Лекция №11 Организация ЭВМ и систем

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  • :

    / /

  • ( , , ), ( ) .

    :

    ; ; .

  • , , . max , ( ). ( ) , .Max . . .

  • . 2 : ( ); .

    , :UNIBUS DEC ( - ). MULTIBUS INTEL ( - ).

  • UNIBUS , 56 . : . , . . . : . . , .

  • MULTIBUS , . 8- 16- Multibus IBMPC. 20 .

    : . .: , . .

    MULTIBUS IBM PC U41, MICROBUS.

  • / :

    . . . , , , , .

  • RS 232C 1969., 80- . , .

    RS 232C : (.2). (.1). (.4). (.5).

  • (EIA) RS 422 RS 423 1975. RS 422 . RS 423 . RS 232C 4- 25 ( - 25). (8 ). . , . PC RS232C, COM1 COM2. , PC , RS232C.

  • RS232C :

    PC . PC (), ; PC - (, , , , ..); PC .

  • RS232C : , , ; , .. . ; , .. ; , . 5, 6, 7 8;

  • , 2 . ; , , . , . , .

  • RS 232 : >+3 0, +3 < -3. +12 -12 . +12+30-3-120111110000

  • :

    -2 15607-84. . ;

    -7 27463-87. , . .

  • RS 232-C, RS 422, RS 423, RS - 485

    RS-232-CRS-422-ARS-423-ARS-485Max, 15120012001200Max,/201001100

  • RS232C GND. . RS22 , : ( 103) PC; ( 104) PC; "" D ( 106) , PC ; "" ( 107) PC , ; "" ( 105) , PC ;

  • "" ( 106) PC ; "" CF ( 109) PC , , ; "" ( 125) , ( , , ). RS232C . , .

  • LPT (Line Printer ). , /. (3BCh, 378h 278h ). 8 , 5 4- . BIOS 4- LPT (LPT1-LPT4) INT17h, Centronics. Centronics , 36 .

  • SPP (Standard Parallel Port) , Centronics.

    3 8- :

    ( = BASE). , 5- (4-7 , = BASE+1). , 4- (0-3 , = BASE+2).

  • Centronics

    - PC - AUTOFEEDPC1412 - INITIALIZE PRINTERPC1631 BUSY1111 PC, - ERROR1532 Off Line, SELECT INPUTPC1736

  • - PC GND-18 - 2516, 19 30, 33 - STROBEPC11 PC - STROBEDATA1 -DATA8PC2 - 92 9 - ACXNLG1010 PAPER END1212 SELECT1313

  • , .

    1 - 20 0 -

    ( 10 ).

  • 1994 (Infra-Red Data Assotiation) IrDA. IrDA - 850-900 ( 880). IrDA 1 -. : 115,2 /. 1,152 /. 4 / ( , ( ) , , .. )

  • IrDA - UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter), 2400-115200/. 10- : 8 , . IrDA , .. - . - . IrDA : "0" - 1,6 3/16 , "1" -. 1,6.

  • MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) 31,25 / (1983.) , , .

    MIDI 10 ( 5) .

  • Intel386 Intel486

    ISAEISAVLB/VLB-2PCI 198419891987 /199219928 (16)323264 , 88, 33F33, 66,100 , /8-1633132120, 132, 264 8 - + -+ - 2 - 3 PCI- . BIOS .

  • -

  • (VLB)

  • PCI PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect ) Intel 1992 ( PCI2.0 1993) VLB/VLB2. PCI , Alpha, MIPS, PowerPC SPARC. ISA, EISA MCA PCI , - . PCI: 3,3, 5 . 32- 64- PCI. 64- .

  • PCI

  • PCI , 32 64 : , . . PCI (bus mastering DMA), PCI PCI. , . , PCI : Plug&Play ( BIOS ); ( ); ; 64 256 ( , , () .)

  • 1995 PCI2.1, : 66; MTT (Multi-Transaction Timer) , , , , ; (Passive Release) , PCI, , ISA ( PCI, ISA);

  • PCI PCI PCI ISA; PCI- , , PCI , , , 8- .

  • AGP 1996 Intel AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port ). 12 AGPPCI - 1 2

  • AGP .

    AGP 1x AGP 2x AGP 4x AGP 8x AGP 1.0-1997 AGP 1.0-1997 AGP 2.0-1998 AGP 3.0-2000 3,3 3,3 1,5 0,8 . , / 26653310662133

  • AGP SBA (Side-Band Addressing). SBA 8 , , 32- .

    AGP , . PCI . AGP , .

    AGP .

  • AGP : DMA (Direct Memory Access) . , ; DIME (Direct In Memory Execute) . . GARP (Graphic Address Remapping Table) 4. , . AGP-.

  • AGP: AGPPro ( 110), ;64- AGP, ; AGP Express, AGP PCI - AGP. PCI Express AGP-. AGP PCIExpress.

  • PCI Express PCI Express ( 3GIO (3rd Generation I/O - 3- )) PCI, . PCI Express , . PCI Express (AGP, PCI), PCI Express. PCI Express, , .

  • PCI Express

  • (link), PCI Express, () , (lane). . , . PCI Express 2,5/ . 5 10/. : (x1 link), (x2 link), (x4 link), (x8 link), (x16 link) (x32 link). . , : x1, x2, x4, x8, x16, x32.

  • (data stripping): . x2 , , .PCI Express , , .. . PCI Express 8 B/10 B (8 10 ) , . 8 B/10 B PCI Express , 2500/ / 10/ = 250/ (238/).

  • Pentium II, IIICPU-SLOT 1ControlAddressDataAGPSLOTPMC82443BXMainMemory(DRAM)AddrCntrlPCI BUSControlAddress/DataPIIX4EUSB1USB2PCI IDEHEADERISA BUSISASLOT(s)83977FFDCBufferX BUSKBCRTCFlash BIOSSerialLPTIrDA

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