Tong Quan Ve Quan Ly Mang (1)

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  • 8/6/2019 Tong Quan Ve Quan Ly Mang (1)

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    Bi 1. Tng quan v qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam Hng B mn Kthut my tnh & MngKhoa Cng ngh thng tin -i hc Thy li

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    BI 1 TNG QUT V QUN L MNG

    I.1. Gii thiu chung

    i cht v lch s pht trin

    - 1844 Morse gi thnh cng bc in bo u tin- 1876 Alexander Graham Bell cng b mu my in thoi u tin- 1881 ng truyn xa u tin t Boston i thnh ph Providence, Rhode Island

    c xy dng.- 1901 Bc thu tin c Guglielmo Marconi gi bng tn hiu radio qua i

    Ty Dng.

    - 1915 Cuc in thoi xuyn lc a u tin thnh cng ti M.- 1925 Pht minh cp ng trc.- 1951 Gii thiu h thng in thoi ng di quay s trc tip.- Trong nhng nm 1960 mng v tinh thng mi c th nghim.- 1971 E-mail c pht minh bi Ray Tomlinson.- 1974 Nhng tng chnh v Internet c Vint Cerf , Bob Kahn, cng Defense

    Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) c xy dng. D n Internet

    c bt u bng vic pht trin h thng lin lc c lp v an ninh quc gia

    ca Bell System. Vo nhng nm 1970, ng truyn Internet c php t hp

    vo h thng in thoi quc gia, nh du xu hng kt hp cc mng d liu

    v m thoi vi nhau.

    - 1976 B chuyn mch su tin c ci t.- 1977 Nhng ng truyn cp quang thng mi u tin c th nghim ti

    M bi GTE (General Telephone and Electronics) v Bell Systems.

    - 1979 Mng khng dy u tin ra i ti Nht.- 1980 Cc chuNn CCS7 (SS7) c cng b bi CCITT.

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    Bi 1. Tng quan v qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam Hng B mn Kthut my tnh & MngKhoa Cng ngh thng tin -i hc Thy li

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    - Cui nhng nm 1980 Cc tiu chuNn k thut cho Asynchronous TransferMode (ATM) c cng b.

    - 1990 International Telecommunications Union (ITU) ban hnh tiu chuNn kthut cho cc h thng mng thng minh.

    Nm 1972, chnh sch bu tri rng m cho php bt c t chc no cng c th

    shu v vn hnh h thng v tinh. Chnh sch ny cho php t do cnh tranh cc

    ng truyn qua khng gian ngay tu (so vi truyn thng hu tuyn).

    T cc s kin nu trn ta kt lun:

    - Nhu cu pht trin ca cc h thng kinh t, chnh tr v x hi- Spht trin ca cng nghiu khin v truyn dn

    chnh l ng lc thc Ny s hi t v tin b ca cc h thng mng th h mi

    (NGN)

    Mng cng pht trin (c cng ngh v ngi dng) th cng trnn phc tp, li

    cng thc Ny tnh cnh tranh, c trong sn xut thit b cng nh trong qun tr hthng.

    - Cc nh sn xut n lc sn xut cc thit b thng minh hn, nhanh hn, tin cyhn v an ton hn, thm ch gi c cng c th r hn

    - Gii php qun l thit b ngy cng ring hniu ny trthnh thch thc vi cc nh qun tr mng.

    Qun l mng l ht sc cn thit, nhng tnh cht chung ca cng vic l:- Cc bi ton qun l c th li c phc tp rt caobi tnh a dng ca cc

    thit b v nhu cu ngy cng tng v s lng ng thi i hi ngy cng

    nhiu v cht lng.

    - Cc tham s qun l, cc i tng qun lkhng ngng bin ng, thm chcn thay i c ch th qun l.

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    Bi 1. Tng quan v qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam Hng B mn Kthut my tnh & MngKhoa Cng ngh thng tin -i hc Thy li

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    - Cng vi s pht trin ca kinh t x hi, cc nguy cem li t chnh s phttrin ca truyn thng cng tng ln, bng chng l cc cuctn cng an ninh

    mng, khng ai khc, cc nh qun l mng phi i mt vi chng.

    T chc vin thng quc t ITU (International Telecommunication Union), Vin

    tiu chuNn vin thng Chu u ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards

    Institute), T chc c trch k thut lin mng IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)

    cng t chc v xy dng cc chuNn chung v qun l mng, l mt tp tc v

    iu hnh khai thc mng gip trao i cc thng tin qun l gia phng din qun l

    ti nguyn my tnh v mng (management plane) vi cc phng din khc (control

    plane, user plane).

    I.2 M hnh mng

    Vi t duy qun l, mt mng d phc tp ra sao cng c th phn chia thnh cc

    nhm sau y:Host: l ni giao tip vi ngi dng v cung cp dch v c th cho ngi dng

    (cc PC, cc server, cc thit bu cui). Thut ng mng gi chng l cc DTE.

    Cc b phn cn li c gi l DCE.

    HUB, converter: l cc thit b trung gian thc hin chuyn i yu cu v d liu

    thnh cc dng tn hiu ph hp vi ng truyn.

    Authentication, Enc/Dec: l cc phng tin nhm bo m an ninh ngi dng,

    an ninh d liu v c an ninh h thng, chng gm cc thit b, phn mm thi hnhchng thc, m ha v gii m.

    Medium, switch, router: l cc phng tin trung gian trn ng truyn, chng

    bo m giao nhn thng tin u cui, chia x v tn dng ng truyn. B phn ny

    thng c biu th bng mt m my (cng biu th s phc tp - ).

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    Bi 1. Tng quan v qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam Hng B mn Kthut my tnh & MngKhoa Cng ngh thng tin -i hc Thy li

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    Tt c cc nhm va nu trn cn phi c kim sot thng xuyn v tnh trng

    hot ng. Cng c ngha rng chng cn phi nm trong phm vi kim sot, iu khin

    ca tc v qun l mng.

    Lin lc mng phi l thng sut c im ca m my thng l khng thuc s qun l ring ca ch

    th, iu c ngha cc ch th phi t bo v mnh.

    Mt khc, mi ch th qun l u c nhng khch hng ring, cn c chnhsch h trv bo v khch hng ca mnh.

    T lm nn: khng gian qun l, m n bao gm h thng qun l cung cp ccdch v qun l thng qua cc phng tin v giao thc qun l qun l cc i

    tng qun l.

    I.3. c im qun l mng

    Nhn chung, qun l mng c cc c im sau (ITU-T M.3060/Y.2401 (03/2006):

    1. Qun l chung ti nguyn mng (c ba lp core, distributrion, access).2. Qun l ti nguyn cung cp cho cc dch v ngi dng (QoS) mt cch

    c lp vi cc ti nguyn khc (h trtruyn ti, kim sot, iu khin)

    3. H trcc lp dch v ngi dng khc nhau (CoS).4. H trpht trin mi da trn kin trc sn c.5. Qun l chi tit dch v (cung cp, y thc, kim sot, tnh cc).6. Phn lp dch v vi qun l, bo m cc thng tin tc nghip qun l.7. Bo m an ninh (b mt, ring t, phc v ti a, cnh tranh )

    Cc HOST(PC, Server,Terminals)

    HUB, converterAuthentication,En/Decryption

    Medium,switch, router

    Khng gian qun l: gm cc h thng qun l v cc dch v qun l

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    Bi 1. Tng quan v qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam Hng B mn Kthut my tnh & MngKhoa Cng ngh thng tin -i hc Thy li

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    8. Phn lp cc tiu chuNn ring t tp chuNn chung, cho php thc th/khch hng t xy dng tp chuNn ring p dng cho mi trng ring.

    9. n gin v a dng cng ngh s dng.10.Gip tnh/truy vn cc dch v, c online v offline.11.H trphc hi h thng, h trd phng p ng tnh sn sng ca h

    thng.

    12.Cung cp kh nng iu hnh mng v lin mng da trn cht lngdch v.

    13.Module ha, cho php nng cp, pht trin cc tc v qun l m khngnh hng, cn trln nhau.

    14.Cung cp kh nng phi hp t cc min qun l khc nhau.15.D dng phn tch v tm kim cc thng tin qun l cn thit.

    I.4 Yu cu qun l mng

    Yu cu, hay i hi qun l c rt nhiu kin tri ngc nhau, xut pht t

    cch tip cn vn qun l mng.Nhn chung, qun l mng cn c ba tc v ch yu: theo di, iu khin v

    bo co, lm nn ci gi l h thng qun l mng truyn thng.

    Tuy nhin, cc chuNn ca ITU chia cc tc v qun l mng thnh nm lnh vc

    c th:

    1. Qun l li (Fault Management): ng u vi tt c cc nguyn nhn c tc

    ng xu ti hot ng chung ca h thng, bao gm cht lng dch v cung cp v

    tnh p ng ca h thng vi cc i hi ca ngi dng.- Trc ht phi pht hin li kp thi. Cng chm pht hin, nguy cv tn hi

    cng ln, n mc khng th phc hi

    - Tip theo l xc nh v tr li, nguyn nhn gy li. C th li ch ny li l

    nguyn nhn t mt ch khc.

    - Khi nguyn nhn ca li xc nh, phc hi h thng, phc hi dch v l

    nhim v cn thit sau cng.

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    Bi 1. Tng quan v qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam Hng B mn Kthut my tnh & MngKhoa Cng ngh thng tin -i hc Thy li

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    2. Qun l cu hnh (Configuration Management): l vn v cng quan

    trng. Nhim v ny bao gm quy hoch, t chc xy dng v pht trin h thng trin

    khai dch vn khch hng.

    - Trc ht l xy dng k hoch pht trin v thit k h thng mng.

    - Bc tip theo l t chc thi cng, xy dng mng theo thit k.

    - Bc th ba c trin khai l gii thiu, qung b dch v.

    - Bc sau cng, pht trin v chm sc khch hng, pht trin doanh thu.

    3. Qun l cc (Accounting Management): tc v ny lin quan trc tip n

    doanh thu, sinh li.

    - Trc ht cn xy dng cc phng n tnh cc khc nhau.

    - T chc h thng, xy dng cc th tc, phng n thu thp d liu t cc thit

    bo lng mng. Cc thng tin ny mi ch di dng th, cn c tinh lc trc khi

    chuyn sang bc tip theo.

    - Tnh gi, p dng cc chnh sch marketing

    - Xy dng ha n, giao ha n v theo di thanh ton.

    4. Qun l hiu nng (Performance Management): mc ch l duy tr hiu sutthi hnh v p ng ca h thng, chNn on pht hin sm cc kh nng h hng, li.

    - Cn sm pht hin suy gim hiu nng.

    - Phn tch suy gim hiu nng.

    5. Qun l an ninh (Security management): Ngn nga v gim thiu cc gian

    ln ti nguyn mng. lm vic ny cn xy dng, hoc trin khai cc chnh sch an

    ninh, cch an ninh, cc dch v an ninh v cc phng php kt hp an ninh hp l.An ninh qu cht ch s gy lng ph, qu lng s l sh C th ni y l mt tc

    v phc tp bc nht. Cc phng tin an ninh c th gm cc k thut m ha, chng

    thc, chng ch, cc giao thc an ninh cng cc tng an ninh.

    - Tt nht l ngn chn.

    - Tuy nhin, ch ngn chn l khng kh thi. Cn sm pht hin vi phm an ninh

    phc hi kp thi.

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    Bi 1. Tng quan v qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam Hng B mn Kthut my tnh & MngKhoa Cng ngh thng tin -i hc Thy li

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    I.5 M hnh qun l mng

    M hnh gm nm thnh phn cbn:

    Trm qun l: l ni nh qun l thi hnh cc tc v ch yu ca mnhln h thng. Ti y gm cha cc thit b v hiu hnh cho php cc

    ng dng qun l c th thc thi. Ngoi ra cn c cc giao tip ngidng cn thit truy xut ti cc ng dng qun l.

    Nhn vin/Nh qun l: mc n gin nht l s thi hnh th cngca con ngi, nhng ngy nay ch yu l cc ng dng thi hnh tng,

    chnh xc v bn b. y chnh l khi iu hnh trung tm (ch th qun

    l), c trch nhim ra cc quyn nh qun l cn thit v kp thi ti cc

    i din qun l chi nhnh.

    Mt si din qun l tng b phn mng: thng tr ti cc bphn cu thnh mng (i tng qun l), c trch nhim thi hnh cc

    lnh nhn c t trung tm, thit lp v gim st cc thng s, gi tr m

    n trc tip qun l. Thu thp d liu v bo co ch th. Bo co ch th

    (lp tc) v cc s kin bt thng.

    Trm qun l

    Nhn vin qun l MIB

    B phn cu thnh mng 1

    i dinqun l MIB

    B phn cu thnh mng N

    i dinqun l MIB

    Giao thc qun l

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    Bi 1. Tng quan v qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam Hng B mn Kthut my tnh & MngKhoa Cng ngh thng tin -i hc Thy li

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    Csd liu v thng tin qun l (MIB): gm cha cc thng tin mch th qun l quan tm i vi i tng qun l. Cu trc ca MIB

    thng c th hiu c bi c ch th v i tng qun l.

    Giao thc qun l: l mt thnh phn quan trng na, n xc nh ccth tc v cu trc s dng bi nh qun l v cc i din nhm trao i

    thng tin qun l v cc hiu lnh.

    CU HI

    1.

    Nu tnh cht chung ca cng tc qun l mng.2. Ta tng kt 15 c im cng tc qun l mng. Hy nu v phn tch

    tng c im.

    3. Theo t duy qun l, mt mng truyn thng c cu trc thnh phn ra sao?Phn tch tng thnh phn. Hay n gin l, phn tch khng gian qun l?

    4. Nu nm lnh vc qun l mng?5. Nu v phn tch m hnh qun l mng.