Vài mẩu chuyện Đạo

  • Published on
    12-Jun-2015

  • View
    737

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

y l nhng bi vit ngn tc gi ghi li khi c trong cc sch bo Hoa ng, tm ti nhng ti liu lin quan n nhng vn ph thng trong Pht gio. Ni nh ngi Trung Hoa th tc gi ch l ngi ci nga xem hoa. Mi a hoa u c nhng v p ring ca n, nhng chng ta phi c thi gi nhn ngm di mi kha cnh th mi khm ph ra nhng nt p y.

Transcript

<p>Dng nh</p> <p>H</p> <p>Vi</p> <p>Mu</p> <p>Chuyn</p> <p>o.</p> <p>2</p> <p>I.</p> <p>Nhng Nghi n Thin.</p> <p>Thin tng c mt s nghi n do s thiu st hay mu thun ca cc ngun ti liu. Kho st nhng nghi n ny gip chng ta hiu r hn v Thin s.</p> <p>Nghi n V T S t Ma .1. t Ma l mt nhn vt lch s hay thn thoi ? Hai cun c th Lc Dng Gi Lam K ca Dng Huyn v Tc Cao Tng Truyn ca o Tuyn l 2 tc phm u tin ghi s tch B t Ma. Dng Huyn gp B t Ma Vnh Ninh T, t Ma cho bit mnh 150 tui. Hc gi H Thch tin Dng Huyn ni tht v hai l do : Th nht Dng Huyn l ngi cng thi vi t Ma, th hai lc Thin tng cha thnh lp. Cn c vo cu ca Dng Huyn : Khi t hoang du, lai du trung th (t ni bin thu hoang d m ti Trung Hoa) Sang n o Tuyn bin thnh t nam Thin Trc ti v n Truyn ng Lc sau ny tr thnh hong t th ba ca vua Hng Ch, nam Thin Trc. 2. t Ma ti Trung Quc nm no v li bao lu ? Cn c vo cu s t Tng cnh Nam Vit (lc u n t Nam Vit thuc Tng) ca o Nguyn, H Thch l lun rng nh Tng mt nm 479, vy bc b thuyt t ma ti Trung Hoa nin hiu Ph Thng nguyn nin (520) hay Ph Thng bt nin (527). Nm 520 t Ma cn Vnh Ninh T, Lc dng, vy t Ma Trung Quc khong 50 nm. 3. t Ma c gp Lng V khng ? Tc Cao Tng Truyn ca o Tuyn (th k th 7), Lng Gi S T K (th k th 8) khng chp chuyn ny. n Truyn ng Lc (th k 11) chp ngy 1 thng 10, t Ma gp vua Lng Nam Kinh. Tht l k qui, th k</p> <p>3</p> <p>7 khng bit, th k 8 khng hay vy m th k 11 ngi ta li bit r t Ma n gp vua Lng ngy no thng no ! R rng y l mt s ngu to. 4. t Ma c phi l t th nht ca Thin tng Trung Hoa khng ? Thin tng lc gi l Lng Gi tng v cn c vo kinh Lng Gi, cho nn trong Lng Gi s t k tc gi Tnh Gic cho Cu Na Bt a La ngi dch kinh Lng Gi l v t th nht, t Ma l t th 2. Cng thi cng c nhiu v thin s rt ni danh nh Ph i S min Nam, Pht min Bc, ti sao Thin tng li tn t Ma l v t th nht ? Theo mt s cc nh nghin cu thin hc th l v t Ma cao s thc tin cho nn o Tuyn ghi nhn : i tha bch qun cng nghip ti cao (php bch qun l cng nghip ti cao ca t Ma). 5. t Ma c b u c khng ? Cc cun Lc Dng gi lam k (th k 6), Tc cao tng truyn ca o Tuyn (th k 7), Lng Gi s t k (th k 8) u khng chp chuyn ny. n cui th k 8 trong tc phm Lch i php bo k ca phi V Tr c chp chuyn ny. V vy H Thch cho l huyn thoi. Nhng Khang Hoa tc gi cun Trung Quc Thin li chp nhn chuyn ny. ng cho rng ngi ng thi ght t Ma v nhng gio hun ca t Ma i ngc li vi truyn thng ng thi, nn b u c 6 ln m cht. Chuyn Tng Vn i s v ngang qua ngn Thng Lnh gp t Ma tay cm mt chic dp i v Ty Phng cng khng h c Lc Dng gi lam k chp, mc du cun ny chp chuyn Tng Vn rt tng tn. 6. B t Ma v t Ma a La l mt hay l hai ngi ? B t Ma (Bodhidarma) v t Ma a La (Dharma Trala) l hai ngi. i ng, Tng Mt nhm ln cho l mt ngi v t tn l B t Ma a La, n i Tng, Kh Tung mi sa li l B t ma. Nhng Nghi n V Nh T Hu Kh. 1. Nh t c cht tay cu php khng ? T ng tp, Cnh c truyn ng lc, Ng ng hi nguyn u c chp chuyn ny, nhng Tc Cao Tng truyn ca o Tuyn li chp l Hu</p> <p>4</p> <p>Kh b cp cht tay. Nn nh l tc phm ca o Tuyn xut hin th k 7, cc cun kia xut hin cc th k sau. Chuyn cht tay cu php ca Hu Kh khng phi l chuyn c nht v nh, trong lch s ca Mt Tng c chp chuyn s Thi Cung nm Nguyn Ho (i Trung ng) cng cht tay cu php. 2. Nhng nm cui i ca Hu Kh. Tc cao tng truyn ca o Tuyn chp nhng nm cui i, Hu Kh i lm cng cho ngi, khi th vo hng tht, khi th vo tim ru, hoc ng ph ni nhm. Ti sao vy ? Chng nh Hu Kh nm 40 tui c php, li hong ho 34 nm, lc 74 tui li mun hon tc chng ? Chng l sau 34 nm tm li khng c an, phi vo hng tht, tim ru, hay ni nhm ngoi ng th tm mi c an sao ? S kin ny khin ngi ta nghi ng Thin tng ng ri th khng tu na sao ? m tu th tu th no ? v . v . v v . v.. Vic Hu Kh i lm t cho ngi chng ta c th cn c vo li ni ca Hu Kh a ra hai l do : a/ tr nghip. Khi i Nghip , Hu Kh bo Tng Xn : -Ta phi i Nghip tr n. b/ l phng php tu hnh ca Thin tng. Trong Thin tng mi cng vic u l tu hnh. Bng c s din ny bng 2 cu : Xch nc l diu dng Ba ci y thn thng. (Trc Thin dch) T Bch Trng cng c ni Mt ngy chng lm, mt ngy chng n cng l cao s lao ng. Truyn ng Lc chp Hu Kh tr li k hi mnh ti sao i lm cng ? -Ta t iu tm, chng lin quan g n ngi. T ng tp li chp l : -Ta t iu tm chng lin quan g n vic lm ! Cu trn cn chp ng, cu di cho thy Nh t chng c ng khng. V vic Nh t ngoi ng ph ni nhm th ch l li ni vu khng. Thin tng ch trng bt lp vn t cho nn nhng li ging ca Nh t </p> <p>5</p> <p>khng dn trong cc kinh sch, v vy o Tuyn chp o Hng cho nhng li ni ca Nh t l nhng li ni ca ma qu. Cu chuyn Nh t vo hng tht, tim ru th s thc ra sao, chng ta khng c cch no kim chng c. 3. Ai hm hi Hu Kh ? T ng tp chp l quan huyn C Trng Khn trong khi Truyn ng lc chp l p t ch Trng Khn. Ch C v ch ch gn ging nhau, ch C c nhiu nt hn. Theo thin , ngy xa ngi ta dng bn khc bng g in, khi in ra mc thm khng u nn bn in c th mt nt i. Cn c vo nhn xt ny ch C xut hin T ng tp (952), ch ch Truyn ng lc (1004), vy chn ch C hp l v ch C mt nt s bin thnh ch ch, ch khng th ngc li. 4. Cng n An Tm v cng n Sm Hi l 1 hay l 2 ? Xt cng n An Tm ca t Ma-Hu Kh v cng n Sm Hi ca Hu Kh-Tng Xn th y ht nhau ch khc mt ng l An Tm, mt ng l Sm Hi. Vy cng n Sm Hi l sao chp li cng n An Tm v c cng mt ngha hay cn mt no khc, chng hn bnh do nghip sinh ? Nghip do tm to ? 5. Nhng nghi n v Tam t Tng Xn. A/ Tam t Tng Xn l mt nhn vt lch s hay huyn thoi ? Tiu s ca Tng Xn c cc sch Truyn ng lc v Ng ng hi nguyn chp. Tuy nhin cun Tc cao tng truyn ca o Tuyn (th k 7) li khng chp. V vy nhiu nh nghin cu cho Tng Xn l mt nhn vt huyn thoi. Bng c chng minh Tng Xn c tht khng c, ngi ta ch vin dn truyn thuyt. a. i ng, L Thng hi chuyn v Tng Xn, Thn Hi tr li : -Xn i s ngi La Ph (Qung ng) m phn cn Th Chu.</p> <p>6</p> <p>Khu thuyt v bng, li ni ca Thn Hi chc g ng. Chng hn, theo s kho cu ca hc gi H Thch khi tr li cu hi ca Sng Vin v gc gc ca B t Ma, Thn Hi tr li : -t Ma l t th 8 ca n . R rng l Thn Hi ni by. K t khi c Pht nhp dit cho n khi Pht gio truyn vo Trung Hoa di c ngn nm m ch c 8 v t s thi ? b. Truyn thuyt thp hng cu nc. Nin hiu Nhn Th th t, do lnh ca Tu Dng , Bin Nghi n cha Lng Tnh, ni c sn, L Chu m xy thp. Khi n chn ni, c con nai t trn ni xung n, chy nhy lng xng bn cnh, khng s hi g c. Bin Nghi theo nai dn ng ln ni. Ni rt him tr, li khng c nc. Bin Nghi thy vy bit l kh m xy dng tng phng cc s c. Sc nh nghe ni trc kia c sui nc bn hi tu tng s ti ni hay sui do ngi Tng Xn nim hng m nc t chy ra, nhng khi ngi vin tch th sui cng kh cn. Bin Nghi ng ti ch sui cn ngm ngh hi lu, nh b i th nc bng nhin chy ra, ch mt m m sui trn y. Tng tc u mng, do lp thp ti . c.Tng Xn l Hng c s ? Nam Hoi Cn, tc gi cun Thin Thoi a ra gi thuyt Tng Xn l Hng c s. Theo ng, Hu Kh c 17 c php, trong c 3 ngi xut sc nht l Tng Na, Hu Mn v Hng c s. Tng Na v Hu Mn xut gia t nh, ti liu ghi chp r rng khng cn phi bn, ch c Hng c s c c duyn ng o ging Tng Xn, hn na t chng, vn kh rt ging Tn Tm Minh ca Tng Xn. Cn c theo s liu th Hng c s thch sng trong rng, i n rau, kht ung nc sui tng t Tng Xn sng n c ni Hon Cng. Thi gian gp g Nh t cng trng hp : Bc t Thin Bo th nht Nh t gp Tng Xn, Bc t Thin Bo th hai Hng c s vit th cho Nh t c Nh t tr li bn thn n gp. Th ca Hng c s c Truyn ng lc (th k 11) chp nguyn vn nh sau : Bng do hnh m c, di do ting m ra, nghch bng nhc hnh chng bit hnh l gc ca bng. To ting ngn di, u bit ting l gc ca di. Tr phin no t Nit Bn ta b hnh m tm bng, la chng sanh m cu Pht, ta im ting m kim di.Cho nn bit m, ng l mt; tr, ngu khng</p> <p>7</p> <p>khc. Ly khng danh lm danh v danh m c th phi, ly khng l m lm l v l m gy tranh lun. o ho khng tht ci g th, ci g phi ? H vng khng tht, ci g khng ci g c ? Tng em ci c m khng c, mt m khng mt c dp trnh thy nhng cha gp lc. Nay ng ny mong thy phc p. Nh t vit th tr li, Hng c s n nh l v th nhn n k. Xem vy, Hng c s v Tng Xn l mt, ch v s liu ca Thin tng do lon lc, mt mt nn tng l 2 ngi. B/ Tng Xn gp Nh t khi no ? T ng tp chp Tng Xn khong 14 tui th gp Nh t , trong khi Truyn ng lc chp lc Tng Xn ngoi 40. C/ Tng hiu ca Tng Xn l g ? T ng tp chp ng Huyn Tng truy tng Tng Xn l Tr Knh thin s, ti liu khc li chp l Gim Tri thin s. 6. Nghi n v T t o Tn. a. o Tn c phi l hc tr ca Tng Xn khng ? Theo s nghin cu ca H Thch th khng c s liu ng thi no ghi chp r rng o Tn l hc tr ca Tng Xn. Vo th k 7, Tc tng truyn ca o Tuyn chp o Tn hc Thin vi 2 v ho thng khng r tnh danh trong 10 nm Hon Cng Sn. Sch cng khng ni trong hai v trn c v no l Tng Xn c. Sau ny truyn thuyt o Tn l hc tr Tng Xn c l xut pht t hc tr o Tn m ra. Theo suy lun ca H Thch th truyn thuyt ny cng c th ng v o Tn v Hong Nhn u tr Song Phong Sn khng xa Hon Cng Sn bao nhiu. b. o Tn c sng tc tc phm no khng ? Theo Khang Hoa tc gi cun Trung Quc Thin th theo truyn thuyt o Tn l tc gi ca cc tc phm B Tt php gii, Nhp o an tm yu phng tin php mn. 7. Nghi n v Ng t Hong Nhn.</p> <p>8</p> <p>Nm mt ca Ng t khng r rt. Tc tng truyn ca o Tuyn khng chp tiu s Hong Nhn v o Tuyn cht trc Hong Nhn. Cao tng truyn chp Hong Nhn mt nm Hm Hanh th 5 (674), cn Tng cao tng truyn ghi Hong Nhn mt nm Thng Nguyn th hai (675). 8. Nghi n v Lc t Hu Nng. a/ Hu Nng l ngi Hoa hay ngi Vit ? Nm 1983 ng V Th Ngc trong li ta bn dch Php Bo n Kinh ca Ho thng Thch Minh Trc ti bn ti Hoa K c vit : Lc t Hu Nng cng sinh trng Lnh Nam l vng t thuc C Vit trc kia. Hai nm sau, dch gi Thch Mn Gic, dch gi cun Php Bo n Kinh bn n Hong xc nhn Lc t Hu Nng l ngi Vit Nam. ng cn c trn kho cu ca hc gi Yampolsky v cc a danh Lnh Nam, Nam hi l cc ni sanh qun v hong php ca Hu Nng. Lnh Nam l vng t thuc Qung ng, Qung Ty v min bc ng Dng. Cn a danh Nam Hi ghi trong tt c cc bn Php Bo n Kinh th theo Yampolsky l Phin Ngung, tc lnh th Vit Nam ngy xa. Theo Khang Hoa, tc gi cun Trung Quc Thin th Hu Nng l ngi huyn Khc Giang tnh Qung ng. Trong Vit Nam s lc, Trn Trng Kim cho bit th Hng Vng dng nc Vn Lang, lnh th ca nc ta ch gm Bc Vit v bc Trung Vit. Ch khi Triu nh nc u Lc th tnh Qung ng mi thuc v nc Nam Vit ca Triu . Khi Ng Quyn nh tan qun Nam Hn trn sng Bch ng, dng nn c lp cho Vit nam th t nc ta vn ch l vng t Bc Vit v Bc Trung Vit. Chng ta vn coi nh Triu l mt triu i ngoi quc, ch khng phi l mt triu i Vit Nam. V vy t Qung ng khng th coi l t Vit Nam . Theo bch khoa Trung Hoa nhn dn cng ho quc phn tnh a gii tp th Phin Ngung thuc qun Qu Lm. Nu ni nh ng V Th Ngc, sanh qun ca Hu Nng l t C Vit, th chng ta phi i ngc ln trc thi Hng Vng, lc Qung ng, Qung Ty, H Nam l a bn sinh hot ca Bch Vit, v cng theo mt gi thuyt th sc dn u Lc di c xung lu vc sng Hng v lp nn nc Vit Nam ngy nay. Cc sc dn Vit khc li cc</p> <p>9</p> <p>vng t trn u b ngi Tu ng ho c. Nu t tin ca Hu Nng c thuc v Bch Vit th ti Hu Nng l i ng cng b Tu ho c ri. Vy chng ta c th kt lun Hu Nng l ngi Tu. l xt v lch s, cn v phng din Pht hc th nh chnh ngi Hu Nng c ni : -Ngi c Nam, Bc; Pht tnh vn khng Bc Nam. b/ C tht Hu Nng m ch khng ? Nhiu tc gi trong s c John C.H Wu cho rng Hu nng khng m ch m ch t hc thi, bng chng l trong kinh Php Bo n ta thy ngi trch dn nhiu ln cc kinh Phm Vng, Duy Ma ct. Nu chng ta tin tng Php Hi, ngi chp kinh Php Bo n th chnh trong kinh ny ngi ba ln tuyn b mnh m ch. Ln th nht ngi nh tiu ng dn n bc tng c chp bi k ca Thn T. Ngi ni : -Hu Nng ti khng bit ch, nh thng nhn c cho. Ln th hai khi ni c V Tn Tng hi ngi v kinh Nit Bn, ngi bo : -Ti khng bit ch. Ln th ba, Php t hi ngi v kinh Php Hoa, ngi bo Php t tng ln cho ngi nghe v ngi khng bit ch. Khi Php t tng n phm Th d, ngi bo thi v bt u ging cho Php t nghe. Trong vn hc Pht gio Trung Hoa, kinh l nhng cun sch ghi li li ging ca c Pht. Ch c 1 cun sch duy nht khng chp li ging ca c Pht m chp li ging ca ngi Hu Nng, nhng vn c gi l kinh l cun Php Bo n Kinh vy. hiu ngi ta tn trng ngi nh th no. Do nhng li ging ca ngi, Php Hi c th thm bt khi hnh vn nhng khng th ba t t khng thnh c. M ch khng lin quan g n gic ng. Khi ni c V Tn Tng hi ngi : -M ch th lm sao bit ng ngha l ? V Hu Nng tr li : -Diu l ca ch Pht c lin quan g n vn t u ! c/ Hu Nng c tr tr cha Bo Lm khng ? C ti liu chp khi ni c V Tn Tng bit ngi m ch m ging kinh rnh r th rt ngc nhin, bo co vi cc bc k lo trong lng thnh ngi tr tr cha Bo Lm. iu ny v l v theo Php Bo n Kinh, ngi gic ng ngay khi nghe cu ng v s tr nhi sanh k tm. Ngi sp xp cho</p> <p>10</p> <p>m gi ri lp tc ln ng, khng qu mt thng ti Hong Mai, nh l Ng t. Hn na, lc ngi cha xut gia lm sao c th tr tr mt ngi cha c ? Ngi n c 15 nm min nam ri c n Tn cha Php Tnh, Qung Chu lm l xung tc v th c tc gii cho ngi. d/ Hu Nng c phi l ngi xng n ng khng ? Theo H Thch th tin bn th k 5, Pht gio Trung Hoa xut hin mt v ho thng cch mng, l o Sinh. ng l ca Hu Vin v La Thp. ng vit n ng thnh Pht lun ch trng thin khng th bo, xin nhn (ngi khng tin Pht) cng c Pht tnh. Ngi ng thi cho l ng ging t thuyt. V sau b kinh Nit Bn c dch ra trong c ni mi chng sanh u c Pht tnh. Lc ngi ta mi khm phc s thm hiu Pht l ca ng. Vy Hu Nng khng phi l ngi xng n ng, nhng l ngi qung b php l . e/ Hu nng c phi l Lc t ca Thin tng Trung Hoa khng ? Lc sanh thi Hu Nng ch l mt v i s ni ting phng Nam thi, cn min bc th ai ai cng tn sng Thn T. Nm Thn T 90 tui V Tc Thin hong h chiu vi ng v kinh. Ngi ng thi xng tng Thn T l php ch ca 2 kinh (Trng An v Lc Dng), thy ca 3 vua (V tc Thin, Trung Tng, Du Tng). Thn T mt, 2 l Ph Tch v Ngha Phc cng c tn sng. 21 nm sau khi Hu Nng mt, Thn Hi n H Nam truyn o, ch trch Ph Tch t xng l Tht t, tn Thn T l Lc t l gi tr, chnh Hu Nng, thy ng mi l Lc t. ng cn ni lc Thn T cn ti th khng dm xng mnh l Lc t v php y cn ni Hu Nng. Sau ny vo thng 11 nm Cnh Hng th ba (709) Thn T sai Qung T n Thiu Chu n trm php y. Lc , Ph Tch cn sng nhng cng khng ln ting ph nhn. Theo s kho cu ca H Thch, Thn Hi ni by, nhng ng l ngi c ti bin bc, lc Bc phi khng c ai i p c ch da vo th lc ca triu nh dm pha ng b y i Giang Ty ri H Bc, trong vng 3 nm m b y i 4 ln. Lc c lon An Lc Sn, Bc phi tn lc ht. Hai tng Quch T Nghi v L Quang Bt ang lc thu phc 2 kinh. Cn nhiu tin. Lc Thn Hi ang Lc Dng bn gip triu nh bn dip, mt loi cng kh phiu. Vic bnh nh thnh cng, v c cng ln vua sai lp t vin cho Thn Hi. Khng bao lu Thn Hi mt. 6 nm sau vua sai Thi t ch tr mt u vin</p> <p>11</p> <p>hi nghin cu php thng ca Thin tng. Kt qu tha nhn Hu Nng l Lc t, Thn Hi l Tht t ca Thin tng Trung Hoa. II. Ngi tu s u tin mang h Thch. Tha xa Trung Hoa, cc bc xut gia ngoi php danh cn ly tn h bng 2 cch : 1. Ly tn t quc lm h : th d h An l ngi nc An Tc : An Th Cao, h Trc l ngi nc Thin Trc : Trc Php Lan; h Khng l ngi nc Khng C : Khng Tng Hi; h Chi l ngi nc Nhc Chi : Chi Lu Ca Sm. 2. Ly tn h ca Thy. Th d ngi o An l hc tr ngi Trc Pht Trng, nn c tn l Trc o An. Nh chng ta thy cch th nht l mt phng php t tn Tu cho nhng tu s ngoi quc. Cch th hai c th p dng cho tt c mi ngi. V sau chnh ngi Trc o An xng vic ly h Thch, v cho rng ngi xut gia l ngi tm ng gii thot noi theo con ng ca ng t ph Thch Ca, v vy ngi i tn thnh Thch o An. Theo Cao tng truyn, ngi h V, ngi Thng Sn, tnh Sn Ty, t tin ngi i i u l nhng bc danh nho. Thu nh, cha m mt sm, ngi phi n vi ngoi huynh h Khng. Nm 7 tui ngi bt u c sch. Ngi t cht thng minh, tr nh phi thng, phm sch no xem qua mt hai ln l c nh nc chy. 12 tui xut gia, v tng mo xu x nn i chng v cc thy khng coi trng, sai ngi lm cng tc ng ng trong 3 nm. Ngi chm ch lm lng khng mt li on trch, ch chuyn tm gi gii. V sau ngi thy th vn cha , bn xin hc kinh. Thy giao cho ngi quyn Bin y kinh di khong 5 ngn ch. Ngi mang kinh ra ng, khi rnh th c. Vic ng ng xong, ngi mang kinh v tr v xin mn cun khc. Thy ngi hi : -Sm mai mi mn 1 cun, sao ham nhiu lm c...</p>