vsv- thải rắn chăn nuôi.pdf

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Nghin cu vi sinh vt x l cht thi chn nui dng rnPhm Bch HinTrng i hc Khoa hc T nhin Khoa Sinh hc Lun n Tin s ngnh: Vi sinh vt hc; M s: 62 42 40 01 Ngi hng dn: PGS.TS. Phm Vn Ton, GS.TS. Nguyn nh Quyn Nm bo v: 2012Abstract. Chng 1. Trnh by tng quan v cht thi chn nui v bin php x l; vi sinh vt tham gia qu trnh x l cht thi hu c. Chng 2. Vt liu v phng php: cc mu thu thp v chng vi sinh vt, ha cht; phng php: phn loi vi sinh vt; xc nh hot tnh sinh hc ca vi sinh vt; xc nh hin trng cht thi chn nui; th nghim v nh gi hiu qu ca ch phm. Chng 3. Kt qu v tho lun: thc trng cht thi ti mt s c s chn nui; nghin cu vi sinh vt x l cht thi chn nui; nghin cu sn xut ch phn vi sinh vt x l cht thi chn nui ng dng ch phm vi sinh vt x l cht thi chn nui hiu qu s dng phn hu c t cht thi chn nui i vi cy trng. Keywords. Sinh hc; Vi sinh vt hc; X l cht thi; Ph thi chn nui Content M U 1. TNH CP THIT CA LUN N Vit Nam l nc nng nghip, trong thi k i mi ngnh chn nui c nhng bc pht trin nhanh chng, m hnh trang tri chn nui tp trung c nhn rng trong ton quc. Mi nm c nc c khong 60 triu tn cht thi vt nui, trong ch c khong 50% c x l, s cn li c s dng trc tip bn cho cy trng hoc lm thc n cho c. Do ch tp trung u t nng cao nng sut v cht lng vt nui, phn nhiu cc trang tri cha ch trng n cng tc kim sot, qun l cht thi nn lm pht sinh dch bnh, tc ng xu n sc khe cng ng v nh hng trc tip n vic pht trin bn vng ca ngnh chn nui. Ti nhiu a phng ngi dn cn coi cht thi chn nui l phn bn, khng quan tm n vic x l hoc nu c cng ch ng ch bn cho cy

trng theo ma v. y l mt trong cc nguyn nhn gy nhim mi trng v ly truyn cc dch bnh cho ngi, vt nui v cy trng. Xut pht t thc t trn, chng ti tin hnh nghin cu ti: Nghin cu vi sinh vt x l cht thi chn nui dng rn. 2. MC TIU NGHIN CU CA LUN N - Tuyn chn c b chng vi sinh vt (VSV) thuc nhm an ton, sinh trng mnh, cnh tranh c vi VSV trong cht thi, chuyn ha nhanh cc hp cht hu c v c ch hiu qu cc vi khun (VK) gy bnh, gy thi, lm gim nhim mi trng t cht thi chn nui. - To c ch phm VSV x l cht thi chn nui thnh phn hu c p ng yu cu dinh dng cy trng, thay th mt phn phn v c, gp phn pht trin nng nghip an ton, bn vng. 3. NG GP MI CA LUN N - y l cng trnh u tin Vit Nam nghin cu mt cch c h thng, t hin trng cht thi dng rn trang tri chn nui tp trung n sn xut v ng dng thnh cng ch phm VSV x l c hiu qu cht thi chn nui, gim nhim mi trng v rt ngn thi gian chuyn ha cc cht hu c t 3- 4 thng xung cn 21- 30 ngy, nh gi c hiu qu ca phn hu c ch bin t cht thi chn nui i vi cy trng. - L cng trnh u tin nghin cu mt cch tng hp v chng minh c hiu qu s dng vi khun lactic sinh cc cht khng khun (axit lactic v bacterioxin) x l mi hi thi v c ch vi khun gy bnh trong cht thi chn nui. - Xy dng c qui trnh sn xut v ng dng ch phm vi sinh vt x l cht thi chn nui dng rn lm phn bn hu c thay th phn chung v tit kim c 25% lng phn khong gp phn pht trin sn xut nng nghip an ton, bn vng. 4. NGHA KHOA HC V NGHA THC TIN - Cung cp 4 chng vi sinh vt an ton, c hot tnh sinh hc cao trong sn xut ch phm vi sinh x l cht thi chn nui, to phn hu c gp phn gim lng phn ho hc v nng cao hiu qu sn xut ca nng dn. - xut gii php gim thiu nhim mi trng trong chn nui qui m trang tri gp phn pht trin bn vng ngnh chn nui. B CC LUN N: Lun n bao gm: Phn m u (3 trang); tng quan ti liu (37 trang); vt liu v phng php (17 trang); kt qu v tho lun (71 trang); kt lun v kin ngh (2 trang); danh

mc cng trnh lin quan n lun n; danh mc 122 ti liu tham kho v cc ph lc. Lun n c 45 bng, 42 hnh. Chng 1: TNG QUAN TI LIU 1.1. Cht thi chn nui v bin php x l 1.1.1. Cht thi chn nui v nguy c nhim mi trng Cht thi chn nui: L cht thi ra trong qu trnh chn nui, gm ba dng ch yu: Cht thi rn (bao gm ch yu l phn, cht n chung, thc n tha v i khi l xc gia sc, gia cm cht hng ngy); cht thi lng (bao gm nc ra chung, nc tm cho vt nui, nc tiu, mt phn phn); cht thi bn lng (gm c cht thi rn v cht thi lng). Nguy c nhim mi trng: - nhim do kim loi nng: Cc nguyn t vi lng, kim loi nng, vt nui khng tiu ho ht bi tit ra ngoi theo ng phn lm thoi ho t, c ch hot ng ca VSV, nhim nc ngm, tch t trong ni tng ngi v vt nui l nguyn nhn gy cc loi bnh tt. - nhim do kh c: Trong phn, nc thi ca ln c khong 40 loi kh c khc nhau sinh ra t qu trnh thi ra thc n tha v xc ng thc vt do hot ng sng ca vi khun ym kh. Cc kh thi H2S, NH3, CH4, CO2, N2O...gy mi hi thi kh chu, kch thch trung khu h hp ca ngi v vt nui, c th gy ng c hoc t vong. - nhim do vi sinh vt v k sinh trng gy bnh: Theo ti liu ca FAO c khong 90 loi bnh lin quan gia ngi v gia sc m phn ln do cc vi sinh vt v k sinh trng (KST) lan truyn t cht bi tit ca vt nui b bnh vo khng kh, ngun nc, t, nng phm , trong ph bin v nguy him nht l nhm vi khun gy bnh ng rut. 1.1.2. Tnh hnh s dng cht thi chn nui Vit Nam Mi ngy n gia sc, gia cm ca Vit Nam thi ra khong 539.733.15 tn cht thi rn, khong 25-30 triu khi cht thi lng, c tnh mi nm c trn 60 triu tn phn vt nui cc loi. Trong s ch c khong 50% c x l bng phng php trc khi s dng. 1.1.3. Cc bin php x l cht thi chn nui - Phng php vt l: Bao gm phng php lng cn; s dng my tch cht rn; lc. - Phng php ho hc: Bm v trn cc cht in ly n gin hoc cc cht in ly polyme cng vi hn hp cht thi trc khi tch c hc lm tng 82% hiu qu tch cht rn. - Phng php sinh hc: + S dng thm thc vt, h thu sinh + S dng vi sinh vt: L bin php chnh trong phng php sinh hc. Da trn c s ti u ho cc iu kin mi trng cho h vi sinh vt t nhin hoc vi sinh vt khi ng pht trin phn gii cc hp cht hu c trong phn trong iu kin hiu kh hay k kh to sn phm cui cng n nh, c gi tr kinh t, gim hm lng cht rn tng s, gim mi, tiu dit vi sinh vt gy bnh. Bin php ch yu x l cht thi lng l biogas, x l cht thi rn l composting.

1.2. Vi sinh vt tham gia qu trnh x l cht thi hu c H vi sinh vt trong cht thi chn nui gm nhiu nhm VSV c hot tnh sinh hc khc nhau gi vai tr ht sc quan trng trong chu trnh chuyn ha cc hp cht hu c thnh cc cht mn m cy trng c th s dng c. y chng ti ch cp cc nhm VSV c kh nng phn hu cc hp cht ph bin, l thnh phn chnh trong cht thi chn nui gm xenluloza, tinh bt, protein v VSV c kh nng c ch cc vi khun gy bnh ng rut, vi khun gy thi. 1.2.1. Vi sinh vt phn gii xenluloza Xenluloza l thnh phn ch yu ca thnh t bo thc vt. Trong t nhin khu h VSV c kh nng sinh tng hp enzym xenlulaza phn gii xenluloza v cng phong ph, bao gm vi khun, x khun v vi nm. Xenlulaza l mt phc h 3 enzym (Endo-1,4-glucanaza, Exo1,4-gluconaza, -1,4-glucozidaza) hot ng cng nhau thu phn xenluloza to ra cc loi ng c th i qua thnh t bo VSV. 1.2.2. Vi sinh vt phn gii tinh bt Amylaza l h enzym rt ph bin i vi VSV. C cht xc tc ca amylaza l tinh bt v glycogen, theo tnh cht v cch tc dng ln tinh bt, phn bit amylaza thnh cc loi: -amylaza, -amylaza, glucoamylaza v oligo 1-6 glucozidaza. -amylaza gp hu ht cc loi VSV nh nm si, nm men gi, vi khun c bo t v x khun. 1.2.3. Vi sinh vt phn gii protein VK c kh nng sinh ra c hai loi proteaza (endopeptidaza v exopeptidaza), do proteaza ca VK c tnh c hiu c cht cao. Cc VK c kh nng tng hp proteaza mnh nht. Nhiu loi nm mc cng c kh nng tng hp mt lng ln proteaza cn x khun t c nghin cu hn. 1.2.4. Vi khun lactic sinh tng hp axit lactic v bacterioxin Vi khun lactic c kh nng sinh axit lactic lm tng s phn hy cc hp cht hu c, l cht tit trng c ng dng nhiu trong bo qun, ch bin thc phm, trong y, dc v x l mi trng. Gn y vi khun lactic cn c c bit quan tm nghin cu v kh nng sinh bacterioxin l cc cht dit khun th h mi c ph khng khun a dng, tnh c hiu t bo ch cao, an ton vi ngi, vt nui, cy trng v mi trng l gii php cho vn kim sot cc ngun bnh Chng 2: VT LIU V PHNG PHP 2.1. Vt liu - Mu thu thp: 50 mu nghin cu gm phn , thc n chn nui, cc ph phm nng nghip v cht thi sinh hot, cht thi chn nui, ph phm ch bin thc phm v sn phm ln men truyn thng c thu thp trn a bn H Ni, Ngh An, klac. - Vi sinh vt gm: VK lactic: Lactobacillus agilis JCM 1230,L. salivarius JCM 5804, L. plantarum JCM 1048 v JCM1149, Leuconostos mesenteroides, L. fermentum, Streptocccus

spp do Phng Cng ngh Vt liu Sinh hc- Vin CNSH cung cp. Chng VK gy thi nhn khoai ty Erwinia carotovora KT03 do B mn Bnh cy, Vin Bo v Thc vt cung cp. Chng VK gy bnh cho ngi v vt nui: E. coli PA2, E. coli NC, S. typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Enterococcus faecalis, S. aureus ATCC 29213 do Phng VK him gp- Vin V sinh dch t TW v Vin CNSH cung cp. - Cc ho cht, thit b my mc: c sn xut ti cc nc M, Nht Bn, Thy in v c. 2.2. Phng php - Cc phng php nghin cu VSV hc thng thng: Phng php nui cy, ln men, xc nh c im sinh ha - Phn loi: Theo truyn thng (da trn c im hnh thi, sinh ha) v bng k thut sinh hc phn t (lp cy ph h da trn kt qu gii trnh t gien ADNr 16S. Xc nh trnh t ADNr 16S ca cc chng VK theo phng php ca Sakiyama v cs nm 2009). - Cc phng php xc nh hot tnh: Phng php khuch tn trn a thch, in di tricin SDS-PAGE, phng php Thener, Anson ci tin, Micro-bertrand - Phn tch l ho v th nghim ng rung theo TCN, TCVN, x l s liu theo thng k sinh hc. Chng 3: KT QU V THO LUN 3.1. TH C TR NG CH T TH I T I M T S C S CHN NUI S liu kho st trung bnh v s dng cht thi chn nui dng rn ti 6 c s chn nui tp trung thnh ph H Ni, tnh Ngh An, klc cho thy: Phn ln (52%) cht thi chn nui c bn cho cc c s thu mua, c 21% lng cht thi c dng bn cho cy, 17% dng lm thc n cho c v 10% c thi ra h thng nc thi cng cng. Kt qu xc nh nng trung bnh mt s kh thi v vi sinh vt gy bnh ti cc im iu tra u vt ngng cho php (bng 3.1.). Bng 3.1. Mi trng khng kh ti cc trang tri chn nui Ni nh gi Ch tiu nh gi (s liu trung bnh 3 ni nh gi) nhim khun Nng H2S khng kh (CFU/m3) (mg/m3) 1. Khu tp kt cht thi nui 5,8 0,45 x 106 l n 2. Khu tp kt cht thi nui 7,2 0,38 x 106 g Gii hn ti a 106 0,36 (4,5a) Nng (mg/m3) NH3

0,05 3,12 b (15,6 ) 2,94 b (14,7 ) 0,2 **

0,06

0,32 0,04 (4a)

0,08

0,08 *

(*): Theo TCVN 5937/95; (**): Theo TCVN 5938/95; a,b: s ln tng so vi gii hn cho php Nng H2S ti cc trang tri chn nui g v ln cao gp 4- 4,5 ln so vi gii hn. Nng NH3 trang tri nui ln v g cng u cao hn mc gii hn 15 ln. Kt qu nghin cu ca chng ti thp hn kt qu iu tra trong bo co ca Cc Chn nui, trong nng H2S trong chung nui g cao gp 83,4 ln so vi gii hn v trong chung nui ln gp 64,4 ln; Nng NH3 trong