Экспертные системы: лекция №3

  • Published on
    12-Jul-2015

  • View
    1.102

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

<ul><li><p> 3</p><p>. dimour.spb.rumouromtsev@mail.ifmo.ru</p><p> II</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 (production system) </p><p> , (production rule), , (IF THEN). (Emil Leon Post), 1943*, . . , . .</p><p>2* Post E. (1943) Formal reduction of the general combination problem. American journal of Mathematics, 65: 197-268, 1943</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3</p><p>3</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 (productions); (IFpart) (antecedent) (), , () ; (THENpart) (consequent) .</p><p>4</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 </p><p> (working memory) , .</p><p>5</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 - </p><p>6</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3</p><p> (refraction) . (recency) . (specifity) </p><p>7</p><p> OPS5* ( OPS - "Official Production System, 1970- ): </p><p>* Brownston L., Farrel R., Kant E., Martin N. (1985) Programming Expert Systems in OPS5: An </p><p>Introduction to Rule-Based Programming. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1985.</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3</p><p> DROOLS </p><p> ( - Salience). (Recency). (Primacy).FIFO (First In First Out).LIFO (First In First Out). (Complexity). (Simplicity). (LoadOrder). (Random).</p><p>8</p><p> DROOLS , *: </p><p>* http://legacy.drools.codehaus.org/Conflict+Resolution</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 </p><p> . (cycle back) .</p><p>9</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 </p><p>10</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 </p><p>1: , .2: 18 , . </p><p>11</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 (reasoning)</p><p>12</p><p> , .</p><p> 18 , .</p><p> 18 </p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 </p><p> - . .</p><p>13</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 (datadriven search), . (forward chaining). (goaldirected strategy) , , . (backward chaining). </p><p>14</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 </p><p> . , . .</p><p>15</p><p> , () , , .. :</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 </p><p>16 . </p><p> ? </p><p> ?</p><p> ? </p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 ( )</p><p> , . , . , . , . , .</p><p>17</p><p> . , :</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 ( )</p><p> :</p><p>18</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 ( )</p><p> 3, : :</p><p>19</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 ( )</p><p> 2, : :</p><p>20</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3</p><p> . , . , , . </p><p>21</p><p> , . :</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 </p><p>1. . 2. . , </p><p> . , , . </p><p>3. . 4. , </p><p> , . 5. , 2. 6. , </p><p>, . 7. , .</p><p>22</p><p> . :</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 ( )</p><p>23</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 ( )</p><p>1. .2. , </p><p> , .3. 2 , , </p><p> . , 2. , .</p><p>4. , , . , , . .</p><p>5. .24</p><p> , . . , :</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 ( )</p><p> 146: </p><p> , .</p><p>25</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 </p><p> 12: , . 13: , , . 146: , . 35710: , &lt; 3,5 &gt; 2 , . 3579: , &lt; 3,5 &lt; 2 , . 358: , &gt; 3,5, .</p><p>26</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 ( )</p><p>, </p><p>27</p><p> 1 2 3 4 5 6</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 ( )</p><p> 6 , , </p><p>28</p><p>, ,</p><p> 1 2 3 4 5 6</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 ( )</p><p> 2 , , 2: </p><p>29</p><p>, ,</p><p> 1 2 3 4 5 6</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3</p><p> . , .</p><p>30</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 (I)</p><p> , . </p><p>31</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 (II)</p><p> , , , . </p><p>32</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 Rete </p><p>33</p><p> , RETE , , . , , .</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 : G2</p><p>34</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 : Exsys</p><p>35</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 : Drools</p><p>36</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 Drools IF the entrance pupil of an optical system is removed forwardTHEN exclude the all base elements with exception of B3A3P element</p><p>37</p><p>rule The B3A3P element when Classification( D == 2 ) $elements := ArrayList() from collect( OpticalElement() ) then modify( $elements ) { clear() add( new OpticalElement( type == B, surfaces == 3A3P )) }end</p></li><li><p> 20</p><p>14 </p><p>..</p><p> 3 Drools IF the optical system is not fastTHEN a fast element isnt needed at the system</p><p>38</p><p>rule No fastwhen</p><p>Classification( J == 1 )$conds := SystemConditions()</p><p>thenmodify( $conds ) {setIsFastNeeded( false )</p><p>}end</p></li></ul>