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. - , , . . - . . . - . -, 2.1. ( ) ( , . 38/26.05.2015 .), . . . 1993 . 1996 . , 2009 . . 2011 2013 . . , , , , , , , . . . , 2006 . . . - . - , 1995 . 2006 . , , , , . - . ( ESSE). . , . , . - 31 , , , . (, ). 3 , 2 . 28- 5 , , -. 1, 2 3[footnoteRef:1] , 28- ( ). , , - . (4, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,17, 18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31). lingua frnca (5, 19), , , 6, 7, 9, 19. 25 , 31 . 20 , . - . - , , , . , , , , , . . ( 28) (. 2). [1: , .] -, , . , 11 (. 1, 29) , . - (). , - , (. 4), . , ( , ), : ... In Old English we have a system of five cases (24, . 268) :In the meaning of the direct object we have neutralization of this element - , we , . - , , ( ). (. 1988). - . . . , . 2 ( , . 14; , . 10). 8 . (. . hedges). - , , (28). , , , . , , (. 20). . . 1989, . 1999 (), M 1998. - , (. 64). , , . . , , , . , , , , (. 68). (. 69) . (, , ) , ( ). (20) . , . , , , . . , (. 72):it is ephemeral speech which is indelible, not monumental writing[]. Speech is irreversible: a spoken word cannot be retracted (Barthes 1977, . 191) - momental. . , , . ( , ). , , , (). , , ( , ). (20) -, ., (. 12, 26) - . (. 15, 17). 100 , 20 . , . , 83%, 17% . , , , . , , . (. 3) , . . . , . , . . 54 , ( ), . , . . 17 , 100 . . - 21 1 . 2 , 5 (2 ) 14 . 14 , 7 . . . (2)[footnoteRef:2] , . --. [2: , ] (1) , . . . , , . - . . , : , . ... (...), . (. 36-7, ). , . T , , . -- (Bower&Morrow 1990), . way . , , - , . , . , (. 56), , , ( , ...). , .. . . , - (construal) . , . , , . , . . Umwelt , 20 (Uexkll). -. . , , , , . , () , (. 151). - . , - . . , , , , . (. 190, ). ibid. , , , :Atkinson&Drew 1979 (. . 131)Black&Wilensky 1979 (. . 135)Cummings&Ono 1980 (. . 130)Eggins&Martin1997 (. . 130)Fauconnier&Sweetser 1996 (. . 152)Fludernik 1996 (. . 142)Heritage&Atkinson 1984 (. . 131) Hodge&Kress 1979 (. . 24)Kovatcheva 2002 (. . 160)Labocha 2011 (. . 25)Longacre 1983 (. . 27)Mann&Thompson 1988 (. . 133)Medhurst 1987 (. . 130)Mulholand 1991 (. . 24)Milroy&Milroy 1975 (. . 24)Mumby 1993 (. . 24)Schlesinger 1989 (. . 17)Trudgill 1977 (. . 24)Obeng 1996 (. . 24)Virtannen 1990 (. . 26) - , , - , - . (8,9,11), , . , . , , , . . , . (8, . 92, ). (10) , , . , , , , ( ) . (14) - . , . -, . , (. -). : () , , , , , . (. 122, ). (16) , , . (13) (15) , . .- 17 , 9 . 2. 12. (3,4,5,6,7), . :. 1. , , 4 (7, 13, 18, 25) ( ). 2. - .3. , .4. . .- 1. 10 17 , , .2. , . , . . .