = Point Of Sale: h thng bn hng) o Brand merchandising campaign (chin dch trng by thng hiu) o Outlet tracking by brand (d tm h thng ca hng) o Outlet signage by brand (bng hiu h thng ca hng) o Consumer promotion (thc y ngi tiu dng) Research &amp; Development (nghin cu v pht trin) 5% o Brand tracking (only for brand or share with other brand) (d tm) o Brand/Product developtment (pht trin thng hiu/sn phm) o MMIS cost (chi ph Maintenance Management...</p>