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<p>ng dng ca Vi sinh vt trong x l Kh thi</p> <p>S lc Nhim Mi Trng Khi nim: nhim mi trng l tnh trng mi trng b nhim bi cc cht ha hc, sinh hc... gy nh hng n sc khe con ngi, cc c th sng khc. nhim mi trng l do con ngi v cch qun l ca con ngi.</p> <p>lu hunh,ngcht cloroflorocacbon (CFCs), ng ch cc ca con ngi nh khai v xt nit sn, sn xut kh, vic x khi cha thc khong nhim khng cng nghip, s bi v phncht ha hc vo bu khng kh. V d dng cc bn ha hc hoc thuc tr su qu Cc dng nhim v cc kh c do cacbont cc thng cha nhiu,... hoc l b r r mnxt, ixt lu ngm. Phnccloroflorocacbon bcht v xt nhim bin xy trong cc loi mt nhim hunh, cc cht nht ra khi nc (CFCs),chy qua rc cht thi ca kim rc cng nhim nit lthi sinh hot, cngloi nngnghip,zn t l hydrocacbon, ncnghip v xe c. cc cht nhim trn nhim cc thm khi cha quang ha nhim khng kh, vic xxung nc t xy ra khi t b mt t, ri cht ha hc c ngm. bi v cclngha hc vo bu khng kh. V d hi (hm cht vt qu gii hn thng v nhim phng x ng ch ng ca con cc kh cc hot thng)doc l cacbon mnxt, ixt lu hunh, nh ting cloroflorocacbon (CFCs), xe c, ngi cc cht thcbao gmsn, sn xut cng nhim khai n, khong ting n do v xt nit l cht thi ca cng nghip v hoc thuc nghip, s dng phn bn ha hc xe c. zn my bay, ting n cng nghip quang ha v khi ln sng nhim khngin tr su qu nhiu,...cc loi sng nh sng kh, nhim sng, do hoc do b r r t cc vic xcha cha bi vbin vi mt cc loi thng khi ngm. Ph cc cht ha hc vo thoi, truyn hnh... tn ti nht trong ln. bu khng kh. V l hydrocacbon, kim loi cht nhim t d v cc kh c l cacbon mnxt, ixt lu hunh,xy ra khi t b nhim nng, MTBE nhim t cc cht cht ha hc c (CFCs), v xt nit lqu cc cloroflorocacbon hi (hm lng vt cht</p> <p> nhim mi trng khng khTheo cc ti liu kh hu quc t, trong vng nm qua nhit Tri l tng 0,40 C. hn 130 nhim trng khng khquyn to nn s nhim mi mi trng kh ts c mt mt cht l hoc mt s bin i quan trng trong bnh cho ngt ngt v "sng m", gy nhiu thnh phn Ti hi nghlm cho khng kh khng scht chc gn khng kh, kh hu ti Chu u c hoc gy ra con cc nhN cn to ra gim tm nhn a ra d s ngi. kh hu hc trn th gii axt bi. y, ta mi, c mi kh chu, cc cn maxa do lm hu dit n nm 2050 nhit cnh Tri t s bo rng cc khu rng v cc cang. tng thm 1,5nhim kh quyn l l con ngi khng Hin nay, 4,50nginu nh con thi s thi iu ng lo C nht vn ngi nng bng ca c th gii ch khng phi ring ca vo khng kh cc loi kh c nh:hin mt quc CO2, c bin php trng kh khc phc nhiu bin i r gia no. Mi hu hiu quyn ang c gy v c nh hng knh.Theo ngi cu sinh vt. tng hiu ng nh xu n connghinv ccth cht rt hiu ng nh knh. Hng nm conqu na ca nhim kh quyn tn kh quan trngngihiu thc v s knh l CO2, n Mt hu gy khai ng nh dng hng t l than , du m, kh t. ng thi cng thi vo mi hin tng50% vo tng zn. CFC l "k nhau hoi" ng gp l thng vic gy cht thi khc ph nh: trng mt khi lng ln cc hiu ng nh knh, cht ca tng zn. Sau khi l tc hi nc chnh l 13%,,hot, cht thi t chunh my vca kh CH4 thi sinh Nit 5%, CFC cc22%, ng x nghip lm cho hm lng cc loi kh c hi tng ln CFC v chng. l 3%... c hi khc th tng zn tng bnh lu loi cht nhanh mt s s b mng dn ri thng.</p> <p>Xung quanh l thng ozon</p> <p> nhim khng kh</p> <p>Hin tng Ma axit</p> <p>i vi sc khe con ngiKhng kh nhim c th git cht nhiu c th sng trong c con ngi. nhim ozone c th gy bnh ng h hp, bnh tim mch, vim hng, au ngc, tc th. nhim nc gy ra xp x 14.000 ci cht mi ngy, ch yu do n ung bng nc bn cha c x l. Cc cht ha hc v kim loi nng nhim trong thc n nc ung c th gy ung th. Du lan c th gy nga rp da. nhim ting n gy ic, cao huyt p, trm cm v bnh mt ng, gy nhiu hu qu nghim trng</p> <p>Cc bnh do nhim khng kh gy ra</p> <p>Phng php x l kh thiPhng php vi sinh vt lm sch khng kh khc vi cc phng php lm sch ha hc v l hc bi kh nng tin hnh qu trnh ny nhit bnh thng v di p sut kh quyn. C ba kiu h thng lm sch khng kh bng phng php sinh hc: Tm lc sinh hc (Bio-filter) Cc thit b lm sch sinh hc Cc Biocreator cha cc mng lc polimer</p> <p>Tm lc sinh hc biofilterKhi thit k bt k kiu absorber no ngi Thnh phn chnh ca bio-filter l lp lc, ta cng c ra qu trnh hp th cc cht c trn Nguyn tc hot n vic lm tng din t xy bit ch ng ca cc biotch b khc vi bio-filter sau l cc hy scrubbermt phn chia phase, l phnquyt khng kh b nhim bn v chyu t cht nh hiu qu vic hp vt. c c hp th bng nc vcn lm sch chng bng cc vi sinh th. Khi b phn hy ln lt bivo bng qut gi. c a vi sinh vt nm trong cc thit b Bn khcNgi ta thng s dng phnc v oxy di nhau. trong absorber cc cht than bn chuyn vo nc, cu t nhin tng Thnh phn do to quan trng nht v cc cht c ngun gckh thot ra khi t absorber s dng c lm sch, cn vt ca bio-scrubber l thit b hp th (absorber) lm vt liu cho lp lc. Bn thn nhng nc trng thi ra s bn. l ni din nhimtrao i khicht khong gia liu ni trn c cha nhng lng cht cn kh thi nhimdng vi khun. th. thit nui bn v cht hp</p> <p>Cc Biocreator cha cc mng lc polimerNhng bioreactor c cha cc mng polymer gn t bo sinh vt (ngi ta cn gi chng l bioreator bc lp ra) l nhng h thng lm sch tin tin nht. Vic lm sch cht c din ra cng nh vo hot tnh enzyme ca t bo vi sinh c c nh trn mng. i khi thay th vo ch cc t bo ngi ta c nh enzyme ln cc mng polymer ni trn. Tuy nhin thc hin cc quy trnh cng ngh ngi ta ch yu ch s dng cc t bo vi sinh vt c nh</p> <p>Mng lc polyme</p> <p>u th:Trong s cc u th v mt cng ngh khc phi k ti mc n nh cao ca enzyme trong t bo vi sinh vt so vi enzyme c tch t t bo Cng nh kh nng ti sinh t nhin cofactor trong trng hp s dng cc ph phm enzyme tinh khit trong cc quy trnh sn xut ln s i hi chi ph rt cao km theo cc thit b cng ngh phc tp.</p> <p>Nhc im:C th xy ra phn ng ph do s c mt trong t bo mt lng ln cc enzyme khc nhau. So vi ch phm enzyme khng tan, hot ng enzyme trong t bo vi sinh vt tnh trn n v din tch b mt ca bioreator s thp hn. Protease c mt trong t bo c th gy ra s bin tnh ca enzyme, ngoi ra cc t bo c nh cng to ra s cn tr khuch tn b sung.</p> <p>Nguyn tcCc t bo vi sinh vt c nh trn cht mang c cc h thngb cha container nh Trong nhi vo thit hin i rt ph nh hnh vin n, nc cng mui khong cn bin cc cht mang polymer dng l thit cho t bo vi sinh vt s a vo cc hoc ny. container dng si c gn cc t bo vi sinh vt v c sp phn mt c mtc bit Cc cht cn xp hy cch trong khng trong khi ii qua Khng loi tr kh nng kh bncontainer. lp xc tc sinh hc s phn b gia phaset bo mng nc bc cc ht xc c nh cc kh v vi sinh vt trn cht tc, chng s khuch tn qua mng ny v sau mang v c bi phn r trong lp xc tc sinh hc.</p> <p>Tc phn ngCn tc phn r khng kh c th vo Tc lm sch chng li ph thuc b hot ng ca h enzyme khuch tn ca c gii hn hoc bi s t bo vi sinh vt thc hin qua trnh ny.kh qua mngphn rvo ht cht t phase Nu xy ra s nc ton b cc cht khuch tn qua mng nc nh enzyme, xc tc, hoc bi tc phn r ca th iu c ngha l qu trnh ny hot ng chng do cc t bo vi sinh vt gy ra. ch khuch tn. Tc ny khuch tn ph thuc hng iu c th xt on theo nh vo bn cht v nng nng sinh khi ln tn ca cht mang v ca cht khuch kh nng ranh gii pha bin i c cht phn mng phn hy. Mc ngoi v pha trong nh qu nc. trnh lm sch kh, s b gim khi tc dng kh tng.</p> <p>X l kh thi bng cng ngh Biofilter vi gi th V da</p> <p>X l kh thi bng cng ngh Bioficter (dng vi sinh kh ) l mt bin php x l nhim kh thi c chi ph u t thp, vn hnh r v thn thin mi trng, n phng php thch hp x l cc cht kh c mi hi v cc hp cht hu c bay hi c nng thp nh nh my sn xut thc n gia sc, tinh bt sn, sn xut cn, sn xut chitin.</p> <p>V Da</p> <p>V da l mt nguyn liu rt d tm thy ti t nc chng ta. Tri da kh c tch b lp v bn ngoi d dng vn chuyn hn n nh my sn xut hoc n tay ngi tiu dng. Lp v b i thc cht li l mt nguyn liu qu bu dng lm vt liu gi th sinh hc cho vi sinh vt pht trin</p> <p>M t qu trnh x lVic s lc nhiu lp v da lc mi trng H thngdngsinh hc cung cp kh kiu ny hn ch c vic cc nguyn liu lc b dn nn li v cho ccsinh vt pht trin v phnng thot qua vi lung kh xuyn thnh nhng hy cc cht vic kh c mi hi v cc cht hu c gy nhim lp nguyn liu lc. Hn na, n cn to s thun li trong kh thi. hay thay mi nguyn liu kn dng trong vic bo tr H thng lc l mt blc. Nguyn tc chnhcho h thngsinh vtto iu v hp th hi v da ca cc vi x l l tr n kin cho sinh khi tipgi chng li trong nguyn liuthi cng nc, xc vi cc cht nhim trong kh lc. nhiu cng tt. V da c kh nng hp th nc ln, bn cao,da t lm suyliu lc p ni sinh snkh i V v l nguyn gim v lc lung cho ngang qua n. Cc n v ny, cc liu lc ny cc vi sinh vt. Trong h thng nguyn vi sinh vt s to thnh mtsinh hc" (Biocube) . y l mt gi l "khi mng sinh hc (biofilm), mng mng v m bao quanh cc v da.</p> <p>Trong qu trnh lc, kh thi c bm chm xuyn qua h thng lc, cc cht nhim trong kh thi s b cc nguyn liu lc hp th c ch ca qu trnh lc sinh hc bao gm qu trnh hp ph, hp th v phn hy bi cc vi sinh vt.Cc vi sinh vt trong mng sinh hc lin tc hp th v bin dng cc cht nhim. Cc cht kh gy nhim s b hp ph bi mng sinh hc, ti y, cc vi sinh vt s phn hy chng to nn nng lng v cc sn phm ph l CO2 v H2O cc loi mui theo phng trnh sau: Khng kh nhim + O2 &gt; CO2 + H2O + nhit + sinh khi</p> <p>Trong qu trnh lc sinh hc, cc cht kh gy nhim c lm m v sau c bm vo mt bung pha bn di nguyn liu lc. Khi cht kh i ngang qua lp nguyn liu lc, cc cht nhim b hp th v phn hy. Kh thi sau khi lc sch c phng thch vo kh quyn t bn trn ca h thng lc. H thng lc sinh hc ca chng ti thit k c cng sut x l mi v cc cht hu c bay hi ln hn 90%.</p> <p>Hnh nh nh my s dng Cng ngh Biofilter</p> <p>Nguyn liu lc: V Da</p> <p>Lp nguyn liu lc m to v cung cp Ngoi ra n cn lm nhim nn iu kin l hc v ha hc vi sinh vt. Trong cht dinh dng cho ccthun li cho vic chuyn vn hnh kh nhim t thiu ht qu trnh i cc cht thi c th pha kh sang cht cho vi qu trnh phn hy sinh dngpha lng v sinh vt, do chng ta phi hiu cht bng cch cho thm vo cc hc cc chnh nhim ny bi mng sinh hp cht m v phospho. nhm cung cp hc. Nguyn liu lc ny X da cb mt ln 2 hp thtrc khi din tch tui th t 5 nm v hp phi thay cht nhim. ph cc mi.</p> <p>To lp mng sinh hcKh nng gi m ca v da to lp mng sinh hc - C din tch b mt ln to iu kin cho qu trnh hp th v pht trin ca vi sinh vt - C cha cc dng cht cung cp cho cc vi sinh vt - To lc cn khng kh thp (gim mc st p v nng lng cn s dng cho my bm) - Cc tnh cht l hc khc nh n nh l hc v d dng thao tc. V da c kh nng cung cp cht dinh dng cho vi sinh vt v khng gy gim p lung kh nhiu. V da l nguyn liu sn c ti VN v b mt tip xc vi kh thi rt ln(350-450m2/m3). Thm vo , m ca cc nguyn liu lc phi c duy tr mc 30 60% cho qun th cc vi sinh vt pht trin.</p> <p>Bn cnh thit b lm m kh thi, ngi ta thng lp t h thng phun nc cho cc lp nguyn liu lc</p> <p>u im :+ u im chnh l gi thnh thp, gi vn hnh thp, t s dng ha cht. + Thit k linh ng, do c th thch nghi vi mi loi hnh cng nghip v din tch ca x nghip. + H thng lc sinh hc linh ng trong vic x l mi hi, cc hp cht hu c bay hi v cc cht c. + Hiu sut x l thng ln hn 90% i vi cc kh thi c nng cc cht nhim &lt; 1000 ppm. + Nguyn liu sn c, gi thnh r v d thay th.</p> <p>Khuyt im :+ H thng lc sinh hc kh x l c cc cht nhim c kh nng hp ph thp v tc phn hy sinh hc chm v d nh cc hp cht hu c bay hi c cha chlor. + Cc ngun nhim c nng ha cht cao cn cc h thng ln v din tch ln lp t h thng lc sinh hc. + Ngun gy nhim c mc phng thch cht nhim bin ng cao s gy nh hng n h vi sinh vt cng nh hiu sut x l ca chng. + Thi gian cho cc vi sinh vt thch nghi vi mi trng v to thnh cc mng sinh hc (biofilm) c th ko di hng tun, c bit l i vi vic x l cc cht hu c bay hi nn cn ngi vn hnh am hiu k thut nui cy vi sinh.</p> <p>X l Kh thi bng phng php Mng sinhhcLp nguyn liu lc m to nn iu kin Trong qu hc thun hc, cc cht kh gy i l hc v ha trnh lc sinhli cho vic chuyn nhim c lm m v sau kh sang pha lng v vo cc cht nhim t pha c bmcht mti bung pha bn di nguyn liu lc. Khi kh qu trnh phn hy sinh lc, cc cht nhim b hp ngang qua lp nguyn liu hc cc cht nhim th bi mng sinh hc. ny v phn hy. Kh thi sau khi lc sch c phngC ch ca qu trnh lc sinh hc bao gm thch vo kh quyn t bn trn ca h thng lc. qu trnh hp ph, hp th v phn hy bi cc Hu ht nhng sinh vt trong hc hin nay c vi sinh vt. Cc vi h thng lc sinhmng sinh hc cng sut x l mi v cc cht hu c bay hi ln hn lin tc hp thhn bin dng cc cht nhim, 90%. Tuy nhin, v ch ca phng php ny l ch x l c nhng kh cc sn phm cui cng l bin chng thnhthi c nng cht nhim thp v lu lng kh x l nh nc, CO2 v cc loi mui.</p> <p>Mng lc sinh hoc</p> <p>Nguyn liu lcNguyn liu lc in hnh l hn hp ca cc cht nn phn compost, t, cy thch nam (heather), plastic v cc ph phm g. Cc nguyn liu lc nhm cung cp din tch b mt ln hp th v hp ph cc cht nhim. Ngoi ra n cn lm nhim v cung cp cht dinh dng cho cc vi sinh vt. Mt vi loi nguyn liu lc khng p ng c v nhu cu dng cht cho vi sinh vt, do chng ta phi hiu chnh bng cch cho thm vo cc hp cht m v phospho. Cc nguyn liu lc thng c tui th t 5 - 7 nm trc khi phi thay mi.</p> <p>Phng php chn nguyn liu lc</p> <p>Kh nng gi m to lp mng sinh hc C din tch b mt ln to iu kin cho qu trnh hp th v pht trin ca vi sinh vt C cha cc dng cht cung cp cho cc vi sinh vt To lc cn khng kh thp (gim mc st p v nng lng cn s dng cho my bm) Cc tnh cht l hc khc nh n nh l hc v d dng thao tc.</p> <p>u im u im chnh l gi thnh thp, gi vn hnh thp, t s dng ha cht. Thit k linh ng, do c th thch nghi vi mi loi hnh cng nghip v din tch ca x nghip. H thng lc sinh hc linh ng trong vic x l mi hi, cc hp cht hu c bay hi v cc cht c. Hiu sut x l thng ln hn 90% i vi cc kh thi c nng cc cht nhim &lt; 1000 ppm. Nhiu loi nguyn liu lc, vi sinh vt v iu kin vn hnh khc nhau c th p dng p ng nhu cu x l.</p> <p>Khuyt im Ngun gy nhim c mc H thng lc sinh hc khng th x phng thch cht nhim bin ng cao s l c cc cht nhim c kh nng hp gy nh hng nphn hy sinh hc h vi sinh vt cng ph thp v tc nh hiud nh ccca chng. chm v sut x l hp cht hu c bay Thi chlor. hi c cha gian cho cc vi sinh vt thch Cc ngun trng c nng ha nghi vi mi nhim v to thnh cc mng sinh hc (biofilm) c th kodin tch cht cao cn cc h thng ln v di ln lp t hng thng, c hc. hng tun n h thng lc sinh bit l i vi vic x l cc cht hu c bay hi.</p> <p>Lc khng kh bng phng php lc sinh hcTrong Lc trnh lc, khmt bin php x l qu sinh hc l thi c bm chm xuyn qua h i mi. y lcht nhim trong kh nhim tng thng lc, cc mt phng php hp dn cc nguyn cht kh c th. Cc cht thi s b x l cc liu lc hp mi hi v cckh hp nhim s b hp ph bi mng thp. gy cht hu c bay hi c nng sinh hc, ti Nguyn tc chnh ca h to nn y, cc vi sinh vt s phn hy chng thng x l l to iu kin cho vi khun tip xc vi cc nng nhim trong sn thi. H thng lc kh H2O cht lng v cc kh phm ph l CO2 v thi theo l ni cha cc nguyn liu lc v ni sinh ny phng trnh sau: sn cho cc vi sinh vt. Trong h thng ny, cc vi sinh vt s to thnh mt mng sinh hc + sinh khi Cht gy nhim + O2 ---&gt; CO2 + H2O + nhit(biofilm), y l mt mng mng v m bao quanh cc nguyn liu lc.</p> <p>Sau y ll mis mccs ca vic pht trin Vic x mt hi lch tin hnh t nhng h nm 1950 v khihc: s dng cc s dng h lc sinh thng lc sinh ngi ta thng h thng thng Trong lc vic 1923 Phngcx l sinh hc Mgit. hng trm h lc qua t, hay b lc sinh hc nh th Cc cht kh hc cha php ph bin c ngh s dng c mi hicht kh hc c ng dng thnh x l cc thng c hydrogen sulphite hay mercaptant thng lc sinh l mi hi. v cc hp cht sulfur khc. 1955 Phng php x l sinh hc c(Hdng x l cng v c hiu qu Chu u p Lan, Tn Vic mi cc cht kh cx l hi nng c bay hi mi c p Tygn y v ccnn phBn. trong thp k va qua Lan, c) vcht hu thp c. Nht bin dngH thng lctr hc c s dng x l cc 1960 sinh v hin nhim c v M. tin hnh y thng cht kh H thng angsinh hc trcnghin cu su nay cn lc c thm. thit lc sinh hc mi ca cc h thng x c 1970 H thng k x l t c nhng thnh...</p>