Volume V, DIVISION V: RESEARCH PROJECTS-REPORTS AND ARTICLES BASED ON THE PROJECTS' FINDINGS; JEWISH DEMOGRAPHY / כרך ה, חטיבה ה: מפעלי מחקר בתחום מדעי היהדות: דינים-וחשבונות ומאמרים מדעיים, המבוססים על תוצאות מפעלי המחקר; מאמרים בדמוגרפיה יהודית‎ || ABSTRACTS OF ARTICLES IN THE HEBREW SECTION

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    ABSTRACTS OF ARTICLES IN THE HEBREW SECTIONSource: Proceedings of the World Congress of Jewish Studies / Volume V, DIVISION V: RESEARCH PROJECTS-REPORTS AND ARTICLES ,, BASED ON THE PROJECTS' FINDINGS; JEWISH DEMOGRAPHY / , : : - , ; pp. 55-77 " / 1969Published by: World Union of Jewish Studies / Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23524095 .Accessed: 09/06/2014 18:24

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    Z. Ben-Hayyim, Jerusalem

    The major task of a historical language dictionary is to provide the

    biography of each dictionary item from its first appearance in the

    language, in written form, until the closing of the dictionary. The task calls for the existence of all the appropriate records, extracted from the

    sources, in the hands of the editors. Connected with this is the necessity for a precise placement of the items in chronological order, so that an

    early form of the work will always precede later forms, The difficulty with a timetable applies particularly to the early period in the Hebrew

    language, defined as the era from the end of the Biblical until the end of the Gaonic age (approximately 1050 A.D.), wherein the lexicographer and the historian of the language find it difficult to pinpoint the exact time location of a particular source. One reason is the fact that the sources

    from which the dictionary items are derived often could be attributed to different periods.

    An example is the material taken from the Tannaitic literature placed in the dictionary under period 0-300) A.D.) but quoted in the Talmud im (the ), a literary source placed under period 300-600)

    A.D.). The question therefore is the correct chronological placement suitable for an item taken from the .

    For the purposes of the lexicographer and the historian a distinction was made between three kinds of 1 :. The first type are

    which appear in the Talmudim in the same form as in a

    Tannaitic source. 2. which have their parallels in the Tan

    naitic sources but are linguistically and stylistically different versions

    of the same thing. 3. which are the sole source for the Tannai

    tic expression. The differentiation allows several ways of treatment. A quotation of

    the first kind can be placed within the fourth chronological period, and, in cases of changes they can be presented as variae lectiones (by the citat

    ion of the sources and the period ) Quotations falling under the second

    and third categories should be catalogued in period , even though the

    material comes from the Tannaitic period since linguistically it

    cannot be attributed with certainty to the period . And by this rule the

    of the Amoraim fail to present a special chronological

    problem for the dictionary.


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    The above suggestion still leaves some chronological difficulties

    standing. The paper shows how at times a later source (for example the Talmud versus a Tannatic source) preserves a linguistic form or an

    ancient expression in contrast to what is presented by even earlier sources, whose manuscripts failed to maintain the original form. The very deter

    mination of what is early or late in matters of language development of expression can be sometimes done by external sources only.

    And therefore, in order to present the historical evolution correctly,

    according to standards and opinions acceptable in linguistic research, the suggestion is here made to add, whenever necessary, a special rubric

    'historical evaluation' of the material for a given item.




    I. Yeivin, Jerusalem

    The work of transcribing material gathered for the Historical Diction

    ary of the Hebrew language of the Hebrew Language Academy is done

    according to manuscripts rather than printed material. In this the task is

    similar to that of a text editor who also works according to manuscripts. There are, however, two differences between him and the editor of a

    dictionary. The editor of a text treats the work as a whole, but generally such works are not homogeneous. In most cases the version is ecclectic,

    requiring corrections and completions which are done on the basis of other manuscripts. The dictionary editor deals with a citation only within its context, i.e. a passage. The passage must be homogeneous. Only thus is it listed under the title of one source and one manuscript. Secondly, the text editor is interested in the whole work and would like to present it to the reader in its completeness. The editor of a dictionary is more

    likely to be satisfied with a selection from it, which seems to him impor tant to represent the language of this work or of its period.

    This type of approach to manuscripts determines several matters in the working method.

    1. The manuscripts on which the work of the dictionary is based, while in general containing words or forms more ancient than those found in printed material, are generally in worse condition, full of material defects (torn or unclear) and bearing traces of corrections done by dif

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    ferent readers. Therefore the text which is the base of the dictionary work exhibits signs of deterioration, letters which are difficult to decipher, additions made by correctors, etc., and in general is less clear than the

    printed version.

    2. Usually the dictionary editor does not add completions, corrections

    and such to the final version, even if there are deletions and errors. The

    reason is that if additions were written into the text, on the basis of

    other manuscripts or personal judgment, the uniqueness of the passage would be undermined, since a passage which contains secondary additions

    on the basis of other manuscripts is no longer homogeneous. Even in cases where all the manuscripts of a source are damaged

    such as in the Piyyutim or the Midrashim from the Geniza, which are

    preserved in fragmented manuscripts, for the purposes of the dictionary each version of a manuscript is transcribed by itself, and the versions

    are located next to each other. The dictionary editor does not compile one version out of two or more different transmissions, since in such a

    compilation the passages would lack uniformity. 3. When working on the transcription of the varia lectiones, after a

    certain passage was recorded according to one manuscript, and in ano

    ther manuscript there is an important variation to one or more words

    of the main passage, the dictionary worker does not insert this variation

    into the passage, since in such a method the passage will no longer be

    homogeneous, as it will contain words copied from two (or more)

    manuscripts. The variations are transcribed in the dictionary work as

    independent homogeneous passages, which are located next to the main

    passage, but contain a context of their own, according to the manuscript and from which this variation was transcribed.



    R. Mirkin, Jerusalem

    Research in the vocabulary of modern Hebrew literature (from 1750 till

    today) began in February 1969. By June 1972 fifty-nine sources were

    examined thoroughly, containing 760,000 words, and seven additional

    sources are being processed currently, with 150,000 works in them.

    The material includes all types of literature: pure fiction, scientific public

    ations, the press, Hassidic literature, publicism, letters, etc.

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    One of the sources whose examination has been completed is the

    first Hebrew story of Shalom Yaacov Abromovitz (Mendele Mocher

    Sefarim) whose title is ("Fathers and Sons") in

    its triple version (1862, 1868 and 1912), containing 112,197 words.

    The processing of this material yielded an amazing amount of dictionary material, till now unused. Some of the innovations are dealt with

    in the article (section b-d). The last section deals with the quantitative factor, the difficulties of which are most pronounced in the collection of

    material from modern Hebrew literature. One of the most complex questions deals with the selection of sources worthy of representing the modern Hebrew language in the historical dictionary.

    Even the sources which are going to be processed automatically demand selection and classification before they can be presented to

    the editors of the dictionary. A catalogue of 10,000,000 quotations might perhaps include 1,500,000

    quotations for the ten most common lemmata. What follows are several

    examples of the ways in which the material was selected and classified.


    A. Bein, Jerusalem

    This paper is meant as an introduction to the papers of my colleagues Dr. P. Alsberg (State Archives), Dr. M. Heymann (Zionist Archives), Dr. D. Carpi (Archives on the history of Jews in general), Dr. Y. Bauer

    (Archives and Research on the period of the Holocaust). Its intention is to give a general survey of the historical archives in Israel as a common

    project, their history and organization, their achievements and shortcom

    ings, their plans for the future, their place in the life and historical con sciousness of the people in this country as well as the relations to similar

    projects in the diaspora and the archive-systems of other countries.

    Jewish Archives as part of administrative bodies in Israel and in the

    Diaspora have a long tradition, but organized historical archives are of a more recent date. Whereas in Europe historical archives were organ ized, following the first Archival Law adopted in France during the French Revolution, in the course of the 19th century, the first organized Jewish historical archives came into existence only with the foundation of the Gesamtarchiv der deutschen Juden in 1906 and the Zionist Archives in 1919, both in Berlin. The transfer of the Zionist Archives to Jerusalem

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    in 1934 marks the beginning of organized historical archives in Palestine. All the other archives founded here since that time (or even a short while

    before it) were decisively influenced by its work and guidance.

    A new period opened with the foundation of the State Archives shortly after the State of Israel came into being and with the adoption (in 1955) of the Archives Law and the putting of its provisions into effect system

    atically since 1956-1957. This law, which is one of the most comprehen sive of its kind, tries to combine the advantages of Western and of East

    European conceptions. It comprises in its framework all existing types of archives in the country: governmental, municipal, public and private

    archives, and all stages of archival practice, from the first filing of the

    record in the registries till the destruction of worthless material and the

    preservation of historical records in the archives. At the same time it

    does not unduly infringe on the rights of private persons and public bodies

    to which certain archives belong, and avoids coercion as far as possible. A large part of the work of organizing and coordination is performed on a voluntary basis through the Israel Archives Association, which was

    founded in 1956. It has as its members all Israeli Archives and their

    professional staff. A general Guide to the collections of the Israel Archives

    has been published by this Association.

    One of the most important achievements of the Israeli Archives

    Administation is the coordination of activities between the different

    archives as well as between them and the archival departments of the


    Most archives in Israel keep not only records created in the country but also those which originate in the countries of the Diaspora. The

    work of the archives is therefore in not a small measure dependent on

    the cooperation of the relevant administrative, archival and research

    bodies in the Jewish Diaspora as well as of the State Archives and other

    public archives in many countries, which hold important supplementary documentation.

    The Central Administration of the Archives together with the Hebrew

    University and the Israel Archives Association organizes training courses

    both on an academic and on a more techincal level. It takes an active

    part in the work of the International Council on Archives, and in its

    conventions it supported from the outset the liberalization of access to

    archives. Its contribution was recognized by the International Council

    by inviting representatives of the Israeli Archives as panelists in the

    International Archives Conferences and Congresses and by electing the

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    State Archivist as a member of its Executive Board and of the Editorial

    Board of its official periodical Archivum.

    In planning for the future, special attention will be given to the prob lems of publishing guides, collecting documents and strengthening the

    connection between archival and h...


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