Wireless mesh network - WikiLeaks mesh network...12/31/2015 Wireless mesh network ... An important possible application for wireless mesh networks is VoIP. ... (Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol)

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<ul><li><p>12/31/2015 Wireless mesh network - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</p><p>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_mesh_network 1/6</p><p>Diagramshowingapossibleconfigurationforawirelessmeshnetwork,connectedupstreamviaaVSATlink(clicktoenlarge)</p><p>WirelessmeshnetworkFromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia</p><p>Awirelessmeshnetwork(WMN)isacommunicationsnetworkmadeupofradionodesorganizedinameshtopology.Itisalsoaformofwirelessadhocnetwork.Wirelessmeshnetworksoftenconsistofmeshclients,meshroutersandgateways.Themeshclientsareoftenlaptops,cellphonesandotherwirelessdeviceswhilethemeshroutersforwardtraffictoandfromthegatewayswhichmay,butneednot,connecttotheInternet.Thecoverageareaoftheradionodesworkingasasinglenetworkissometimescalledameshcloud.Accesstothismeshcloudisdependentontheradionodesworkinginharmonywitheachothertocreatearadionetwork.Ameshnetworkisreliableandoffersredundancy.Whenonenodecannolongeroperate,therestofthenodescanstillcommunicatewitheachother,directlyorthroughoneormoreintermediatenodes.Wirelessmeshnetworkscanselfformandselfheal.Wirelessmeshnetworkscanbeimplementedwithvariouswirelesstechnologyincluding802.11,802.15,802.16,cellulartechnologiesorcombinationsofmorethanonetype.</p><p>Contents</p><p>1 History</p><p>1.1 Architecture</p><p>1.2 Management</p><p>1.3 Applications</p><p>1.4 Operation</p><p>1.5 Multiradiomesh</p><p>1.6 Researchtopics</p><p>2 Protocols</p><p>2.1 Routingprotocols</p><p>2.2 Autoconfigurationprotocols</p><p>3 CommunitiesandProviders</p><p>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wireless_mesh_network_diagram.jpghttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telecommunications_networkhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Node_(networking)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesh_networkinghttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_topologyhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_ad_hoc_networkhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesh_nodehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/802.11shttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/802.15https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/802.16</p></li><li><p>12/31/2015 Wireless mesh network - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</p><p>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_mesh_network 2/6</p><p>3 CommunitiesandProviders</p><p>4 Seealso</p><p>5 References</p><p>6 Externallinks</p><p>History</p><p>Architecture</p><p>Wirelessmesharchitectureisafirststeptowardsprovidingcosteffectiveanddynamichighbandwidthnetworksoveraspecificcoveragearea.Wirelessmeshinfrastructureis,ineffect,anetworkofroutersminusthecablingbetweennodes.It'sbuiltofpeerradiodevicesthatdon'thavetobecabledtoawiredportliketraditionalWLANaccesspoints(AP)do.Meshinfrastructurecarriesdataoverlargedistancesbysplittingthedistanceintoaseriesofshorthops.Intermediatenodesnotonlyboostthesignal,butcooperativelypassdatafrompointAtopointBbymakingforwardingdecisionsbasedontheirknowledgeofthenetwork,i.e.performrouting.Suchanarchitecturemay,withcarefuldesign,providehighbandwidth,spectralefficiency,andeconomicadvantageoverthecoveragearea.</p><p>Wirelessmeshnetworkshavearelativelystabletopologyexceptfortheoccasionalfailureofnodesoradditionofnewnodes.Thepathoftraffic,beingaggregatedfromalargenumberofendusers,changesinfrequently.Practicallyallthetrafficinaninfrastructuremeshnetworkiseitherforwardedtoorfromagateway,whileinadhocnetworksorclientmeshnetworksthetrafficflowsbetweenarbitrarypairsofnodes.[1]</p><p>Management</p><p>Thistypeofinfrastructurecanbedecentralized(withnocentralserver)orcentrallymanaged(withacentralserver),[2]botharerelativelyinexpensive,andveryreliableandresilient,aseachnodeneedsonlytransmitasfarasthenextnode.Nodesactasrouterstotransmitdatafromnearbynodestopeersthataretoofarawaytoreachinasinglehop,resultinginanetworkthatcanspanlargerdistances.Thetopologyofameshnetworkisalsoreliable,aseachnodeisconnectedtoseveralothernodes.Ifonenodedropsoutofthenetwork,duetohardwarefailureoranyotherreason,itsneighborscanquicklyfindanotherrouteusingaroutingprotocol.</p><p>Applications</p><p>Meshnetworksmayinvolveeitherfixedormobiledevices.Thesolutionsareasdiverseascommunicationneeds,forexampleindifficultenvironmentssuchasemergencysituations,tunnels,oilrigs,battlefieldsurveillance,highspeedmobilevideoapplicationsonboardpublictransportorrealtimeracingcartelemetry.AnimportantpossibleapplicationforwirelessmeshnetworksisVoIP.ByusingaQualityofServicescheme,thewirelessmeshmaysupportlocaltelephonecallstoberoutedthroughthemesh.</p><p>Somecurrentapplications:</p><p>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Node_(networking)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Router_(computing)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peer-to-peer</p></li><li><p>12/31/2015 Wireless mesh network - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</p><p>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_mesh_network 3/6</p><p>U.S.militaryforcesarenowusingwirelessmeshnetworkingtoconnecttheircomputers,mainlyruggedizedlaptops,infieldoperations.Electricmetersnowbeingdeployedonresidencestransfertheirreadingsfromonetoanotherandeventuallytothecentralofficeforbillingwithouttheneedforhumanmeterreadersortheneedtoconnectthemeterswithcables.[3]ThelaptopsintheOneLaptopperChildprogramusewirelessmeshnetworkingtoenablestudentstoexchangefilesandgetontheInterneteventhoughtheylackwiredorcellphoneorotherphysicalconnectionsintheirarea.The66satelliteIridiumconstellationoperatesasameshnetwork,withwirelesslinksbetweenadjacentsatellites.Callsbetweentwosatellitephonesareroutedthroughthemesh,fromonesatellitetoanotheracrosstheconstellation,withouthavingtogothroughanearthstation.Thismakesforasmallertraveldistanceforthesignal,reducinglatency,andalsoallowsfortheconstellationtooperatewithfarfewerearthstationsthanwouldberequiredfor66traditionalcommunicationssatellites.</p><p>Operation</p><p>TheprincipleissimilartothewaypacketstravelaroundthewiredInternetdatawillhopfromonedevicetoanotheruntilitreachesitsdestination.Dynamicroutingalgorithmsimplementedineachdeviceallowthistohappen.Toimplementsuchdynamicroutingprotocols,eachdeviceneedstocommunicateroutinginformationtootherdevicesinthenetwork.Eachdevicethendetermineswhattodowiththedataitreceiveseitherpassitontothenextdeviceorkeepit,dependingontheprotocol.Theroutingalgorithmusedshouldattempttoalwaysensurethatthedatatakesthemostappropriate(fastest)routetoitsdestination.</p><p>Multiradiomesh</p><p>Multiradiomeshreferstoauniquepairofdedicatedradiosoneachendofthelink.ThismeansthereisauniquefrequencyusedforeachwirelesshopandthusadedicatedCSMAcollisiondomain.Thisisatruemeshlinkwhereyoucanachievemaximumperformancewithoutbandwidthdegradationinthemeshandwithoutaddinglatency.ThusvoiceandvideoapplicationsworkjustastheywouldonawiredEthernetnetwork.Intrue802.11networks,thereisnoconceptofamesh.ThereareonlyAccessPoints(AP's)andStations.Amultiradiowirelessmeshnodewilldedicateoneoftheradiostoactasastation,andconnecttoaneighbornodeAPradio.</p><p>Researchtopics</p><p>OneofthemoreoftencitedpapersonWirelessMeshNetworksidentifiedthefollowingareasasopenresearchproblemsin2005</p><p>NewmodulationschemeInordertoachievehighertransmissionrate,newwidebandtransmissionschemesotherthanOFDMandUWBareneeded.</p><p>AdvancedantennaprocessingAdvancedantennaprocessingincludingdirectional,smartandmultipleantennatechnologiesisfurtherinvestigated,sincetheircomplexityandcostarestilltoohighforwidecommercialization.</p><p>FlexiblespectrummanagementTremendouseffortsonresearchoffrequencyagiletechniquesarebeingperformedforincreasedefficiency.</p><p>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesh_networkinghttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One_Laptop_per_Childhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iridium_satellite_constellationhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_stationhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Packet_(information_technology)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internethttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Routinghttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algorithmhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrier_sense_multiple_accesshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collision_domainhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orthogonal_frequency-division_multiplexinghttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultra-widebandhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Directional_antennahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_antennahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_antenna_researchhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectrum_management</p></li><li><p>12/31/2015 Wireless mesh network - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</p><p>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_mesh_network 4/6</p><p>WikimediaCommonshasmediarelatedtoMeshnetwork.</p><p>CrosslayeroptimizationCrosslayerresearchisapopularcurrentresearchtopicwhereinformationissharedbetweendifferentcommunicationslayersinordertoincreasetheknowledgeandcurrentstateofthenetwork.Thiscouldenablenewandmoreefficientprotocolstobedeveloped.Ajointprotocolwhichcombinesvariousdesignproblemslikerouting,scheduling,channelassignmentetc.canachievehigherperformancesinceitisproventhattheseproblemsarestronglycorelated.[4]Itisimportanttonotethatcarelesscrosslayerdesigncouldleadtocodewhichisdifficulttomaintainandextend.[5]</p><p>Protocols</p><p>Routingprotocols</p><p>Therearemorethan70competingschemesforroutingpacketsacrossmeshnetworks.Someoftheseinclude:</p><p>AODV(AdhocOnDemandDistanceVector)B.A.T.M.A.N.(BetterApproachToMobileAdhocNetworking)Babel(protocol)(adistancevectorroutingprotocolforIPv6andIPv4withfastconvergenceproperties)DNVR(DynamicNIxVectorRouting)DSDV(DestinationSequencedDistanceVectorRouting)DSR(DynamicSourceRouting)HSLS(HazySightedLinkState)HWMP(HybridWirelessMeshProtocol)IWMP(InfrastructureWirelessMeshProtocol)forInfrastructureMeshNetworksbyGRECOUFPBBrazilMRP(Wirelessmeshnetworksroutingprotocol)byJangeunJunandMihailL.SichitiuOLSR(OptimizedLinkStateRoutingprotocol)OORP(OrderOneRoutingProtocol)(OrderOneNetworksRoutingProtocol)OSPF(OpenShortestPathFirstRouting)RoutingProtocolforLowPowerandLossyNetworks(IETFROLLRPLprotocol,RFC6550)PWRP(PredictiveWirelessRoutingProtocol)TORA(TemporallyOrderedRoutingAlgorithm)ZRP(ZoneRoutingProtocol)</p><p>TheIEEEisdevelopingasetofstandardsunderthetitle802.11stodefineanarchitectureandprotocolforESSMeshNetworking.</p><p>AlessthoroughlistcanbefoundatAdhocroutingprotocollist.</p><p>Autoconfigurationprotocols</p><p>Standardautoconfigurationprotocols,suchasDHCPorIPv6statelessautoconfigurationmaybeusedovermeshnetworks.</p><p>Meshnetworkspecificautoconfigurationprotocolsinclude:</p><p>AdHocConfigurationProtocol(AHCP)</p><p>https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Mesh_networkhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-layer_optimizationhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ad_hoc_On-demand_Distance_Vectorhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B.A.T.M.A.N.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babel_(protocol)https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dynamic_NIx-Vector_Routing&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DSDVhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_Source_Routinghttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hazy_Sighted_Link_State_Routing_Protocolhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_Wireless_Mesh_Protocolhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrastructure_Wireless_Mesh_Protocolhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MRPhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optimized_link_state_routing_protocolhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_One_Network_Protocolhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Shortest_Path_Firsthttps://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Routing_Protocol_for_Low-Power_and_Lossy_Networks&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6550https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=PWRP&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temporally-ordered_routing_algorithmhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zone_Routing_Protocolhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEEhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.11shttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesh_Networkinghttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ad_hoc_routing_protocol_listhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DHCPhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPv6#Stateless_address_autoconfiguration_.28SLAAC.29</p></li><li><p>12/31/2015 Wireless mesh network - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</p><p>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_mesh_network 5/6</p><p>ProactiveAutoconfiguration(ProactiveAutoconfigurationProtocol)DynamicWMNConfigurationProtocol(DWCP)</p><p>CommunitiesandProviders</p><p>CUWiNFreifunk(DE)/FunkFeuer(AT)/OpenWireless(CH)FiretideGuifi.netNetsukukuNinux(IT)Senceive</p><p>Seealso</p><p>AMPRNet/HAMNET/HSMM(amateurradio)AntcolonyoptimizationCjdnsComparisonofwirelessdatastandardsDASH7IEEE802.11sINSTEONIQRFISA100.11a</p><p>MeshBoxMobileadhocnetworkPeertopeerPublicSafetyNetworkRoofnetSharedmeshSmartantennaSoftwaredefinedradioSwitchedmesh</p><p>TinyOSWirelessadhocnetworkWirelesscommunitynetworkWirelessDistributionSystem(WDS)WirelessLAN(WLAN)VillagetelcoZigBee</p><p>References1. J.Jun,M.L.Sichitiu,"Thenominalcapacityofwirelessmeshnetworks"</p><p>(http://networking.ncsu.edu/capacityWCM.pdf),inIEEEWirelessCommunications,vol10,5pp814.October2003</p><p>2. S.M.Chen,P,Lin,DWHuang,SRYang,"Astudyondistributed/centralizedschedulingforwirelessmeshnetwork"inProceedingsofthe2006InternationalConferenceonWirelessCommunicationsandMobileComputing,pp599604.Vancouver,BritishColumbia,Canada.2006</p><p>3. ZigBee.orgSmartEnergyOverview.(http://zigbee.org/Standards/ZigBeeSmartEnergy/Overview.aspx)4. Pathak,P.H.Dutta,R.(2011)."ASurveyofNetworkDesignProblemsandJointDesignApproachesin</p><p>WirelessMeshNetworks".IEEECommunicationsSurveys&amp;Tutorials13(3):396428.doi:10.1109/SURV.2011.060710.00062.</p><p>5. V.Kawadia,P.R.Kumar(February2005).ACautionaryPerspectiveonCrossLayerDesigninIEEEWirelessCommunications.pp.311.</p><p>Externallinks</p><p>WirelessLANMeshWhitepaper(http://airberry.com/downloads/airberry_Whitepaper_EN_02_Wireless_Mesh.pdf)</p><p>https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proactive_Autoconfiguration_Protocol&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CUWiNhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freifunkhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firetidehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guifi.nethttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netsukukuhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ninuxhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senceivehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AMPRNethttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_multimedia_radiohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ant_colony_optimizationhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cjdnshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_wireless_data_standardshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DASH7https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.11shttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/INSTEONhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IQRFhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISA100.11ahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MeshBoxhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_ad_hoc_networkhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peer-to-peerhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_Safety_Networkhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roofnethttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shared_meshhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_antennahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software-defined_radiohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switched_meshhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TinyOShttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_ad_hoc_networkhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_community_networkhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_Distribution_Systemhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_LANhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Village_telcohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZigBeehttp://networking.ncsu.edu/capacityWCM.pdfhttp://zigbee.org/Standards/ZigBeeSmartEnergy/Overview.aspxhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_object_identifierhttps://dx.doi.org/10.1109%2FSURV.2011.060710.00062http://airberry.com/downloads/airberry_Whitepaper_EN_02_Wireless_Mesh.pdf</p></li><li><p>12/31/2015 Wireless mesh network - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</p><p>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_mesh_network 6/6</p><p>HowWirelessMeshNetworksWork(http://www.howstuffworks.com/howwirelessmeshnetworkswork.htm)atHowStuffWorksFirst,SecondandThirdGenerationMeshArchitectures(http://www.meshdynamic...</p></li></ul>