Tong Quan Ve Quan Ly Mang (2)

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Bi 2. M hnh qun l mng vin thng

BI 2 M HNH QUN L MNG VIN THNG

- TMN l g?Kin trc chc nng ca TMN Kin trc vt l TMN Cc giao tip chuNn trong TMN Kin trc phn tng TMN (bi 1) Kin trc thng tin (bi 3)

II.1. TMNTMN - telecommunications management network. Qun l Mng vin thng TMN l g? V, v sao cn TMN? Cc thnh phn cu thnh TMN?

II.1.1 TMN l g? TMN l mt b Tiu chuNn quc t qun l mng vin thng. Theo Khuyn ngh ITU-T M.3100 (1995): "TMN l mt mng chuyn bit, n gm cc giao din vi mng vin thng ti v tr no nhm thu thp, trao i thng tin v kim sot hot ng ca cc mng ny". Ni cch khc, tng chnh ca TMN l dng mt h thng mng c lp qun l mt mng vin thng thng qua giao din c th v c tiu chuNn ha. Cn Tiu chuNn bi v + Cc mng vin thng thng bao gm cc thnh phn cu thnh vi cc cng ngh v thuc v cc nh phn phi khc nhau. + Mng vin thng thng c tch hp t chuyn mch (mch hay gi), PSTN hay VPN, v tuyn hay hu tuyn m bn thn tng cng ngh ny cng gm cha nhiu k thut khc nhau. Hnh sau y cho thy mi quan h gia TMN v mng vin thng m n qun l.

Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut My tnh v Mng Khoa Cng ngh thng tin i hc Thy li

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Bi 2. M hnh qun l mng vin thng

H IU HNH A

H IU HNH B

H IU HNH C

MNG LIN LC D LIU

TMN

Switch

H thng truyn dn

Switch

H thng truyn dn

Cc mng vin thng

II.1.2 Cc thnh phn cu thnh TMN Cc tiu chuNn chnh ca TMN c ban hnh cui nhng nm 1980, v cc chuNn con ca chng hin nay vn tip tc c sa i v b sung. Cc kha cnh m TMN gip qun l mng vin thng, gm: Mt tp kin trc: lin quan ti vt l, th tc, chc nng, logic thi hnh v cu trc thng tin. Mt phng thc c t giao din t xy dng nn cc bc thi hnh trong giao tip. Mt tp dch v TMN, m tng dch v thng kh c lp vi nhau v c xy dng theo quan im ca ngi dng. Mt tp chc nng qun l, di dng khi chc nng c bn t cc khi ny xy dng nn cc ng dng qun l. Mt tp mu thng tin qun l tiu chu n, chng c th c phn nhm c th thnh ba dng: tng qut (genetic), ti nguyn (resource ) v tin trnh (process).

Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut My tnh v Mng Khoa Cng ngh thng tin i hc Thy li

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Bi 2. M hnh qun l mng vin thng

II.1.3 Cc chu n TMN Cc chuNn TMN hnh thnh t nhng n lc khng ngng ca ITU-T trong vic xc nh cc giao din v giao thc giao din. Mt s s kin ng nh gm: 1982. Cc cht vn chung v hot ng v bo tr. 1985. Cc cht vn nu trn c chnh thc tr li. 1986. TMN chnh thc c ngh. 1989. Ti liu chuNn u tin v TMN do ITU-T ban hnh, M.3010. 1992. M.3100 thay th cho M.3010, cng vi n l Q.811 v Q.812.

T y, ITU-T trin khai cc nhm nghin cu: Nhm 4, chu trch nhim v kin trc tng th v m rng tng th (eXtension), phng php lun (Querring), chc nng yu cu (Functional). Nhm 7, phi hp vi ISO/IEC xy dng cc giao thc, nh dng thng ip v cc phng thc m hnh ha thng tin. Nhm 11, chu trch nhim xy dng cc m hnh thng tin cho TMN trn nn SS7 v cc mng thng minh khc theo hng TMN. Nhm 15, chuyn nghin cu cc gii php TMN giao tip vi cc h thng hin i nh ATM hay SDH.

II.2 Kin trc chc nng ca TMNKin trc TMN bao gm mt tp cc - khi chc nng c bn, - mt tp im truy xut (cn gi im tham chiu) v - mt tp cc chc nng thnh phn b tr. Trc khi i su nghin cu kin trc TMN, hy xt hnh v sau y. Hnh minh ha mt h thng qun l n gin, m bn thn n trc tip qun l hai thnh phn mng. Thnh phn A l mt i din qun l (chuNn), nhng thnh phn B th khng, n ch tng ng chuNn. Mt ngi dng truy xut t xa qua mt my tnh vo trung tm h thng qun l (1). Trung tm qun l cn c mt (hay mt vi) kt ni ti cc trung tm qun l khc (m rt c th dng cc giao thc khc).Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut My tnh v Mng Khoa Cng ngh thng tin i hc Thy li 3 / 19

Bi 2. M hnh qun l mng vin thng

Ngi dng H thng qun l 2 PC

H thng qun l 1

H thng qun l N

i din qun l A (chuNn) Thit b A

i din qun l B (khng chuNn) Thit b B

Ny sinh cc vn sau y: Lm sao xy dng c mt m hnh qun l mng thng nht (bt k l giao thc no)? Lm sao qun l c mt h thng mng m n cu thnh t cc thit b c xut x khc nhau? Nhng cu hi ny s c tr li bng kin trc TMN. II.2.1 Cc khi chc nng TMNf WSF f f OSF q3 f qx / q3 x x qx / q3 f f OSF q3 q3 WSF f

MF qx / q3

MF q3

QAF m

NEF m

QAF

NEF

Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut My tnh v Mng Khoa Cng ngh thng tin i hc Thy li

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Bi 2. M hnh qun l mng vin thng

TMN l mt tp chc nng nhm gim st, kim sot v phi hp hnh ng. Tp chc nng ny cho php ngi dng (ngi qun l) kh nng truy cp thi hnh cc thao tc qun l cn thit, rt trch c cc thng tin vi dng thc cn thit. Ngoi ra cn c kh nng chuyn i sang cc dng thc chuNn TMN theo tng hnh ng tng tc thch hp. Nm khi chc nng, gm 1. Khi chc nng h iu hnh (OSF). C chc nng theo di, iu hnh v kim sot cc mng vin thng. N bao gm mt tp cc dch v cn thit. 2. Khi chc nng thnh phn mng (NEF). Mt mt n cung cp cho OSF v tnh trng ca i tng m n qun l (thnh phn mng). Mt khc, n cung cp cc chc nng x l giao vn trong mng vin thng, ch khng qun l; ngoi ra l cc chc nng h tr. y cn ch , cc chc nng h tr l thuc phm vi TMN, cn chc nng x l giao vn th khng thuc TMN. 3. Khi chc nng trm lm vic (WSF), cung cp giao din thun tin cho ngi qun l vi OSF 4. Khi chc nng trung gian (MF), c nhim v chuyn i thng tin gia OSF v NEF. Ni dung ca n gm, lu tr, bin i, chn lc, thch nghi ha, thm ch c nn. Nhim v ca MF c bit tch cc vi h thng gm nhiu nh cung cp khc nhau. 5. Khi chc nng Q-adaptor (QAF). Khi ny ng vai tr phin dch trung gian gia NEF hay OSF vi TMN; hoc l mt thnh phn mng NE khng tun th TMN vi TMN. QAF l mt khi chc nng khng th thiu tch hp cc mng truyn thng sn c vi cc NGN trong mt TMN.

C th v cc chc nng thnh phn Mi mt trong s nm khi chc nng ca TMN va nu trn u gm cha mt tp cc chc nng thnh phn. Tip , mi chc nng thnh phn l mt n v c s thi hnh dch v TMN. Chc nng thnh phn TMN c nhn din theo cc tiu ch sau:Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut My tnh v Mng Khoa Cng ngh thng tin i hc Thy li 5 / 19

Bi 2. M hnh qun l mng vin thng

a. Chc nng ng dng qun l (MAF): Mi MAF l mt nhm cc chc nng thnh phn nhm thi hnh cc dch v c bn, dch v li ca TMN. Cc chc nng thnh phn ca mi MAF khng nht thit phi c tiu chuNn ha. Mi MAF thng c mt tin t l mt trong s nm khi chc nng nu trn. + MF-MAF: l cc ng dng qun l to thnh khi chc nng trung gian. V d: lu tr tm thi (temporary storage), theo di ngng (thresholding), rt trch t nhiu ngun (concentration), bo mt (security) + OSF-MAF: y chnh l cc ng dng li ca OSF, c th t n gin n phc tp. + NEF-MAF: c mc nh chnh l cung cp cc chc nng cn thit cho cc i din qun l thi hnh cc chc nng. Nhim v chnh l cung cp phng tin qun l i tng, giao tip vi OSF hay MF, qun l MIB. + QAF-MAF: ng vai tr trung gian giao tip gia i din qun l v ch th qun l; gip truyn gi bo co v ch th, gip truyn lnh ti i din qun l v thi hnh ICF (phin dch chuyn i thng tin). b. Chc nng h tr trm lm vic (WSF): Mc ch chnh ca WSF l che giu i s phc tp bi s c mt ca cc khi khc NEF, OSF, QAF v MF i vi ngi dng ti trm lm vic. N gm c cc chc nng con sau y: Truy xut/hiu chnh d liu t OSF hay NEF thng qua MF ti ngi dng ti WSF. Gi thi hnh chc nng v p tr kt qu thi hnh cho ngi dng. Thng bo nhng thng tin cn thit v cc hnh ng, s kin pht sinh bi OSF, MF hay NEF. H tr cc th tc chng thc: xc nhn, cp pht quyn, dch v ng nhp hoc cc th tc h tr mang tnh qun l hnh chnh. c. Chc nng h tr giao din ngi dng (UISF): Dch thng tin thnh dng thc ph hp vi m hnh TMN hin hnh. Dch yu cu ca ngi dng thnh cc hnh ng TMN thch hp.6 / 19

Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut My tnh v Mng Khoa Cng ngh thng tin i hc Thy li

Bi 2. M hnh qun l mng vin thng

Ngoi ra, nu cn th UISF cn c kh nng rt trch tng hp cc thng tin t nhiu phin lm vic khc nhau, nhiu OSF v MF khc nhau thnh mt th thng nht v ng nh dng yu cu. d. Chc nng h thng th mc (DSF): Chc nng ny c mt c ch th qun l cng nh i din qun l. H thng th mc l mt cu trc lu tr phn tng. Cu trc ny l c lp vi bt k giao thc qun l no, nn cng c th lm vic vi bt k h thng no c h tr dch v th mc. e. Chc nng truy xut th mc (DAF): Chc nng ny c mt trong bt c khi chc nng no cn truy xut th mc. f. Chc nng an ninh (SF): Chc nng ny bao gm cc lp ch yu ca an ninh h thng: Chng thc Kim sot truy xut Tnh ton vn d liu Tnh b mt d liu Khng t chi dch v

Bng sau y tm tt quan h gia khi chc nng vi cc chc nng thnh phnKhi chc nng OSF WSF NEF MF QAF Chc nng thnh phn OSF-MAF, WSF, ICF, DSF, DAF, SF UISF, DAF, SF NEF-MAF, DSF, DAF, SF MF-MAF, ICF, WSF, DSF, DAF, SF QAF-MAF, ICF, DSF, DAF, SF

(Ngun: ITU-T M.3010) II.2.2 Tp im truy xut: Mc ch ca im truy xut l xc nh ranh gii dch v gia hai khi chc nng qun l v xc nh cc thng tin qun l gia cc khi chc nng. Khi mt im truy

Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut My tnh v Mng Khoa Cng ngh thng tin i hc Thy li

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Bi 2. M hnh qun l mng vin thng

xut l mt thc th, n l mt giao din. TMN xc nh nm lp im truy xut sau y: Lp q: im truy xut NEF v OSF, QAF, hoc MF (hoc trc tip hoc qua DCF). Trong lp q gm c: - qx: l cc im truy xut gia QAF, NEF v MF hoc gia hai MF. - q3: l cc im tham chiu gia NEF vi OSF, MF vi OSF v OSF vi OSF. Lp f: cc im truy xut km theo mt WSF Lp x: l cc im truy xut gia cc OSF ca cc TMN khc nhau. Ngoi ra cn c thm hai lp im khc thuc loi phi TMN: Loi g: l im truy xut c nhn ngi dng vi WSF Loi m: l loi im truy xut gia mt QAF vi mt thc th phi TMN.

User

User

gPC WSF

fH thng qun l A H thng qun l B OSF

x

OSF

q qMF i din qun l chuNn NEF i din qun l tng thch NE QAF

qi din qun l chuNn NEF

mi din qun l tng thch NE

Hnh v trn ch ra cch thc nh x TMN vo mt m hnh qun l n gin. Thi hnh thc s ca mt im tham chiu v bn cht l mt giao din ngi dng. Bng sau y cho thy quan h gia cc khi chc nng c biu din nh cc im truy xut.Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut My tnh v Mng Khoa Cng ngh thng tin i hc Thy li 8 / 19

Bi 2. M hnh qun l mng vin thng

NEF OSF MF QAFq3 QAFqx WSF Phi-TMN NEF OSF MF QAFq3 QAFqx WSF Phi-TMN f q3 qx q3 qx f f m qx f m m g m g

q3 Q3,x q3 qx Q q3 qx

II.3. Kin trc vt l ca TMNKin trc vt l TMN c nh ngha di dng cc nt khc nhau trong mng v cc mi giao tip gia cc nt. Cc nt (chng hn cc nt h iu hnh v cc phn t mng) v lin kt gia cc nt u c th c nh x ti mt vi n v phn mm hoc phn cng. Mt cch b tr n gin ca mt TMN phn lp c th hin trong hnh sau y. mc n gin nht, mt TMN bao gm nm loi nt v bn loi lin kt (ng vi khi chc nng v tp im truy xut) - Mi nt c cung cp cc chc nng c trng. - Mi lin kt c c im l giao din gia hai nt. V mt vt l, TMN l mt mng, n c cc nt, cc lin kt v cc giao tip. Mi nt c th l phn cng, l phm mm, hoc kt hp c hai. II.3.1 Cc h iu hnh

Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut My tnh v Mng Khoa Cng ngh thng tin i hc Thy li

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Bi 2. M hnh qun l mng vin thng

H iu hnh l mt h thng thi hnh chc nng OSF ca kin trc chc nng TMN. N thi hnh kim sot thng tin lin quan ti qun l, theo di, iu hnh mt mng vin thng, ng thi n c th giao tip vi cc h iu hnh khc, trong cng TMN hay khc TMN. T y to nn mt quan h phn cp hay to nn mt kin trc khc. Theo chc nng, cc OS c th cu hnh thnh cc loi khc nhau, ty theo OSF: business OSF, service OSF, v network OSF. N cn c th giao tip vi MF v/hoc NEF thc hin cc chc nng qun l. Theo vt l, cc OS c th cu hnh phn tn hoc tp trung. C mt s yu t chn la cu hnh tp trung hay phn tn: thi hnh trong thi gian thc, kim sot lung, kh nng chu li cao, hoc ty theo cc kha cnh ca qun l hnh chnh h thng. Thng th cu hnh phn tn c a dng hn. II.3.2 Cc thit b trung gian Mi MD l mt nt thc hin mt (hoc mt s) chc nng trung gian ca kin trc chc nng TMN, nhm x l thng tin gia mt OS v phn t mng (NE) bo m cc thng tin ph hp nh dng v ng ngha tha thun i bn. Cc chc nng c th gm lu tr, hiu chnh, lc, ngng, v c ng thng tin. Nm tin trnh chc nng c th c mt ti MD gm: Chuyn i thng tin Phi hp lm vic, duy tr kt ni mng TMN. X l, thu thp rt trch d liu Ra quyt nh Lu tr

Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut My tnh v Mng Khoa Cng ngh thng tin i hc Thy li

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Bi 2. M hnh qun l mng vin thng

Chc nng trung gian c th thi hnh c lp trong mt MD, cng c th gn vi mt thc th phn tn gia OS v NE, hoc cng c th kt hp c hai cu hnh ny. Hnh a l mt MD c lp, nhng hnh b v c li l cu hnh MD phn tn vo hai NE.

Ngoi ra, MD cng c th c cu hnh phn cp nh di y, n mm do hn nhiu.

II.3.3 B thch nghi Q Hin nay, nhiu ngi dng thut ng MD ni v b thch nghi Q. B thch nghi Q (Q adapter) thi hnh chc nng QAF, c th l phn cng, phn mm hoc t hp c hai. N chuyn i thng tin gia hai h thng TMN v phi

Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut My tnh v Mng Khoa Cng ngh thng tin i hc Thy li

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Bi 2. M hnh qun l mng vin thng

TMN thnh dng thng tin TMN chuNn. c bit n chuyn i mt giao tip khng chuNn thnh lp chuNn Qx hay Q3. B thch nghi Q c th lm vic trong hai trng hp: gia mt mng thng thng vi mt OS ca TMN (hnh a); v, gia mt mng thng thng vi lp trn ca mt OS trong TMN (hnh b).

Cu hnh vt l b thch nghi Q c th khc nhau trn tng h thng. Ba cu hnh thng dng nht trong hnh v di y.

II.3.4 Mng giao tip d liu (DCN) Mng giao tip d liu DCN trong TMN thi hnh chc nng trao i d liu (DCF), cung cp kt ni gia cc nt TMN. DCN buc phi s dng k thut chuyn mch gi trong PSTN, LAN hay ng d liu ring. Trong thc t thi hnh, DCN cng l mt mng s dng ng truyn chia x vi cc mng khc.Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut My tnh v Mng Khoa Cng ngh thng tin i hc Thy li 12 / 19

Bi 2. M hnh qun l mng vin thng

II.3.5 Phn t mng (NE) L cc thit b thi hnh chuyn mch, truyn dn vi chc nng NEF. Hu ht cc thit b u c kh nng chu li cao, kh nng theo di tnh cc v thng bo li. Mt phn t mng rt c th cn c tch hp thm mt s chc nng khc trong kin trc chc nng, cng c th c vai tr ca OSF (phn tn) v WSF ngi dng truy cp. Phn t mng c th c giao tip kiu X hoc kiu F hoc c hai. II.3.6 Trm lm vic (WS) WS c th coi nh thit b u cui ca TMN, n ni vi OS hoc MD. Mt WS phi c giao tip kiu F.

II.4 Cc kiu giao tip chu n trong TMNTMN nh ngha 3 kiu giao tip chuNn, X, Q v F. Tng kiu u c hai kha cnh ring l m hnh thng tin v b giao thc lin lc. II.4.1 Giao tip X - Giao tip X chuyn dng kt ni hai TMN hoc kt ni TMN vi phi-TMN. Giao tip X ch c vi m hnh thng tin, ch yu kim sot v tnh cc. - B giao thc ch yu dng trong kiu X l Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) II.4.2 Giao tip F Dng cho ngi dng truy xut vo h thng qun l TMN v thi hnh cc lnh qun l cn thit. M hnh thng tin ch yu l giao din GUI. Giao thc ch yu l client/server CORBA trn nn cc ng dng Web.

II.4.3 Giao tip Q Giao tip Q lm vic cc im truy xut q nh trong cc hnh v nu ra trong cc mc trn. thi hnh mt cch mm do, giao tip Q tip tc c chia nh: Q3 v Qx

a. Giao tip Q3

Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut My tnh v Mng Khoa Cng ngh thng tin i hc Thy li

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Bi 2. M hnh qun l mng vin thng

y l loi giao tip ch yu ca TMN s dng gia h iu hnh vi cc thnh phn mng, vi cc b thch nghi, vi cc MD hay vi cc OS khc nhau trong cng mt TMN. M hnh thng tin cho giao tip Q3 c nh ngha ring cho tng loi mng, CCS7, ATM, SONET, ISDN. B giao thc s dng cho Q3 cn c yu cu l truyn gi thng tin hai chiu (theo ITU-T Q.811 v Q.812), mm do h tr hu ht cc giao thc c giao tip d liu, c kt ni thng xuyn v khng thng xuyn. Mi giao thc Q3 gm hai phn. Mt phn thi hnh cc tng cao (4, 5, 6 7) v phn kia thi hnh tng thp (1,2 v 3) ca m hnh OSI. b. Giao tip Qx Giao tip Qx kt ni MD vi b thch nghi Q hay, MD vi cc phn t mng NE. M hnh thng tin ca Qx chnh l phn bit n vi Q3. Thng tin m Qx truyn ti c chia x gia MD vi cc phn t mng NE m n h tr (trong khi Q3: OS vi OS, OS vi MD). C th coi Qx l mt tp con ca Q3, chnh th, b giao thc m Qx s dng cng ging nh ca Q3.

II.4.4 Phng php giao tip Phng...