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<p>Bch Khoa Online Giao lu - Hc hi - Chia s kinh nghim ca cc th h sinh vin Bch Khoa hutonline.net</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>MC LCChng 1: BN V KT CU THP 1.Khi nim chung 2.Cch biu din cc loi thp hnh 3.Cc hnh thc lp ni ca kt cu thp 4.c im ca bn v kt cu thp 5.Gii thiu mt s bn v kt cu thp v trnh t biu din Chng 2: BN V KT CU B TNG CT THP 1.Khi nim chung 2.Cc loi ct thp 3.Cc qui nh v k hiu qui c dng trn bn v BTCT 4.Cch c v v bn v BTCT Chng 3: BN V KT CU G 1.Khi nim chung 2.Cc hnh thc lp ni ca kt cu g 3.Ni dung v c im kt cu g 4.Trnh t thit lp bn v kt cu g Chng 4: BN V NH 1.Khi nim chung 2.Mt bng ton th 3.Cc hnh biu din ca mt ngi nh 4.Bn v nh cng nghip 5.Trnh t thit lp bn v nh Chng 5: BN V CNG TRNH CU 1.Khi nim chung 2.Cc loi bn v cng trnh cu 03 03 05 08 11 21 21 22 25</p> <p>32 32 35 41</p> <p>44 47 48 55 58</p> <p>62 66</p> <p>2</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>V XY DNGTrong phn ny chng ta s vn dng nhng khi nim hc phn trc nh cc quy nh v hnh biu din, v nt v, v ghi kch thc ... vo vic biu din cc kt cu cng trnh v cc cng trnh xy dng . Cc kt cu cng trnh c nhiu dng phc tp , nhng ni chung c th quy v my loi sau: -Kt cu thp -Kt cu b tng ct thp -Kt cu g Sau khi bit cch biu din cc kt cu , chng ta s nghin cu cch th hin mt cng trnh .Chng ta khng i su vo cc vn chuyn mn ca cc cng trnh , m ch nghin cu cc quy tc thit lp bn v , cc yu c i vi bn v trong tng giai on thit k . Chng 1:</p> <p>BN V KT CU THP</p> <p>1. KHI NIM CHUNG Kt cu thp l kt cu do cc thanh thp hnh v cc bn thp hoc v mng kim loi ghp li vi nhau bng nhiu hnh thc lp ni . l loi kt cu c dng rng ri trong xy dng . Trong kt cu thp thng c hai loi kt cu : h thanh v h v . -H thanh gm cc yu t c bn l dm, ct, dn... c dng lm khung nh , nhp cu ... -H v gm cc v mng bng kim loi ghp li vi nhau lm cc thng cha , ni hi , ng dn ... Thi cng kt cu thp thng chia ra lm hai giai on : ch to cng xng v lp rp hin trng . Nh vy trong bn v thi cng , ngoi vic ghi y kch thc , cn cn ghi cc k hiu ch r vic lp rp tin hnh cng xng hay hin trng . 2. CCH BIU DIN CC LOI THP HNH Thp hnh gm my loi chnh sau : I. THP GC ( hay thp ch L) Hnh 89 v hnh chiu trc o ca mt on thanh thp gc .C loi thp gc u cnh v loi thp gc khng u cnh . Trn bn v ch loi thp gc ny ngi ta dng k hiu Lb s (u cnh ) Lb1 h2 s ( khng u cnh )3</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>Trong b ch chiu rng ca cnh thanh thp , s ch b dy ca cnh .</p> <p>Hnh - 89</p> <p>V d : L100 12 ; L100 75 10 Bng 6-4 v 6-5 cho ta kch thc mt ct ca thp gc . II. THP HNH MNG (hay thp ch U) . Hnh 90 v hnh chiu trc o ca mt on thp ch U .Dng k hiu L n ch loi thp ch U trn bn v , trong n l s hiu thp. V d : L 22. Bng 6-6 cho bit cc kch thc ca mt ct thp ch U , trong h l chiu cao , b -chiu rng ca cnh , - b dy ca thn , t- b dy trung bnh ca cnh .</p> <p>Hnh - 90</p> <p>III.THP CH I . Hnh 91 v hnh chiu trc o ca mt on thanh thp ch I . Dng k hiu I ch loi thp ny trn bn v . V d : I 24 . Bng 6-7 cho bit cc kch thc ca mt ct thp ch I ; trong h l chiu cao , b -chiu rng ca cnh , s - b dy ca thn ; t - b dy trung bnh ca cnh .</p> <p>4</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>Hnh - 91</p> <p>IV. CC LOI THP KHC Ngoi cc loi thp trn ta cn c thp ch T ( k hiu ch T ) ch Z ( k hiu ch Z ) thp trn ( k hiu ) thp tm (k hiu ). Cch ghi k hiu cc loi thp hnh trn bn v . - S lng v k hiu ca mi thanh thp ch ghi mt ln trn hnh biu din . Con s ch s lng c ghi trc k hiu thanh thp ( v d : 2L50 2 ) Nu b phn kt cu ch c mt thanh hoc nu du k hiu th hin r dng ghp ca nhiu thanh , th khng cn ghi s lng thanh thp trc du k hiu ( v d : 50 5 ; 50 5 ) i vi bn thp dng lm bn m , bn nt , ng sau du k hiu thp tm c ghi thm kch thc khun kh ca bn thp v b dy ca n . ( V d : - 220 360 10 ) . Trn bn v mi thanh thp u c nh s . Cc con s ny vit bng ch s - rp trong vng trn ng knh 7 - 10 mm v ghi theo mt th t nht nh . ( t tri sang phi , hoc t trn xung di ) . 3. CC HNH THC LP NI CA KT CU THP Trong kt cu thp thng dng hai hnh thc lp ni : - Lp ni tho c ( bng bulng ) - Lp ni khng tho c ( bng inh tn ) I .Trn bn v kt cu thp, nhng mi ghp bng inh tn hay bulng u c TCVN 2234 - 77 "Thit lp bn v kt cu thp" . Bng 6-1 trnh by mt s k hiu theo quy c : BNG 3-1 K hiu quy c mi ghp inh tn v bu lng ( Trch TCVN 1610- 88 )</p> <p>5</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>S T.T 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15</p> <p>Tn gi 2 V tr l khoan L trn L bu dc inh tn m chm cu inh tn u chm c 2 pha inh tn u na chm c hai pha Bulng lin kt tm thi Bulng lin kt c nh Mi hn i u khi ch to Mi hn i u khi lp rp Mi hn gc, hn ch T hn chng khi ch to Mi hn gc, hn ch T hn chng khi lp rp ng dng v ghi ch mi hn thy ng dng v ghi ch mi hn khut ng dng v ghi ch mi hn hai pha hay hay ca ca ca</p> <p>K hiu qui c 3</p> <p>Ch thch : a- Trn hnh 92a , b trnh by cc chi tit c ren ( nh l , v trc c ren ) . Cn ch : ng chn ren v bng nt lin mnh ; trn hnh biu din vung gc vi trc ren , ng chn ren c th hin bng khong 3/4 ng trn . ng gii hn ren v ng nh ren v bng nt6</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>lin m . b- Trn hnh 92c , v mi ghp bng ren ( lp ni hai ng ) , ren ngoi ( ren trn trc ) che khut ren trong ( ren trn l ) c- Trn cc bn v lp kt cu thp t l ln , khi khng cn thit th hin r mi ghp bng bulng , cho php c v n gin nh trnh by trn hnh 93. d- K hiu bulng gm k hiu ren ( prfin , ng knh ren ) , chiu di bu lng v s hiu tiu chun bulng .</p> <p>Hnh 92a,b,c</p> <p>V d :Bu lng M 12 60 TCVN 189276( Bulng u su cnh , ren h mt , ng knh ren 12 mm , chiu di bulng 60mm ).</p> <p>Hnh 93</p> <p>II.GHP BNG HN a)Phn loi mi hn : Ngi ta phn loi mi ghp bng hn nh sau ( H.94 ) - Hn i nh k hiu l D . - Hn ch T , k hiu l T . - Hn gc , k hiu l G . - Hn chp , k hiu l C . b)Cch biu din v k hiu quy c cc mi ghp bng hn ( TCVN 3746 - 83 ). Trn hnh biu din cc mi hn thy c v bng nt lin m ( nh ng bao thy ) , cc mi hn khut Hnh 947</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>c v bng nt t ( nh ng bao khut ) . Khi mi hn c ghi r bng mt ng dng gy khc tn cng bng mi tn mt cnh ch vo mi hn . K hiu v cc kch thc lin quan ca mi hn c ghi pha trn ca an dng nm ngang nu l mi hn thy , s ghi pha di nu l mi hn khut . K hiu bng ch nh cc loi mi ghp bng hn c trnh by trong bng 3-2 . Hnh 95 l th d v cch ghi k hiu mt mi hn chp theo ng bao h ,hn cch qung ,chiu cao mi hn 6mm ,chiu di mi mi hn 50mm, bc ca mi hn 100 mm (suy ra khong cch gia hai mi hn k nhau 50mm) Hnh 95 Hnh 96 l th d mt mi hn ch T theo ng bao kn , hn cch qung , chiu cao mi hn 5mm , chiu di mi hn 50mm , bc 100mm . - K hiu ph ca mi hn ( v d hn so le , hn theo ng bao h )Hnh 96</p> <p>4. C IM CA BN V KT CU THP</p> <p>- Cc hnh chiu ca kt cu thp c b tr nh trnh by chng bn v v tr ca cc hnh chiu c bn . Tuy nhin , trong mt s trng hp cc hnh chiu bng v cnh c b tr nh trnh by trn hnh 97 . Khi cn ch r hng nhn v ghi tn hnh chiu tng ng ( "A" "B" ) - Trn bn v kt cu thp thng v s hnh hc ca kt cu . S v bng nt lin mnh , chiu di cc thanh ghi theo n v mm , v khng cn ng dng kch thc . - Khi v tch mt s nt ca kt cu trc cc thanh phi v song song vi cc thanh tng ng trn s hnh hc . nghing ca cc thanh c ghi nh trn hnh 98. Bng 3-2</p> <p>8</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>Hnh dng Loi mi hn mp vt u chi tit Khng vt u Mi hn ghp i u Vt u</p> <p>c tnh thc Hnh dng hin mi hn mt ct mi hn Mt pha</p> <p>Khiuquyc dhiu Ch s 2</p> <p>Hai pha</p> <p>4</p> <p>Mt pha</p> <p>5</p> <p>Mt pha Khng vt u Mi hn ghp gc Vt mt u Hai pha</p> <p>G3</p> <p>G5</p> <p>Mt pha</p> <p>G6</p> <p>Mt pha Khng vt u Mi hn ghp ch T Vt mt u Hai pha</p> <p>T1</p> <p>T4</p> <p>Hai pha</p> <p>T7</p> <p>Mt pha t qung Mi hn ghp chp Khng vt u Hai pha</p> <p>C1</p> <p>C2</p> <p>9</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>- Trn hnh chiu v hnh ct ch cn v nhng ng khut ca cc b phn nm ngay sau cc phn t ny . Nhng phn nm su pha trong khng cn biu din bng nt t . Trn hnh chiu cho php khng v mt s chi tit khng cn thit nht l khi nhng chi tit ny che khut nhng b phn quan trng cn biu din hn .</p> <p>Hnh 97</p> <p>Hnh 98</p> <p>Hnh 99</p> <p>- cho hnh v c sng sa v r rng , mt ct ca cc chi tit khng gch cho m trng . Nu bn v c t l nh , cho php t en mt ct nh trn hnh -99. - T l ca hnh biu din c th chn nh sau .10</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>Chng 2</p> <p>BN V KT CU B TNG CT THP.1. KHI NIM CHUNG i Btng ct thp l loi vt liu hn hp di dng btng lin kt v ct thp chng cng lm vic vi nhau trong cng mt kt cu . Btng l mt loi nhn to , chu nn tt nhng chu ko km nn ngi ta t ct thp vo nhng vng chu ko ca kt cu khc phc nhc im trn ca b tng . Btng ct thp c s dng rng ri trong xy dng . .2. CC LOI CT THP . Ngi ta phn ra hai loi ct thp - Ct thp mm : gm nhng thanh thp c mt ct trn . - Ct thp cng : gm cc thanh thp hnh ( ch I , ch U ) Loi ct thp mm c s dng nhiu hn loi ct thp cng . Ct thp mm li chia ra : ct thp trn v ct thp gai : cc gai ny lm tng s lin kt gia btng v ct thp ( H.108 ). Ct thp gai c dng trong cc cng trnh chu rung v chn ng nhiu .</p> <p>Hnh 107</p> <p>Hnh 108</p> <p>Tu theo tc dng ca ct thp trong kt cu , ngi ta phn ra : - Ct thp chu lc: Trong cn phn ra ct chu lc ch yu , ct chu lc cc b , ct phn b .</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>-Ct ai : dng gi cc ct thp chu lc v tr lm vic , ng thi cng tham gia chu lc . -Ct cu to : c t thm theo yu cu cu to , tit din ca chng khng xt n trong tnh ton .</p> <p>Hnh 110</p> <p>Cc ct thp thng c lin kt thnh li ( H.115 ) hoc thnh khung ( H.118,119 ) Ngi ta thng dng dy thp nh hoc dng hn lin kt cc ct thp . tng cng lin kt trong btng , ct trn c un thnh mc hai u . ( H.108 ) Nu ct thp khng di , ngi ta ni ct thp bng cch buc hay hn . .3. CC QUY NH V K HIU QUY C DNG TRN BN V KT CU BTNG CT THP. th hin mt kt cu btng ct thp ngi ta thng v :</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>a)Bn v hnh dng kt cu : ( hay bn v vn khun m t hnh dng bn ngoi ca kt cu ( H.116) b)Bn v ch to kt cu : ch yu nhm th hin cch b tr cc thanh ct thp bn trong kt cu , khi btng coi nh trong sut . ( H.111, 117 ) Di y l cc quy nh v bn v btng ct thp . 1. Trn bn v ch to kt cu phi chn hnh chiu no th hin nhiu c trng nht v hnh dng lm hnh biu din chnh . 2. Nt v dng trn bn v kt cu btng ct thp : - Ct chu lc v bng nt lin m ( s 2s ) - Ct phn b , ct ai v bng nt lin m va ( ) - ng bao quanh cu kin v bng nt lin mnh ( ) 3. thy r cch b tr ct thp , ngoi hnh chiu chnh , ngi ta dng cc mt ct nhng v tr khc nhau , sao cho mi thanh ct thp c th hin trn t nht mt ln . Trn mt ct khng ghi k hiu vt liu . 4. Trn hnh biu din chnh v trn cc mt ct , cc thanh thp u c ghi s k hiu v ch thch nh trn hnh.110 . S k hiu c ghi trong vng trn ng t 7 n 10mm S k hiu trn hnh biu din chnh , hnh ct , hnh khai trin ct thp v trong bng k vt liu phi Hnh 111 nh nhau . 5. Vic ghi ch km vi s k hiu ct thp c quy nh nh sau : - Con s ghi trc k hiu ch s lng thanh thp . Nu ch dng mt thanh th khng cn ghi . ( H.110b) - di on ng dng nm ngang , con s ng sau ch I ch chiu di thanh thp k c on un mc u nu c . Con s ng sau chs 3s 2</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>a ch khong cch gia hai trc thanh thp k tip cng loi ( H.110c ) -Ch cn ghi y ng knh , chiu di ca thanh thp ti hnh biu din no gp thanh ct thp ln u tin . Cc ln sau gp li , nhng thanh ct thp ch cn ghi s k hiu m thi , v d thanh s 2 trn mt ct v trn hnh 111 .</p> <p>Hnh 112</p> <p>6. din t cch un cc thanh thp , gn hnh biu din chnh , nn v tch cc thanh thp vi y kch thc ( hnh khai trin ct thp ). Trn cc on un ca thanh ct thp cho php khng v ng dng v ng kch thc. ( H.112)</p> <p>7. Trn hnh biu din chnh , cng nh</p> <p>Hnh 113</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>trn hnh khai trin ct thp , nu s lng mt loi ct no kh ln , th cho php ch v tng trng mt s thanh ( v d thp s 3 trn hnh 111 v thp s 1,2 trn hnh 113) 8.Trn bn v mt bng ca sn hay mt cu kin no c nhng thanh ct thp nm trong cc mt phng ng , d hnh dung quy c quay chng i mt gc vung sang tri hoc v pha trn.</p> <p>Hnh 114</p> <p>.4. CCH C V V BN V BTNG CT THP . Khi c bn v btng ct thp , trc tin phi xem cch b tr ct thp trn hnh chiu chnh . Cn c vo s hiu ca thanh thp , tm v tr ca chng trn cc mt ct bit v tr ct thp cc on khc nhau ca kt cu . Mun bit chi tit th xem thm hnh khai trin ca ct thp , hay hnh dng ct thp trong bng k . Cc mt ct nn b tr gn hnh chiu chnh . Nu mt ct v theo mt t l khc vi t l ca hnh chiu chnh th cn ghi r t l ca mt ct . Thng bn v kt cu btng ct thp v theo t l : 1:20 ; 1:50 Sau khi v xong cc hnh biu din , lp bng k vt liu cho cu kin . Bng k vt liu t ngay pha trn khung tn thng gm cc ct c ni dung sau : - S th t - Hnh dng thanh thp - ng knh ( mm ) - S lng thanh - Tng chiu di ; - Trng lng thp . Cc k hiu quy c dng trn bn v btng ct thp c trnh by trong bng 4-1. Di y gii thiu mt s bn v btng ct thp :</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>Hnh 115 trnh by bn v mt bn btng ct thp c ln 1500 2500300 mm . y hnh ct A-A c ly lm hnh biu din chnh . Hnh chiu bng c p dng hnh ct ring phn , trn cho thy r li thp v v tr cc mc cu . Li thp K cn c v tch ngay di hnh chiu bng . Hnh 116 trnh by bn v mt ct btng ct thp cao 2600mm ; mt ct hnh ch nht ( 150 100 mm ) Trn bn v vn khun , ta thy r cc l xuyn qua thn ct v hai mc cu ; u v chn ct u c t cc ming thp ch . Hai li K-1 c lin kt vi nhau bng cc thanh thp s 3 lm thnh mt khung hnh hp . Hnh 117 V mt tm btng ct thp . Hnh biu din chnh cho ta thy cch b tr tng qut cc thanh thp . Cc ct thp vai b s 2 v 3 c un xung tng on khc nhau , c th hin bng cc mt</p> <p>Hnh 114</p> <p>Hnh 115</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>ct I-I , II-II ,III-III. Trn hnh khai trin ct thp , cc thanh thp c t v tr lin h ng dng vi hnh chiu chnh .</p> <p>Hnh 116</p> <p>Hnh.118 v hnh khng gian ca mt u dm gii hn bi mt ct III-III , phn btng tng tng l trong sut . Hnh 119 trnh by bn v ca mt tm sn btng ct thp . Ngoi bn v vn khun v cc mt ct , cn v hnh chiu trc o ca cu kin . Hnh 120 trnh by bn v lp t kt cu btng ct thp . l loi bn v c tnh cht s nhm gip ngi cng nhn lp ghp cc cu kin li vi nhau . Trn hnh 120a .b , ta thy v tr cc li ct C1 ,C2 v cc</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>Hnh 118</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>Hnh 119</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>dm D1 , D2, D6 K hiu ca ct v dm thay i tu theo v tr ca chng trn mt bng v trn hnh . gc cc nt kt cu c ghi k hiu hnh v tch m t chi tit hn cch lin kt gia cc cu kin .</p> <p>Hnh 120</p> <p>Ti liu ny c upload &amp; download min ph ti website: http://hutonline.net</p> <p>TT 1 1</p> <p>Tn gi 2</p> <p>K hiu 3 Trn mt ct nhn ngang</p> <p>Thanh ct thp 2 u thanh ct thp khng c mc v trn hnh khai trin hoc trn hnh biu din m hnh chiu thanh khng trng vi hnh chiu ca cc thanh thp khc . u thanh ct thp khng c mc v trn hnh biu din m hnh chiu ca thanh trng vi hnh chiu ca thanh khc u thanh ct thp c mc trn hoc nm song song vi mt phng bn v . u thanh ct thp c mc trn nm vung gc vi mt phng bn v . u thanh ct thp c mc vung song song vi mt phng bn v u thanh ct thp c mc vung ,nm v...</p>