Tong Quan Ve Quan Ly Mang (5)

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<p>Bi 5. Theo di Mng t xa - RMON</p> <p>BI 5. THEO DI MNG T XA(RMON)</p> <p> Khi kt ni cc mng cc b thnh mng ln hn, rt cn c cc c ch cho nh qun l bit tng tn v cc nt mng. H thng theo di MIB t xa (RMON) cung cp cc tnh nng nh th. RMON l mt thnh phn b sung quan trng cho cc chuNn SNMP nhng khng lm thay i ni dung vn c ca cc chuNn ny. V bn cht, RMON l mt ch nh k thut c bit i vi MIB v c SNMP h tr. C hai phin bn RMON: RMON1 v RMON2 Cc chuNn lin quan ti RMONRFC Thi gian Tiu 1513 9/1993 M rng Token Ring truy xut theo di MIB t xa 1757 2/1995 Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base (RMON1) Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base, Version 2, s dng 2021 1/1997 SMIv2 (RMON 2) 2074 1/1997 Cc tn chuNn trong giao thc RMON</p> <p>I. Tng quan v RMONI.1 Cc nguyn tc c bn RMON l mt chc nng c bit ca MIB cng vi mt thc th qun l ng vai tr mt agent thu thp v qun l mt MIB (c h tr RMON, ni tt l RMON MIB). Thc th qun l ny thng tr trong NE, gi l remote monitor hoc probe, n theo di hiu nng v hot ng ca mt phn on mng gnh nng cho trm qun l v cc i din qun l khc. Ni cch khc, RMON da hon ton vo kin trc sn c ca SNMP, ch c mt s b sung duy nht l probe theo di t xa m n hoc l mt thit b mang chc nng ny, hoc l mt thit b c km theo chc nng ny. gim</p> <p>Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li</p> <p>Trang 1/23</p> <p>Bi 5. Theo di Mng t xa - RMON</p> <p>I.2 Mc tiu thit k RMON (RFC 1757) Hot ng ngoi tuyn: RMON MIB cho php cu hnh probe lin tc thu thp tnh hnh hot ng, li, d liu cu hnh c lp vi vic nh qun l c trc tip qun l thit b hay khng. (L do ???) Ch ng theo di: Nu probe c ti nguyn, n s c cu hnh lin tc kho st v nm bt tnh hnh hot ng vi mc tiu chnh xc v kp thi bo co tnh hnh cho thc th qun l. Pht hin v bo co: D lm vic trong ch th ng th probe vn c th c cu hnh nhn din tng tnh hung c th, nm bt hu ht cc s c v nghn. Ngay khi nhn din c vn , probe thc hin ghi chp v bo co. D liu gi tr gia tng: Probe c th c cu hnh phn tch, phn loi, t rt trch thng tin cn thit t d liu thu thp Phc v nhiu nh qun l: Mt probe c th c cu hnh phc v nhiu trm qun l. H thng h tr RMON bao gm: Mt trm qun l. Cc RMON probe, mi RMON probe gm: o Mt RMON MIB c th cho h thng RMON. o Mt agent I.3 Cu trc ca RMON MIB - RMON MIB bao gm mt tp hp cc nhm i tng. - Mi nhm i tng gm hai loi d liu: d liu iu khin v d liu thng k. - D liu iu khin ch ra: ra sao (HOW), v lc no (WHEN) th thu thp d liu thng k. - Cu trc ca d liu thng k c thu thp l ty thuc vo cch thit lp ca phng php thng k.Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li</p> <p>Trang 2/23</p> <p>Bi 5. Theo di Mng t xa - RMON</p> <p>- Hai loi d liu ny c th cng hoc khc bng vi nhau. - Nu bng c ct status, c ngha l bng ny cho php c, ghi, xa, to dng mi. Ct status c kiu d liu tng ng vi RowStatus trong SNMP SMIv2, nhng tp gi tr bao gm: +valid (1). Cho bit d liu ca dng tng ng l hp l. +createRequest (2). Cho bit i tng ang c to. Khi hon thin vic to i tng, gi tr ny s tr thnh underCreation hoc valid. +underCreation (3). Cho bit i tng ang c xy dng, thit lp, cp nht, d liu trong bng cha y hoc cha hp l. +invalid (4). Gi tr ny nh du tnh khng hp l ca dng d liu tng ng.Hnh v d</p> <p>Nu s dng hai bng, iu khin v d liu, ring bit th gia chng lun c thit lp quan h. C th tn ti trng hp mt dng ca bng iu khin c nh x ti nhiu dng trong bng d liu. V d, quan h gia mt giao tip mng vi mt host hoc nhiu host gn lin vi giao tip .</p> <p>II. Gii thiu RMON1:Phin bn u tin ra i nm 1991, tr thnh chuNn nm 1995.Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li Trang 3/23</p> <p>Bi 5. Theo di Mng t xa - RMON</p> <p>RMON MIB bao gm cc nhm i tng sau: Statistics: cc thng tin thng k v probe thng qua vic theo di mt giao tip Ethernet. History: nh k ghi li cc mu d liu thng k ly t nhm Statistics Alarm: cho php nh qun l thit lp cc ngng bo ng v khong thi gian thu thp d liu v hiu nng thi hnh. Host: cha d liu o m thng tin i v n cc host trong mng con. HostTopN: Cha d liu thng k v N host c sp xp theo th t; cu trc th t v ni dung sp xp do nh qun l ch ra. Matrix: trnh by d liu giao vn cho tng cp host trong mng con. Filter: Cho php probe quan st d liu giao vn mt cch c chn lc da theo tiu chuNn do trm qun l ra. Packet capture: chn bt d liu theo tiu chuNn ca trng filter. Event: ghi chp tt c cc s kin ti probe. II.1 Nhm Statistics: y l mt bng m mi dng cha m t v mt giao tip Ethernet. Thng tin iu khin v d liu c gp chung . Cc i tng d liu thuc nhm ny cung cp mt cch nhn tng qut v tng trng thi kt ni ethernet vi tng RMON probe. Cc tham s trong bng ny gm: + etherStatsIndex. Ch s hng, nguyn, mi hng theo di mt giao tip Ethernet ca thit b. + etherStatsDataSource. Nhn dng giao tip m dng ny ang qun l. + etherStatsDropEvents. S lng s kin khin RMON probe phi hy b gi tin do thiu ti nguyn cn thit. + etherStatsOctets. S octet d liu trong cc gi tin hng nhn. + etherStatsPkts. S gi d liu nhn (tt c). + etherStatsBroadcastPkts. S gi broadcast hp l nhn c. + etherStatsMulticastPkts. S gi multicast hp l nhn c.</p> <p>Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li</p> <p>Trang 4/23</p> <p>Bi 5. Theo di Mng t xa - RMON</p> <p>+ etherStatsCRCAlignErrors. S gi tin c chiu di t 64 n 1518 octet nhn c nhng pht hin trng CRC sai, hoc li khc. + etherStatsUndersizePkts. S gi d liu c chiu di nh hn 64 octet nhn c. + etherStatsOversizePkts. S gi d liu nhn c chiu di ln hn 1518 octet. + etherStatsFragments. S gi d liu ngn hn 64 octet nhng sai FCS hoc s bit khng chia ht cho 8 (tc, s octet khng nguyn, alignment error). + etherStatsJabbers. S gi tin nhn c c chiu di hn 1518 octet v sai FCS hoc s bit khng chia ht cho 8. + etherStatsCollisions. D on tng s ln va chm. + etherStatsPkts64Octets. Tng s gi tin 64 octet nhn (c s gi li). + etherStatsPkts65to127Octets. Tng s gi tin 65 octet n 127 octet nhn (c s gi li). + etherStatsPkts128to255Octets. Tng s gi tin 128 octet n 255 octet nhn (c s gi li). + etherStatsPkts256to511Octets. Tng s gi tin 128 octet n 511 octet nhn (c s gi li). + etherStatsPkts512to1023Octets. Tng s gi tin 512 octet n 1023 octet nhn (c s gi li). + etherStatsPkts1024to1518Octets. Tng s gi tin 1024 octet n 1518 octet nhn (c s gi li). + etherStatsOwner. Mt chui dng nhn din thc th s hu giao tip m dng ny qun l. + etherStatsStatus. Trng thi hot ng ca giao tip. II.2 Nhm History: Nhm ny gm 2 bng: bng iu khin v bng d liu. Bng iu khin:</p> <p>Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li</p> <p>Trang 5/23</p> <p>Bi 5. Theo di Mng t xa - RMON</p> <p>Mi dng trong bng iu khin theo di d liu iu khin mt giao tip mng ca probe, vi cc tham s sau: + historyControlIndex. Ch s duy nht, nguyn, phn bit dng. + historyControlDataSource. nh danh kiu OBJECT IDENTIFIER ch ra ngun gc d liu. + historyControlBucketsRequested. S nguyn, biu th khong thi gian ly mu d liu. + historyControlBucketsGranted. S nguyn biu din khong cch gia cc ln ly mu d liu. + historyControlInterval. Thi gian ly mu i vi tng bucket. + historyControlOwner. Mt chui nhn din thc th lin quan ti dng. + historyControlStatus. Trng thi ca dng Bng d liu Cha cc mu d liu v d liu truyn gi ca mt min mng con Ethernet rng vi mt khong thi gian ly mu c th v khong thi gian ny c ch ra trong bng iu khin. + etherHistoryIndex. Ch s nguyn phn bit cc dng trong bng cc d liu ly mu. + etherHistorySampleIndex. Ch s nguyn phn bit d liu ly mu ca dng ny lin quan ti dng no ca bng iu khin. + eitherHistoryIntervalStart. Gi tr sysUpTime, ch thi im bt u khong thi gian ly mu. + etherHistoryDropEvents. S lng s kin lm cho RMON probe phi hy b gi tin do thiu ti nguyn. + etherHistoryOctets. S octet d liu nhn c, k c trong cc gi tin hng. + etherHistoryPkts. S gi tin nhn trong thi gian ly mu, k c cc gi tin hng.</p> <p>Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li</p> <p>Trang 6/23</p> <p>Bi 5. Theo di Mng t xa - RMON</p> <p>+ etherHistoryBroadcastPkts. S gi tin broadcast c chp nhn trong khong thi gian ly mu. + etherHistoryMulticastPkts. S gi tin multicast packets c chp nhn trong khong thi gian ly mu. + etherHistoryCRCAlignErrors. S gi tin d liu nhn trong thi gian ly mu c chiu di t 64 n 1518 octet nhng c li CRC hoc li khc. + etherHistoryUndersizePkts. S gi tin d liu nhn trong thi gian ly mu c chiu di nh hn 64 octet. + etherHistoryOversizePkts. S gi d liu nhn trong thi gian ly mu, c chiu di ln hn 1518 octet. + etherHistoryFragments. S gi tin d liu nhn trong thi gian ly mu, c chiu di nh hn 64 octet nhng cha li FCS hay li khc. + etherHistoryJabbers. S gi tin d liu nhn trong thi gian ly mu, c chiu di ln hn 1518 octet, nhng cha li FCS hay li khc. +etherHistoryCollisions. c tnh s ln va chm xy ra (collision) trong phn on Ethernet trong khong thi gian ly mu. + etherHistoryUtilization. c tnh gi tr % trung bnh tt nht trong khong thi gian ly mu v s tn dng ca tng vt l trong giao tip ny. II.3. Nhm Alarm: Bao gm mt tp hp cc gii hn (ngng) m da vo pht sinh cc cnh bo v giao vn mng. traffic. Nguyn l lm vic: RMON probe nh k ly mu thng k v so snh vi cc ngng thit lp bi nh qun l. Nu mu t ti hoc vt gii hn, th mt cnh bo c sinh ra. RMON probe ch theo di c cc ngng c kiu primitive ASN.1 (INTEGER, Counter, Gauge, hay TimeTicks). Hai gi tr ngng c nh ngha gm: rising v falling. Bt c gi tr ca i tng ly mu no ri vo khong gia hai ngng ny u c coi l vi phm v gy ra bo ng.Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li Trang 7/23</p> <p>Bi 5. Theo di Mng t xa - RMON</p> <p>Nhm ny gm mt bng alarmTable, c cu hnh bi trm qun l thng qua ct status. Mi dng ca bng biu din mt bin cn theo di v cc tham s sau: + alarmIndex. Mt s nguyn phn bit vi cc dng trong bng alarm. + alarmInterval. Khong thi gian tnh bng giy m d liu ly mu c em so snh vi hai ngng rising v falling. + alarmVariable. Tn bin (kiu object identifier) cn ly mu. + alarmSampleType. Phng php ly mu: Hoc gi tr chnh xc, hoc dung sai. + alarmValue. Gi tr thng k trong ln ly mu trc. + alarmStartupAlarm. Cnh bo u tin c gi i khi dng ny chuyn trng thi (row status) thnh valid. + alarmRisingThreshold. Gi tr ngng thng k. + alarmFallingThreshold. Gi tr ngng thng k. + alarmRisingEventIndex. Ch s s kin trong bng s kin khi xy ra mt ngng rising. + alarmFallingEventIndex. Ch s s kin trong bng s kin khi xy ra mt ngng Falling. + alarmOwner. Thc th c trch nhim cu hnh bng. + alarmStatus. Trng thi ca dng trong bng.Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li Trang 8/23</p> <p>Bi 5. Theo di Mng t xa - RMON</p> <p>II.4 Nhm Host: Nhm ny phn nh cc host mi c b sung vo phn on do RMON probe theo di. Nhm ny kt hp vi mt danh sch a ch ngun v ch m chng c trch ra t cc gi tin c chp nhn. Vi mi cp a ch ny, nhm host s sn sinh mt tp thng k. Nhm gm 3 bng: + Bng iu khin host (host control). + Bng host (host), v + Bng theo di thi gian lm vic ca host (host time). Bng Host control theo di cc giao tip m t ni vi cc host mi c pht hin. Mi dng ca bng biu din mt giao tip mng ca probe, vi cc tham s nh sau: + hostControlIndex. Ch s dng phn bit vi cc dng khc. + hostControlDataSource. i tng nhn din ngun d liu bng host entry. Ngun c th l bt c giao tip no vi RMON probe. (Quan h) + hostControlTableSize. S lng dng d liu lin quan ti host trong bng host time. (Quan h). + hostControlLastDeleteTime. Thi gian h thng ch ra trong bin sysUpTime ca nhm system trong SNMP MIB, l thi im sau cng khi dng b xa khi bng host control. Gi tr zero ch ra rng khng c dng no b xa. + hostControlOwner. Thc th c ngha v cu hnh bng ny. + hostControlStatus. Trng thi ca dng. Bng host: mi a ch chim mt dng. Bng ny thc hin ch s ha theo a ch host v cha mt s d liu giao vn n v i khi host: + hostAddress. a ch vt l ca host.</p> <p>Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li</p> <p>Trang 9/23</p> <p>Bi 5. Theo di Mng t xa - RMON</p> <p>+ hostCreationOrder. Trt t quan h theo thi gian khi to host ny. Gi tr ny trong phm vi t 1 n N, vi N l gi tr ca hostControlTableSize trong bng host control. + hostIndex. Ch s ca tp d liu thng k v host. (quan h mt nhiu). Gi tr ca i tng ny ph hp vi hostControlIndex ca mt (hoc nhiu) trong s cc dng trong bng host control. + hostInPkts. S gi tin lin quan ti host truyn nhn thnh cng k t khi host c qun l bi bng host. + hostOutPkts. Tng s gi tin, k c cc gi hng, truyn bi host ny k t khi n c qun l bi bng host. + hostInOctets. Tng s gi tin c truyn ti host ny k t khi host c qun l bi bng host. + hostOutOctets. Tng s octet truyn bi host ny, tnh t khi n c qun l bi bng host. + hostOutErrors. S gi tin m host ny truyn hng k t khi host c qun l bi bng host. + hostOutBroadCastPkts. S gi tin mang a ch broadcast m host ny truyn ra c chp nhn, k t khi host c qun l bi bng host. + hostMultiCastPkts. S gi tin mang a ch multicast m host ny truyn ra c chp nhn, k t khi host c qun l bi bng host. Bng host time: c cha cng mt tp host, cng cch thc t chc, d liu v nh dng d liu nh bng host. Tuy nhin, bng ny li c ch s ha theo hostTimeCreationOrder, l trt t theo thi gian m cc host c pht hin ra bi probe (Bng host sp xp theo a ch host). Bng ny c s dng theo hai kha cnh quan trng. + Mt l, cho php download nhanh trong trng hp bng ny ln, bi v ch s ca bng ny t ng nh t 1 n N (N l kch thc ca bng), cho php ng gi cc bin thnh cc SNMP PDU v nh s tun t nhiu gi.</p> <p>Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li</p> <p>Trang 10/23</p> <p>Bi 5. Theo di Mng t xa - RMON</p> <p>+ Hai l, gip RMON probe d dng pht hin ra cc host mi (bng php so snh) so vi ln truy vn trc. + hostTimeAddress. a ch vt l ca host. + hostTimeCreationOrder. Trt t quan h theo thi gian khi to ca host. Gi tr ny gia 1 v N m N bng hostControlTableSize trong bng host control. + hostTimeIndex. Tp d liu thng k v host. Gi tr ca i tng ny phi ph hp vi vi gi tr hostControlIndex ca mt hoc nhiu dng trong bng host. + hostTimeInPkts. S gi tin truyn ti host c chp nhn, k t khi n c qun l bi bng host. + hostTimeOutPkts. S gi tin, k c gi tin hng, m host ny truyn ra k t khi c qun l bi bng host. + hostTimeInOctets. S octet truyn ti a ch host ny, k t khi c bng host qun l. + hostTimeOutOctets. S octet m host ny truyn ra tnh t khi n c qun l trong bng host. + hostTimeOutErrors. S gi tin ca host ny truyn ra b hng, tnh t khi host c qun l bi bng host. + hostTimeOutBroadCastPkts. S gi tin mang a ch broadcast m host ny truyn ra c chp nhn, k t khi n c qun l bi bng host. + hostTimeMultiCastPkts. S gi tin mang a ch multicast m ht ny truyn ra v c chp nhn, k t khi n c qun l bi bng host.</p> <p>II. 5 Nhm HostTopN: Nhm hostTopN c dng khi chuNn b cc bo co thng k m t v N host u tin theo trnh t ch ra bi trm qun l. Bo co l mt tp hp cc thng tin thng k v mt nhm i tng mt host c theo di t mt giao tip no . Cc thng tin ny c thu thp trong mt khong thi gian nht nh.Nguyn Nam Hng B mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li Trang 11/23</p> <p>Bi 5. Theo di Mng t xa - RMON</p> <p>Nhm ny rt trch cc thng tin bo co da theo nhm host. Nhm hostTopN gm 2 bng: bng iu khin v bng d liu. Bng iu khin: mi dng trnh by mt bo co v mt host thuc top-N chuNn b, vi cc tham s sau: + hostTopNControlIndex. Ch s phn bit dng trong bng. + hostTopNHostIndex. Ch s lin kt vi bng host. + hostTopNRateBase. Ch ra mt trong 7 bin ca bng host c dng lm tham s thng k cho bo co hostTopNRate. + hostTopNTimeRemaining. S giy cn li ca thi gian ly mu khi bo co ny c chuNn b. + hostTopNDuration. Khong thi gian ly mu, tnh bng giy, thc hin bo co hostTopN ny. + hostTopNRequestedSize. S host ti a yu cu bo co. + hostTopNGrant...</p>