Tong Quan Ve Quan Ly Mang (6)

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  • 8/6/2019 Tong Quan Ve Quan Ly Mang (6)

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    Bi 6. T chc qun l cc h thng mng qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam HngB mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li

    Trang 1/14

    BI 6. T CHC QUN L CC H THNG MNGQUN L MNG

    Mc ch:

    + Cc yu cu trong qun l mng.

    + Gii thiu mt s m hnh h thng qun l nh: qun l m, qun l phn tn, qun l trong

    bng v ngoi bng.

    + Cc quan im v cch tip cn trong qun l mng.

    I. T VN :

    - Nhu cu pht trin a ngnh, a nng, a thng tin.

    - Tc pht trin mng: sa dng cng ngh phn cng, a dng cng ngh truyn

    dn, a dng nhu cu s dng.

    - Ton cu ha mi mt: Xu hng m.

    - Xu hng tn cng h thng thng tin ngy cng tinh vi, v din ra mi lc, mi ni

    - Bn cnh l yu cu cn i gia yu tu t ni b v nhu cu thng tin cho hot

    ng v pht trin.

    Cc vn ny tt dn n s pht trin ca mt h thng qun l c bit m h

    thng ny hoc c cc knh giao tip ring, hoc s dng chnh cc knh truyn thng tinngi dng, m nhn, nh qun l c th tip cn gn hn, tin li hn ti cc thng tin

    ngoi l m c th l: thng tin cu trc mng, thng tin giao vn mng, theo di hiu

    nng thit b chng vn l nhng thng tin m ngi dng mng khng trc tip quan

    tm. Vi ngi dng mng, iu ct yu vi mng l tnh mnh, tnh p ng nhanh, tnh

    ring t, tnh phc hi, tnh d phng v gi c dch v.

    Mc ch ca cc nh qun l l s dng cc thng tin mng kp thi hiu

    chnh (tng cng, tit kim) thng nng, b sung cc phng php an ninh, cc kt hp

    an ninh, cung cp cho ngi dng ng truyn mt cch hp l da trn tha thun, v

    bo mt.

    V bn cht, mt mng li qun l mng vin thng (TMN) cng c quy m a

    l khng nh hn chnh mng m n qun l. Theo , vic xy dng ring mt mng

    TMN thng da trn h thng sn c. Tuy nhin, m hnh ca TMN c th khc nhiu

    so vi cu hnh LAN hay WAN. Vn kh khn m TMN thng phi vt qua

    chnh l vic trao i thng tin gia cc thit b mng vt ra ngoi t chc mng con.

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    Bi 6. T chc qun l cc h thng mng qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam HngB mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li

    Trang 2/14

    iu ny khin TMN phi i mt vi cc giao thc c mt trong cc router. gii

    quyt, TMN cn c mt giao tip ring (interface) vi cc router. Tuy nhin cn nh

    rng, c rt nhiu cng ngh mng hay giao thc mng, chng khc nhau c php, ng

    ngha v nh thi. Mt h thng TMN rng ln cn phi c kh nng giao tip vi tt c

    cc giao thc ny. iu ny c ngha rng, giao tip ca TMN vi router nht thit phi

    hm cha cc thnh phn giao tip chc nng v chng thay nhau hot ng vo lc cn

    thit (instance).

    Chng ta r v m hnh phn tng (layering model). Trong m hnh ny, tng

    trn lin lc vi tng di bng cc giao tip thng qua cc cng hay cc SAP; ngc li,

    tng di phc v tng trn thng qua cc dch v. n lt n, cc dch v cng cnphi c a dng ha di dng cc lp dch v (class) ca cu trc lp trnh, phng

    php ng x thc s l thng qua vic k tha cc phng thc (method) vi cc tnh

    cht (property) c th.

    Cng trong m hnh phn tng, hai thc th c th cng trao i, lin lc th

    chng phi c cc tng tng ng v tng A thc th ny giao tip vi tng A thc th

    kia bng giao thc.

    ng i gia hai thc th A v B mun giao tip vi nhau thng phi qua cc

    h thng trung gian m kh nng ca chng l chuyn i giao tip thnh dng ny hay

    dng khc. Ty c mt i hi bo m tnh mnh ca thit b l s cn nhc v

    mt giao tip ni v giao tip ngoi. Giao tip ni l giao tip ni ti ca thit b; giao

    tip ngoi l giao tip ca thit b vi bn ngoi. Giao tip ni thng nhanh hn nhiu

    ln v l cc giao tip phn cng. Giao tip ngoi thng phi c mt cc cng giao

    tip ca thit b trung gian vi bn ngoi.

    Cc bin ng trong h thng mng gy ra bi mi trng hay chnh con ngi l

    thng xuyn khin cho hiu nng mng suy bin, c khi n mc nghim trng. Nhqun l nu mun c c mt h thng mnh cn phi xy dng c cc phng n d

    phng hp l v kch hot h thng d phng mt cch kp thi. Thng th cc phng

    n d phng phi da trn iu kin sn c ca h thng cng nh cc h thng d

    phng. Tuy nhin, h thng d phng li ph thuc vo nhiu yu t, trong , yu t ti

    chnh l vn cn nhc u tin.

    Vic nng cp h thng mng din ra thng xuyn, lin tc. iu ny cng ng

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    Bi 6. T chc qun l cc h thng mng qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam HngB mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li

    Trang 3/14

    ngha vi thch thc rng cc giao tip TMN trang b c cn tng thch hay khng?

    Nh tht ra cho cc nh pht trin TMN nhim v bo tr v nng cp chnh cc giao

    tip ca mnh, cu trc thng tin TMN v c m hnh hot ng.

    Nhng phn tch trn y cho thy, c c y thng tin, nh qun l phi

    c:

    - Mt h thng thng sut, nhanh v ng n.- Thng tin phi c cp nht.- Bin php gim thiu thi gian tr ca thng tin.- Kh nng giao tip vi tt c cc thit b mng.- Kh nng iu tit hot ng ca thit b.- Kh nng nm bt kp thi cc s kin bt thng.

    II. YU CU QUN L MNG

    Nghin cu m hnh h thng TMN cho ta bit:

    - Mt s thit bng vai tr qun l (manager) .- Mt s ln thit bng vai tr i din (agent).Kt hp vi kin trc phn tng, ta thy rng tr cc terminal, thit b mng no

    cng ng vai tr agent khi n qun l chnh n. Nu n qun l mng con, th bn thn

    n cng phi l mt manager.

    Mi thit b, thng phi c giao tip vi ngi dng. Cng c ngha l thit b

    ny phi c kh nng chng thc, cp quyn v rt c th c theo di ngi dng (tnh

    cc, bo mt).

    T, yu cu qun l mng c chia thnh hai nhm:

    - Nhm yu cu thng tin tc nghip- Nhm yu cu ca ngi dng

    II.1 Nhm thng tin chc nng p ng lp trn

    p ng qun l lp trn l nhm yu cu ca nh qun l dnh cho tc nghip h

    thng qun l nhm tng cng cht lng v hiu qu ton h thng.

    C rt nhiu quan im khc nhau v m hnh qun l nhng u thng nht

    cc chc nng qun l ba lp trn gm gim st, iu khin v bo co.

    Gim st: lin tc thu thp thng tin v trng thi ca ti nguyn thng

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    Bi 6. T chc qun l cc h thng mng qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam HngB mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li

    Trang 4/14

    qua cc s kin; pht cc cnh bo khi cc tham st v vt ngng.

    iu khin: thi hnh chnh xc cc thit lp yu cu ca ngi qun l,ca chng trnh qun l, bo m thu hi cp pht, b sung d phng cc

    ti nguyn mt cch hiu qu. Vic iu khin c th s dn n thay i

    trng thi, thay i cu hnh. iu khin thng c lp thnh cc kch

    bn (k hoch, hay quy trnh vn hnh.

    Bo co: t cc thng tin c thu thp, xy dng cc bo co v hin thdi dng chuNn (GUIU hoc non-GUI) gip ngi c d dng nhn bit

    cc mi quan h v tnh trng cn thit.

    Ngoi ra, m hnh nhm c th cn c thm mt s chc nng khc gm: chinlc d phng, chin lc tng ha.

    II.2. Cc yu cu qun l ca ngi dng

    Cc yu cu qun l ca ngi s dng c a ra di y da trn quan im

    ca ngi s dng v qun l. Bao gm:

    Kh nng gim st v iu khin mng cng nh cc thnh phn ca hthng my tnh tu cui n u cui.

    C th truy nhp v cu hnh li t xa cc ti nguyn c qun l.

    D dng trong vic ci t, vn hnh v bo dng h thng qun l cngnh cc ng dng ca n.

    Bo mt hot ng qun l v truy nhp ca ngi s dng, bo mttruyn thng cc thng tin qun l.

    C kh nng a ra cc bo co y v r ngha v cc thng tin qunl.

    Qun l theo thi gian thc v hot ng qun l hng ngy c thchin mt cch tng.

    Mm do trong vic nng cp h thng v c kh nng tng thch vinhiu cng ngh khc nhau.

    C kh nng lu tr v khi phc cc thng tin qun l.

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    Bi 6. T chc qun l cc h thng mng qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam HngB mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li

    Trang 5/14

    III. QUAN IM TIP CN CNG NGH QUN L MNG

    III.1 Nhn din h thng

    H thng qun l mng c m hnh n gin da trn quan h qun l gia mt

    bn l Ch thqun lvi tng qun l. M trong :

    Qun l(hay hnh ng qun l) l mi tng tc qua li gia: thc th (ch th)

    qun l v thc th b qun l (i tng).

    Thc thqun l(manager) c c trng bi h thng gm nn Platform v/hoc

    cc ng dng.

    Thc thb qun l(agent) c trng bi cc ti nguyn do thc th qun l gim

    st, iu khin.

    Ban u, cc thit b cha c h trqun l. gio tip vi chng cn c mt

    qu trnh chuyn i trung gian gia hai thc th ny. Chnh thit b trung gian mi qun

    l thit b. V cng chnh thit b trung gian tr thnh thc th b qun l bi thc th

    qun l.

    Ty, thc s r nt v quan h manager v agent.

    III.2 Quan im qun l Manager Agent

    mc n gin, cng ging mt h thng iu hnh trong mt t chc x hi,

    quan im qun l Manager Agent tun th m hnh Request Response, c thc

    hin bng lnh v bo co. Vn cn li l mi quan h gia hai thc th, da trn

    chnh sch truy vn/bo co, hay cn gi poll/report nh c ng dng trong cc

    phin bn SNMP.

    Mt manager qun l mt hay mt s Agent.

    Mt Agent qun l thay manager mt hay mt s thit b.

    Khi mng d liu pht trin v hnh thi (topo) v s lng thit b (NE), gnh

    nng qun l ngy cng tng i vi c manager v agent. Quy m mng mrng, nguy

    Thc thqun l

    Thc th bqun l

    Thc thqun l

    Thit btrung gian

    Thc th bqun l

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    Bi 6. T chc qun l cc h thng mng qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam HngB mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li

    Trang 6/14

    cgp s c cng ln, thi gian x l s c cng di, v hu qu li cng ng k,

    quan im qun l chuyn sang mt hnh thc khc, phn vng qun l.

    III.2 Phn vng qun lNh c cp n s mrng khng ngng ca mng, qun l thay i

    rt nhiu.

    Trc ht, cn tch ri quan im qun l mng vi qun l h thng kt ni cc

    my tnh. Vic ny dn ti hai min qun l ti nguyn: vt l v logic.

    Qun l mng

    Qun l h. thng

    Qun l ng dng

    Qun l CSDL

    Qun l cc chuNn mng

    Hosts WSs PCs

    Applications Applications

    Disks Tapes

    Cc Header U_Data Segment (PDU)

    Tinguynlogic

    Tinguynvt l

    DCN

    Thc thqun l

    Thc th b qun l

    Agent Ti nguyn itng qun l

    Request

    Response

    Polling

    Report

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    Bi 6. T chc qun l cc h thng mng qun l mng

    Nguyn Nam HngB mn K thut my tnh v Mng i hc Thy li

    Trang 7/14

    Ti nguyn vt l l cc b phn phn cng tham gia vo qu trnh