Лекция №4(часть 2) Организация ЭВМ и систем

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  • :

  • , (graphics coprocessor, graphics accelerator). , . . . , , . . , . . RAM, .

  • . . :

  • MDA IBM PC. IBM 1981 , , . MDA . (Video mode 7) 80 25 . MDA Motorola 6845 4 . 50 , . : , , , (), . .Monochrome Display Adapter

  • CGA , IBM 1981 , IBM PC. IBM, . CGA 16 NTSC- , RGBI . Motorola MC6845, CGA . 640200, 4 (16 ).CGA , , - .

    Color Graphics Adapter

  • CGA , :

    :4025 , 16 .8025 , 16 .

    :320200 . , .640200 . , ( ).Color Graphics Adapter

  • VGA . IBM 1987 PS/2 Model 50 . VGA , . VGA , , . , 640480, 70 , 640480 60 . 256 , 262144 ( 6 , ). VGA 256 . VGA, IBM (MDA, CGA, EGA), . . VGA- , .Video Graphics Array

  • 3D- .

    : ( )- -

  • , . , , . , , , . , GPU , : 2D-, 3D-, , ( ) ( ) .

  • - , 3D-. , :

  • , fps . . , . , . (shader) , . , , , , -.

  • :

    (pixel shader) , , , , , . . (vertex shader) , . , , , , -, , . , , . . (geometry shader), , , . ( ) ( ), (adjacency) . , , .

  • , , , .. , . Nvidia GeForce 3, 2001 , . (register combiner), . ATI Radeon 9700 ( 2002 ) Nvidia GeForce FX ( 2003 ) .

  • . ATI Xenos, Xbox 360, Nvidia GeForce 8800, . , ; .

  • , , , .

  • , RAMDAC .

  • , . , , ( ). . , . DDR, DDR2, GDDR3, GDDR4 GDDR5.

  • : , , . : 1024-2048 , : 1800-4000 , , . , , : 128-384

  • , DDR SDRAM .GDDR2, DDR2 , . GDDR2 DDR2 .GDDR3 , DDR2, . GDDR4 GDDR3 .GDDR5 , GDDR4, GDDR5 DDR3, DDR2, DQ(Digital Quest) , GDDR5 8 GDDR4.

  • GDDR5 , CK WCK, . SDR ( ) CK; DDR CK; DDR WCK. (CK, WCK) GDDR5 , . NVIDIA WCK, AMD CK. , , , UMA (Unified Memory Access). UMA .

  • RAMDAC Random Access Memory Digital-to-Analog Converter ( - )RAMDAC , , , . RAMDAC. RAMDAC , (, , , RGB), SRAM -. 8 256 , 16,7 ( - 16,7 ). RAMDAC 10 (1024 ), 1 , . .RAMDAC

  • , -BIOS, , . . . -BIOS , , ( BIOS). (EEPROM, Flash ROM), -BIOS .-

  • . , , , , , , .

  • 3D- Voodoo Graphics 3dfx Interactive 1996 . ATI, Nvidia, 3dfx, S3, Matrox ATI AMD, 3dfx Nvidia, S3 Matrox . AMD Nvidia, Intel , , , . 3D

  • Voodoo Graphics 3D , 3dfx Interactive 1996 . Voodoo Graphics 3D , , , - FBI (Frame Buffer Interface) TMU (Texture Mapping Unit). PCI , 3D , TMU , . Voodoo Graphics TMU, . TMU 2 EDO DRAM, FBI - .

    3dfx Voodoo Graphics

  • 2D . , 2D . Pass-Through.Pass-Through - 3D , 2D , , - . 2D . , 3D , , , 2D . , 3D . 3D , 2D .

    3dfx Voodoo Graphics

  • Voodoo Graphics SLI.SLI (Scan Line Interleaving) - , Voodoo . , - . Fillrate . - 1.5 .

    3dfx Voodoo Graphics

  • Voodoo Graphics:

    3dfx Voodoo Graphics

    0.35 45 Mpix/sec 1 Mpoly/sec RAMDAC135 4-8 EDO RAM 640x480(4 )800600(8 ) 16 PCI

  • ATI ( 2006 AMD, 2010 ). 1985 , Mach8 1991 . , . Mach32 Mach64, 2D- . ATI

  • ATI Rage, Rage, Rage II, Rage Pro, Rage 128 Rage Fury Maxx. 3D- . Rage II , 60 , 480 /. , , :

    Z- OpenGL AGP

    ATI

  • Rage6 Radeon. .

    :

    (2 , 40 Rage 3D, 4096 , 1250 Radeon HD 6990) ( 40 Rage 3D 830 Radeon HD 6990) AGP (Rage Pro, 1997 ), PCI-E (Radeon X300, 2004 ) DDR (Radeon 7200, 2000 ), GDDR2 (Radeon 9800, 2003 ), GDDR3 (Raneon X700, 2004 ), GDDR4 (Radeon X1950, 2006 ), GDDR5 (Radeon HD 4870 X2, 2008 ) ATI

  • ( 375 Radeon HD 6990) (Radeon HD 2900 XT, 2007 ) ATI

  • 2011 HD 6xxx HD 6990. ATI

  • HD 6990 , . :

    ATI

    40 2 2,64 . 3072(384x4):192:64 880 5000 (41250 ) GDDR5 2x2 2x160 /PCI-E 2.1

  • Nvidia 1993 , NV1 1995 . NV1 2D-, 3D-, Sega Saturn - PCI. NV1 3D: (quadratic texture mapping, QTM) . DirectX , , NV1 .

    Nvidia

  • NV1

    Nvidia

    PCI 12 Mtexels/s DirectX- EDO/VRAM. 4 75 64 . 0,6 / 600 x 1 200 / 15 1 x VGARAMDAC 170

  • NV2 , Nvidia QTM NV3 (Riva 128). : Riva 128 Riva 128ZX.

    Nvidia

    PCI/AGP 1x PCI/AGP 2x 100 Mtexels/s 100 Mtexels/s 100 Mpixels/s 100 Mpixels/s 11 11 100 100 0,35 0,35 3,5 .3,5 . DirectX55 SDRAM SDRAM. 4 8 100 100 128 128 1,6 / 1,6 /1 x VGA 1 x VGARAMDAC 206 250

  • NV3 NV4, NV5 NV6, 1 2, SDRAM AGP 4x . 1999 Nvidia GeForce - GeForce 256. , DDR . 2001 GeForce 3. , , DirectX 8, . 2007 GeForce 8800 GTX, . Nvidia

  • :

    (2 , 75 NV1, 3072 , 3414 GeForce GTX 590) ( 75 NV1 900 GeForce GTX 550 TI) AGP (RIVA 128, 1997 ), PCI-E (GeForce 6600 GT, 2004 ) DDR (GeForce4 MX 440, 2002 ), GDDR2 (GeForce FX 5700 Ultra, 2003 ), GDDR3 (GeForce 6600 GT, 2004 ), GDDR5 (GeForce GT 340, 2010 ) Nvidia

  • GPU .General Purpose GPU

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