Wireless comm Hebrew

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<p> " </p> <p> . .MostlyTek Ltd , " 1 Dr. Moshe Ran /1</p> <p> : Theodore S. Rappaport Wireless Communications - Principle and Practice",( 1 . 2nd Edition Prentice Hall 2002 .P. Mohana Shankar Introduction to Wireless systems Wiley, 2001( 2 : The Mobile Communications Handbook" , Ed. Jerry D. Gibson., IEEE Press( "3 1996 J.S. Lee and L.E. Miller, CDMA System Engineering Handbook, Artech( 4 .House 1998 T. Ojanpera and R. Prasad Ed. Wideband CDMA for Third generation( 5 .Mobile Communications, Artech House 1998 ", W.C.Y. Lee, "Mobile Communications Design Fundamentals( 6 .John Wiley&amp; Sons, 199321/ - Dr. Moshe Ran</p> <p>Mobile and Cellular Communication System</p> <p> : 4 + 5.3 : . : : " </p> <p> - . , , . . </p> <p> : %08 WWW.MostlyTek.com : MosheLong : Mobile Moshe_Ran@mostlytek.com / / %02 / %08 /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1 </p> <p>3</p> <p> : ]6[ , /. , , ), (, , , . , , . . , , . : ]6 [ , , : , , . , , , , , . ) , (frequency-reuse ,, , ACI ,CCI , Erlang , GOS , . )(handoff</p> <p> 1</p> <p> 2</p> <p>4</p> <p> 3 - 21[ Large Scale[ , , 3 : ,((reflection ) ,(diffraction ) , (scattering ) , (LOS ) ,(NLOS Moshe Ran - cost231,Okumura, Hata Walfish and Bertoni . /Dr )1 (outdoor , </p> <p> Small Scale</p> <p> - 9( (:</p> <p> 4</p> <p> , ) ,(multipath : ,delay spread - Doppler spread , Saleh and Valenzuela ) ,(Indoor ,SUI ITU-B</p> <p> )6 (: ), (, : ) ,(AM ,DSB SSB -: ) ,(PM ).(FM : ,PAM ,PDM ,PPM ,PFM ,PCM )( Delta Modulation</p> <p> 5*</p> <p> 6* , )6 (:, BPSK, DPSK, QPSK, O-QPSK : . FSK, MSK, GMSK :.M-PSK, M-QAM, M-FSK ( - OFDM .)Spread-Spectrum /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p>5</p> <p> ]6 [ ) ,(Multiple Access FDMA ,TDMA FHMA ,CDMA .OFDMA, MC-CDMA .</p> <p> 7</p> <p> 8 )3 ( . . ),(Link Budget</p> <p>6</p> <p> /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p>0.1</p> <p> , /, , ), (, . , , , . . , , .</p> <p>7</p> <p> /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p>: ." , . " </p> <p> ' ' </p> <p>8</p> <p> /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p>: ( , '( . : ( - . ' , , '- / ( , ' , , ' - : ( ( , ?9 /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p> , : . : , , : . : </p> <p> , t .01 /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p> "" - ( , 8491(</p> <p>11</p> <p> /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p>( (</p> <p> " "</p> <p> " " " "</p> <p> "" , ' . "" " " . , : ((? ( (? ?!</p> <p> ...!</p> <p>: " " , "".21</p> <p> /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p> Shannon : (H(X . - "" - . </p> <p> : ( ( R C (" "(, , . - .] ( C = Max I ( X ; Y ( = Max [ H ( X ( H ( X | Y Max is maximum with repspect to all possible information sources used as input to the channel31 /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p> Shannon AWGN P B ((Hz AWGN N . (C (= P C = B log 2 1 + bps N P + 1R &lt; C = B log 2 N0 B AWGN N =N0B (41</p> <p>N0 noise PSD (one sided /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p> - AWGN </p> <p>B = 3kHz P P = 1000 N NdB</p> <p>: </p> <p>= 10 log10 1000 = 30dB</p> <p>C = B log 2 (1 + 1000( ; 30kb / s . Hz "@ Spectral Efficiency units: bps/Hz or b/S/Hz C Spectral Efficiency for Shannon system=max B R b Spectral Efficiency for practical system with bit rate of R b [bps] B</p> <p>bps/Hz 10 : "" 151/ - Dr. Moshe Ran</p> <p> (s(t</p> <p>(m(t</p> <p>(R(t</p> <p> BB</p> <p>+ </p> <p>( I (t ( + n(t</p> <p> BB </p> <p> (</p> <p>s(t(+n(t</p> <p> - - 0&gt;&gt;fc ( ( bandpass61</p> <p> - )(baseband : " LPF , 300-3400Hz "" "A/D ECC</p> <p> /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p> bandpass )[s(t) = R(t) cos[ ct + (t . (m(t "" (R(t , : : (m(t ((t</p> <p> = + : baseband : "" , </p> <p>71</p> <p> /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p>Generic Digital System Block DiagramThe block diagram below represent a generic communication system that represents virtually all of the functions that may be present in a digital system</p> <p>18</p> <p>1/ - Dr. Moshe Ran</p> <p>Subsystems of InterestDepending on the system under study, the functional clocks that we generally need to have models for are: Signal Sources: radio- frequency and optical Information encoding/ decoding Baseband modulation; line coding Radio-frequency and optical modulation Demodulators Filter/adaptive equalizers Channels Multiexing/ multiple access Noise and interference sources Error control coding Synchronization</p> <p>19</p> <p>1/ - Dr. Moshe Ran</p> <p> " " .</p> <p> ' " </p> <p> ' </p> <p> , , . : - ( ,(ECC !!02 /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p> dB, dBm, dBw " , ( 11 dB = 10 log ( P2/ P</p> <p>1P</p> <p>, G</p> <p>2P</p> <p> 1P2 = G*P ]1dBm] P2 [dBm] = G[dB] + P , </p> <p> 1dBw= 10log P/1W1.0 011 0 2 3 4 6 6 8.7 8 9</p> <p>1dBm = 10log P/1mW01 01 02 31 001 021P2/P</p> <p>[] dB</p> <p>12</p> <p> /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p> ,dBmv1 ( dBmV = 20 log ( V/ 1mV " :</p> <p> 1 g 0lo P 2 = 1 0lo g P 1 22V V V 2 2 = g2 Z 2 lo 1 0lo = 20 g 1V 1V Z2</p> <p>1V</p> <p>1.0 -02</p> <p>1 0</p> <p>2 6</p> <p>4 21</p> <p>6 6.51</p> <p>8 81</p> <p>01 02</p> <p>02 62</p> <p>001 04</p> <p>1V2/V</p> <p>[] dB</p> <p>22</p> <p> /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p> Pin Vin</p> <p>2 :11 Pin 2</p> <p>1, Pout ,1 Vout 2, Pout ,2 Vout</p> <p> 2:1</p> <p> 1:</p> <p>= 2, Pout ,1 = Pout</p> <p> , .. -3dB . 2 .. 3 -dB </p> <p>Vout ,1 = Vout ,2 = 2Vin</p> <p>2: Z=75 1mV ] 1mV 0 dBmV 42.11 06 = -67.84 6-01((dBm = P[dBm]=10log(13.3(+10log</p> <p>,</p> <p>,P=V2/Z=10-6 /75=1.33*10-8 [W]=13.3*10-6 [mW</p> <p>32</p> <p> /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p> )( (w(t " . : . "" . . </p> <p>( w(t</p> <p>(W(f</p> <p> f</p> <p>= ( W( f</p> <p>+</p> <p>w(t (e j 2 ft dt</p> <p>= ( w(t</p> <p>+</p> <p>W ( f (e + j 2 ft df </p> <p> : ( ( ( ( . (w(t | |(W(f 0= .f . /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p>42</p> <p> [ ( ( f1, f2] : |( . W(f| </p> <p>Telephone Radio - monaural, Radio - stereo, FM Telegraphy (CCITT-2) 120 Hz Facsimile (FAX) Television High Definition TV</p> <p>4 kHz (300 -3400 Hz) AM 8 kHz (160 Hz - 8 kHz) 15 kHz (30 Hz - 15 kHz) 1.1 kHz 6.5 MHz 30 MHz</p> <p>25</p> <p>1/ - Dr. Moshe Ran</p> <p> ((</p> <p> : 3dB ]2( [f1, f ( | (|W(f 2 |(|W(f . . : . ( " (.</p> <p> :FCC . " " .</p> <p>62</p> <p> /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p> (w(t (( : : " " |(|W(f |2|)W(f </p> <p> PSD=power Spectral Density </p> <p> ?PSD .: , </p> <p>72</p> <p> /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p>1.1 </p> <p> ), (, , , , . . , , .</p> <p>82</p> <p> /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p> : PSTN : 0043-003 . 01-6 " , 081 /" . , . : ADSL, VDSL </p> <p> : </p> <p> (--- ( . 0001 " . . , cable modem</p> <p> : LOS , NLOS (( . " 001 ". ". . . .</p> <p> ) (, )(</p> <p> .GHZ ., , . . ( " (.92 /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p> ( 900MHz , ,1800MHz 2400MHz, 3.5GHz 5GHz, 10.5GHz , 28GHz'( , , Large Scale , - Small Scale </p> <p> Outdoor Indoor</p> <p> LOS NLOS</p> <p> .</p> <p>03</p> <p> /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p> (( : </p> <p> , (large (scale models ((small scale, Fading</p> <p>/ NLOS</p> <p> ) : (Reflections . . : , , '. ) :(Diffraction .. , . ) :(Scattering .. (, , ( .</p> <p> 3 4 13</p> <p> /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p>2.1 </p> <p> , , , . , , . .</p> <p>23</p> <p> /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p> + " " </p> <p> : $ 3G 90B $500M (ISM (license exempt, )WLAN (802.11a,b 4.61.208IEEE</p> <p> , IP</p> <p>33</p> <p> /Dr. Moshe Ran - 1</p> <p> ISM902-928MHz 2400-2483.5MHz 5725-5850MHz EIRP</p>