Tong Quan Ve Quan Ly Mang (6)

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  • 8/6/2019 Tong Quan Ve Quan Ly Mang (6)

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    Bi 6. T chc qun l cc h thng mng qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam HngB mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li

    Trang 1/14

    BI 6. T CHC QUN L CC H THNG MNGQUN L MNG

    Mc ch:

    + Cc yu cu trong qun l mng.

    + Gii thiu mt s m hnh h thng qun l nh: qun l m, qun l phn tn, qun l trong

    bng v ngoi bng.

    + Cc quan im v cch tip cn trong qun l mng.

    I. T VN :

    - Nhu cu pht trin a ngnh, a nng, a thng tin.

    - Tc pht trin mng: sa dng cng ngh phn cng, a dng cng ngh truyn

    dn, a dng nhu cu s dng.

    - Ton cu ha mi mt: Xu hng m.

    - Xu hng tn cng h thng thng tin ngy cng tinh vi, v din ra mi lc, mi ni

    - Bn cnh l yu cu cn i gia yu tu t ni b v nhu cu thng tin cho hot

    ng v pht trin.

    Cc vn ny tt dn n s pht trin ca mt h thng qun l c bit m h

    thng ny hoc c cc knh giao tip ring, hoc s dng chnh cc knh truyn thng tinngi dng, m nhn, nh qun l c th tip cn gn hn, tin li hn ti cc thng tin

    ngoi l m c th l: thng tin cu trc mng, thng tin giao vn mng, theo di hiu

    nng thit b chng vn l nhng thng tin m ngi dng mng khng trc tip quan

    tm. Vi ngi dng mng, iu ct yu vi mng l tnh mnh, tnh p ng nhanh, tnh

    ring t, tnh phc hi, tnh d phng v gi c dch v.

    Mc ch ca cc nh qun l l s dng cc thng tin mng kp thi hiu

    chnh (tng cng, tit kim) thng nng, b sung cc phng php an ninh, cc kt hp

    an ninh, cung cp cho ngi dng ng truyn mt cch hp l da trn tha thun, v

    bo mt.

    V bn cht, mt mng li qun l mng vin thng (TMN) cng c quy m a

    l khng nh hn chnh mng m n qun l. Theo , vic xy dng ring mt mng

    TMN thng da trn h thng sn c. Tuy nhin, m hnh ca TMN c th khc nhiu

    so vi cu hnh LAN hay WAN. Vn kh khn m TMN thng phi vt qua

    chnh l vic trao i thng tin gia cc thit b mng vt ra ngoi t chc mng con.

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    Bi 6. T chc qun l cc h thng mng qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam HngB mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li

    Trang 2/14

    iu ny khin TMN phi i mt vi cc giao thc c mt trong cc router. gii

    quyt, TMN cn c mt giao tip ring (interface) vi cc router. Tuy nhin cn nh

    rng, c rt nhiu cng ngh mng hay giao thc mng, chng khc nhau c php, ng

    ngha v nh thi. Mt h thng TMN rng ln cn phi c kh nng giao tip vi tt c

    cc giao thc ny. iu ny c ngha rng, giao tip ca TMN vi router nht thit phi

    hm cha cc thnh phn giao tip chc nng v chng thay nhau hot ng vo lc cn

    thit (instance).

    Chng ta r v m hnh phn tng (layering model). Trong m hnh ny, tng

    trn lin lc vi tng di bng cc giao tip thng qua cc cng hay cc SAP; ngc li,

    tng di phc v tng trn thng qua cc dch v. n lt n, cc dch v cng cnphi c a dng ha di dng cc lp dch v (class) ca cu trc lp trnh, phng

    php ng x thc s l thng qua vic k tha cc phng thc (method) vi cc tnh

    cht (property) c th.

    Cng trong m hnh phn tng, hai thc th c th cng trao i, lin lc th

    chng phi c cc tng tng ng v tng A thc th ny giao tip vi tng A thc th

    kia bng giao thc.

    ng i gia hai thc th A v B mun giao tip vi nhau thng phi qua cc

    h thng trung gian m kh nng ca chng l chuyn i giao tip thnh dng ny hay

    dng khc. Ty c mt i hi bo m tnh mnh ca thit b l s cn nhc v

    mt giao tip ni v giao tip ngoi. Giao tip ni l giao tip ni ti ca thit b; giao

    tip ngoi l giao tip ca thit b vi bn ngoi. Giao tip ni thng nhanh hn nhiu

    ln v l cc giao tip phn cng. Giao tip ngoi thng phi c mt cc cng giao

    tip ca thit b trung gian vi bn ngoi.

    Cc bin ng trong h thng mng gy ra bi mi trng hay chnh con ngi l

    thng xuyn khin cho hiu nng mng suy bin, c khi n mc nghim trng. Nhqun l nu mun c c mt h thng mnh cn phi xy dng c cc phng n d

    phng hp l v kch hot h thng d phng mt cch kp thi. Thng th cc phng

    n d phng phi da trn iu kin sn c ca h thng cng nh cc h thng d

    phng. Tuy nhin, h thng d phng li ph thuc vo nhiu yu t, trong , yu t ti

    chnh l vn cn nhc u tin.

    Vic nng cp h thng mng din ra thng xuyn, lin tc. iu ny cng ng

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    Bi 6. T chc qun l cc h thng mng qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam HngB mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li

    Trang 3/14

    ngha vi thch thc rng cc giao tip TMN trang b c cn tng thch hay khng?

    Nh tht ra cho cc nh pht trin TMN nhim v bo tr v nng cp chnh cc giao

    tip ca mnh, cu trc thng tin TMN v c m hnh hot ng.

    Nhng phn tch trn y cho thy, c c y thng tin, nh qun l phi

    c:

    - Mt h thng thng sut, nhanh v ng n.- Thng tin phi c cp nht.- Bin php gim thiu thi gian tr ca thng tin.- Kh nng giao tip vi tt c cc thit b mng.- Kh nng iu tit hot ng ca thit b.- Kh nng nm bt kp thi cc s kin bt thng.

    II. YU CU QUN L MNG

    Nghin cu m hnh h thng TMN cho ta bit:

    - Mt s thit bng vai tr qun l (manager) .- Mt s ln thit bng vai tr i din (agent).Kt hp vi kin trc phn tng, ta thy rng tr cc terminal, thit b mng no

    cng ng vai tr agent khi n qun l chnh n. Nu n qun l mng con, th bn thn

    n cng phi l mt manager.

    Mi thit b, thng phi c giao tip vi ngi dng. Cng c ngha l thit b

    ny phi c kh nng chng thc, cp quyn v rt c th c theo di ngi dng (tnh

    cc, bo mt).

    T, yu cu qun l mng c chia thnh hai nhm:

    - Nhm yu cu thng tin tc nghip- Nhm yu cu ca ngi dng

    II.1 Nhm thng tin chc nng p ng lp trn

    p ng qun l lp trn l nhm yu cu ca nh qun l dnh cho tc nghip h

    thng qun l nhm tng cng cht lng v hiu qu ton h thng.

    C rt nhiu quan im khc nhau v m hnh qun l nhng u thng nht

    cc chc nng qun l ba lp trn gm gim st, iu khin v bo co.

    Gim st: lin tc thu thp thng tin v trng thi ca ti nguyn thng

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    Bi 6. T chc qun l cc h thng mng qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam HngB mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li

    Trang 4/14

    qua cc s kin; pht cc cnh bo khi cc tham st v vt ngng.

    iu khin: thi hnh chnh xc cc thit lp yu cu ca ngi qun l,ca chng trnh qun l, bo m thu hi cp pht, b sung d phng cc

    ti nguyn mt cch hiu qu. Vic iu khin c th s dn n thay i

    trng thi, thay i cu hnh. iu khin thng c lp thnh cc kch

    bn (k hoch, hay quy trnh vn hnh.

    Bo co: t cc thng tin c thu thp, xy dng cc bo co v hin thdi dng chuNn (GUIU hoc non-GUI) gip ngi c d dng nhn bit

    cc mi quan h v tnh trng cn thit.

    Ngoi ra, m hnh nhm c th cn c thm mt s chc nng khc gm: chinlc d phng, chin lc tng ha.

    II.2. Cc yu cu qun l ca ngi dng

    Cc yu cu qun l ca ngi s dng c a ra di y da trn quan im

    ca ngi s dng v qun l. Bao gm:

    Kh nng gim st v iu khin mng cng nh cc thnh phn ca hthng my tnh tu cui n u cui.

    C th truy nhp v cu hnh li t xa cc ti nguyn c qun l.

    D dng trong vic ci t, vn hnh v bo dng h thng qun l cngnh cc ng dng ca n.

    Bo mt hot ng qun l v truy nhp ca ngi s dng, bo mttruyn thng cc thng tin qun l.

    C kh nng a ra cc bo co y v r ngha v cc thng tin qunl.

    Qun l theo thi gian thc v hot ng qun l hng ngy c thchin mt cch tng.

    Mm do trong vic nng cp h thng v c kh nng tng thch vinhiu cng ngh khc nhau.

    C kh nng lu tr v khi phc cc thng tin qun l.

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    Bi 6. T chc qun l cc h thng mng qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam HngB mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li

    Trang 5/14

    III. QUAN IM TIP CN CNG NGH QUN L MNG

    III.1 Nhn din h thng

    H thng qun l mng c m hnh n gin da trn quan h qun l gia mt

    bn l Ch thqun lvi tng qun l. M trong :

    Qun l(hay hnh ng qun l) l mi tng tc qua li gia: thc th (ch th)

    qun l v thc th b qun l (i tng).

    Thc thqun l(manager) c c trng bi h thng gm nn Platform v/hoc

    cc ng dng.

    Thc thb qun l(agent) c trng bi cc ti nguyn do thc th qun l gim

    st, iu khin.

    Ban u, cc thit b cha c h trqun l. gio tip vi chng cn c mt

    qu trnh chuyn i trung gian gia hai thc th ny. Chnh thit b trung gian mi qun

    l thit b. V cng chnh thit b trung gian tr thnh thc th b qun l bi thc th

    qun l.

    Ty, thc s r nt v quan h manager v agent.

    III.2 Quan im qun l Manager Agent

    mc n gin, cng ging mt h thng iu hnh trong mt t chc x hi,

    quan im qun l Manager Agent tun th m hnh Request Response, c thc

    hin bng lnh v bo co. Vn cn li l mi quan h gia hai thc th, da trn

    chnh sch truy vn/bo co, hay cn gi poll/report nh c ng dng trong cc

    phin bn SNMP.

    Mt manager qun l mt hay mt s Agent.

    Mt Agent qun l thay manager mt hay mt s thit b.

    Khi mng d liu pht trin v hnh thi (topo) v s lng thit b (NE), gnh

    nng qun l ngy cng tng i vi c manager v agent. Quy m mng mrng, nguy

    Thc thqun l

    Thc th bqun l

    Thc thqun l

    Thit btrung gian

    Thc th bqun l

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    Bi 6. T chc qun l cc h thng mng qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam HngB mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li

    Trang 6/14

    cgp s c cng ln, thi gian x l s c cng di, v hu qu li cng ng k,

    quan im qun l chuyn sang mt hnh thc khc, phn vng qun l.

    III.2 Phn vng qun lNh c cp n s mrng khng ngng ca mng, qun l thay i

    rt nhiu.

    Trc ht, cn tch ri quan im qun l mng vi qun l h thng kt ni cc

    my tnh. Vic ny dn ti hai min qun l ti nguyn: vt l v logic.

    Qun l mng

    Qun l h. thng

    Qun l ng dng

    Qun l CSDL

    Qun l cc chuNn mng

    Hosts WSs PCs

    Applications Applications

    Disks Tapes

    Cc Header U_Data Segment (PDU)

    Tinguynlogic

    Tinguynvt l

    DCN

    Thc thqun l

    Thc th b qun l

    Agent Ti nguyn itng qun l

    Request

    Response

    Polling

    Report

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    Bi 6. T chc qun l cc h thng mng qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam HngB mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li

    Trang 7/14

    Ti nguyn vt l l cc b phn phn cng tham gia vo qu trnh trao i thng

    tin ca h thng mng vin thng v mng truyn s liu, bao gm b vi x l, thi gian

    x l, b nh, thit b vo/ra, dung lng, s lng thit b lu tr, mc tr, bin i thi

    gian tr, bng thng.... Min qun l ny c gi l qun l mng (network

    management).

    Ti nguyn logic bao gm qun l cc ng dng v qun l cc c sd liu,

    dch v, ngi dng, qun l giao vn (lung), qun l truy xut v an ninh

    Ngoi ra, cn c mt min c lp khc m n c thc xp vo cc ngun ti

    nguyn logic c bit: cc giao thc chuNn trong truyn thng. V d nh cc giao thc

    phn lp, cc dch v phn lp, cc dch v qun l gn km. Kiu qun l ny c ngdng qun l cc giao din ca cc cng nghc bit nh ATM, SONET v WDM

    di hnh thc cc knh thng tin gn kt hay cc thc th qun l lp LME (Layer

    Managemnt Entities) i cng. Khi nim v kiu qun l ny c a ra trong m

    hnh tham chiu csOSI, thit lp nn kin trc v qun l phn cp chuNn ho.

    III.3. M hnh quan h Manager-agent

    Khi xy dng cc h thng qun l, c rt nhiu kha cnh, vn cn phi quan

    tm. Bn cnh m hnh truyn thng Manager-Agent cn c rt nhiu m hnh khc c

    s dng kt hp cng vi mi quan h gia manager v cc agent. l m hnh kin

    trc, m hnh t chc, m hnh chc nng v m hnh thng tin.

    M hnh kin trc s dng thit k, cu trc cc thnh phn tham gia vo tin

    trnh qun l. iu ny c ngha l manager hay cc manager v cc agent cung cp cc

    thng tin qun l thng qua kin trc mng. Manager c thc thit k nh l mt c

    squn l bao gm mt ccu qun l v mt b cc ng dng qun l cung cp cc

    chc nng qun l thc s nh qun l cu hnh, qun l li v qun l hiu nng.

    M hnh vn hnh nh ra giao din ca ngi s dng vi h thng qun l trong

    ch r trng thi cng nh kiu nh dng ca cc tng tc ti ngi s dng nh

    iu khin cc i tng c qun l, hin th v tm kim cc s kin, cc bn tin hay

    bo ng vi ngi iu hnh trong trng hp cnh bo nghim trng. Phn ln cc c im

    ca hot ng iu hnh qun l ny u c trong cc ch tiu k thut ca h thng in trong cc

    ti liu hng dn s dng.

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    Bi 6. T chc qun l cc h thng mng qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam HngB mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li

    Trang 8/14

    M hnh chc nng nh ra cu trc ca cc chc nng qun l gip cho h thngqun l thc hin cc ng dng qun l. M hnh chc nng c cu trc phn lp. Cc

    chc nng cbn trong m hnh ny l qun l cu hnh, qun l hiu nng, qun l li,

    bo mt v thng k.

    Ngoi ra trong cc chc nng cbn ny cn tch hp mt vi chc nng khc

    nh chc nng to phiu bo li, trgip trc tuyn, hot ng gip / d phng, lp k

    hoch lu lng... cc lp bc cao trong m hnh chc nng u l cc ng dng thc

    hin cc chc nng phc hp nh tng quan cc s kin/ cnh bo, cc h thng chuyn

    gia v qun l tng.

    M hnh t chc lin quan cht chn cc chnh sch qun l v th tc vn

    hnh. M hnh ny s xc nh cc min qun l, s phn chia quyn iu hnh cng nh

    quyn truy nhp ca ngi s dng vo h thng qun l cng nh h thng qun l

    mng khch hng. M hnh ny cng cung cp kh nng trao i vai tr gia cc

    manager v cc agent cng nh s hp tc ton cc gia manager ny vi cc manager

    khc hay vi cc ng dng qun l.

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    Bi 6. T chc qun l cc h thng mng qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam HngB mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li

    Trang 10/14

    M hnh h thng mcng c p dng cho cc h thng qun l hay ni cch

    khc l cho cc manager v cc agent. Trong trng hp ny cc ng dng s l cc ng

    dng qun l chuyn bit cung cp cc yu cu qun l (li, cu hnh, hiu nng, bo mt

    v ngi dng).

    C squn l bao gm ccu t chc qun l v c s tnh ton. Cc dch v

    qun l chuyn ho bao gm cc dch v qun l s kin, cc dch v truyn thng, cc dch v

    cung cp giao din ho cho ngi s dng v cc dch v v csd liu.

    Thnh phn cbn ca cc h thng m l cc API cho php pht trin cc ng

    dng qun l da trn cc dch v chuyn bit. Cc csqun l l cc thc thc lp

    nhng khng tch bit, giao tip vi cc agent v vi cc h thng qun l khc. Cc giao

    din bn ngoi l cc giao din chuNn ho xc nh cc hot ng, cc dch v v cc giao

    thc qun l

    IV.2. Cc yu cu i vi h thng qun l m

    C bn yu cu m tc im ca cc h thng mcng nh cc h thng qun

    l m. l: kh dng, kh nng hot ng lin kt, kh nng di ng v kh nng

    phn cp.

    kh dng biu th kh nng d dng ci t, vn hnh v bo dng camt h thng qun l. N cng bao hm cn nh v hiu nng cao.

    Kh nng hot ng lin kt th hin kh nng trao i thng tin qun l mtcch trong sut gia c squn l vi cc agent b qun l hay gia cc h

    thng qun l ngang hng.

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    Bi 6. T chc qun l cc h thng mng qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam HngB mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li

    Trang 11/14

    Kh nng di chuyn din t sn nh ca csqun l hay cc ng dngca cc h thng qun l khi b thay i mi trng (cstnh ton) hay ni

    cch khc, csqun l hay cc ng dng ca cc h thng qun l khng b

    thay i hay s thay i l ti thiu.

    Kh nng nng cp l kh nng h thng c th nng cp, m rng phm viqun l, phm vi ngi s dng, cc chc nng qun l m khng lm thay

    i thit k ban u.

    V. H THNG QUN L PHN TN

    Mt h thng (n x l hay a x l) c coi l mt h thng t tr nu cc qu

    trnh x l trong h thng cng chia s b nh. Tri ngc li, h thng phn tn l h

    thng bao gm cc h thng t trc lin kt li vi nhau m khng c s chia s b

    nh.

    Phn ln cc h thng my tnh, mng vin thng, mng truyn s liu l phn

    tn. Chng lin kt li vi nhau trong mt mng truyn thng truyn ti thng tin hay

    cc bn tin phc v cho mt mc ch truyn thng no . Qun l mng c ngha l

    qun l cc ti nguyn mng v h thng my tnh a dng m phn ln l tch bit nhau

    v mt vt l. Chnh v vy, bn cht ca h thng qun l mng l phn tn.

    V.1. Kin trc h thng qun l phn tn

    Thc cht ca h thng qun l l tp trung hay phn tn khng ch xc nh bi

    s phn tn vt l ca phn t (manager v agent) m cn xc nh bi s tp trung cng

    nh qu trnh x l thng tin qun l.

    Nu mt h thng c thit k thu thp tt c cc thng tin qun l t tt c

    cc agent (thit lp nn min qun l) v mt im, ngi ta s coi l h thng qun l

    tp trung. Nu s thu thp thng tin qun l phi tin hnh qua mt vi qu trnh x l

    lin kt vi nhau v thng tin ny c lu d trong cc csd liu phn tn th ngi

    ta coi l h thng qun l phn tn.

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    Bi 6. T chc qun l cc h thng mng qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam HngB mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li

    Trang 12/14

    Trong h thng qun l phn tn ch thc, c rt nhiu ngi s dng hay ni

    cch khc l ngi iu hnh mng, tt cu c coi l cc client qun l, truy nhp

    vo cc server qun l thng qua cc mng cc b hay mng din rng. Cc manager s

    iu khin cc ng dng qun l, c nm gi bi mt MIB no trong mt min

    qun l ring bit. Mi mt manager chm nhim mt s lng agent c th trong

    min qun l ca n.

    i vi kin trc qun l phn tn thc s, cc server (hay manager) c th trao

    i thng tin qun l vi nhau, ging b thng tin MIB c chia s, tip tc minqun l ca manager...