αποστολίδης γ., σύγχρονες θεωρήσεις μάθησης

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; ; -E;

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; . (Gagn) . . ( .), , . . .

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= & (, , )

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; . (;) - . . . .

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1. ;, (Stones, 1987). , .

2. ;. , .

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- , , - ,

... Multimedia (cognitive tools) - .

( )

( )

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: : :

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(behaviorism)

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. Pavlov (1849-1936): E. L Thorndike (1874-1949): J. B. Watson (1878-1958): = ). Wiener (1894-1964): -- (feed back). : . . .B. F. Skinner (1904-1990): , N. Crowder: R. Gagne (1916-2002):

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(behaviorism) (, , .) . =, ( ) . () (A) . . ., .

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(behaviorism) -. -, . () , () . .

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. , : (), (), (Skinner). , , . ( ) . , , .

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(B. F. Skinner) : . :

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( Skinner)

H . 4 : , , , .

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- ?

- - , - - !9 X 5 = 456 X 7 = 436 X 7 = 446 X 7 = 42

:

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(..Crowder):

, ., . . Skinner , , , Crowder . .

:) , ) , ) , )

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(Gagn):

.

5 : (Analyze) (Design) (Develop) (Implement) (Evaluate)

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(Gagn):

9 : - () .

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. . : - (tutorials) (drill and practice) (multiple choice).

-

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: ( , ..) , .

, -, .

, . -

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(Constructivism)

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J. Dewey (1859-1952) : J. Piaget (1896-1980): J. Bruner (1915-): A. Bandura (1925- ): S. Papert (1928-): , LOGO R. Gagn, A. Newell, H. Simon: oyle: Gardner:

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= . . . , . , (Schema) .

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. . . , , , .

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: . . . . - .

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(constructivism) : (constructionism)

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, , . . , . , . .

/ (discovery learning)

(projects based learning)

(collaborative learning)

(problem solving)

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John Dewey (1859-1952)H . . .

Jean Piaget (1896-1980) : 0-2 : : / 2-7 : : /7-11 : : 11-15:

.

, .

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J. Piaget , . , . , .

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Piaget :: .: .: .: ( , , ) . . Piaget 80 ( ).

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Piaget , .

, : , , , .

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Jerome Bruner (1915- ) . , .

: . : , . , .

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, , : ) ) ., : ) ) ( ). . J. Bruner

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J. Bruner (, , ) (, , ). . / . / / . , , : , ( ) , .

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J. Bruner : , ,

/ ( ), , , , , . , , . , .

Bruner (spiral curriculum), - . Bruner .

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Suchman ( )

. . Suchman: ) / , . ) , . ) . ( ) , .

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LOGO Seymour Papert LOGO Piaget. LOGO ( 60) (...). (). 2 : LOGO , LOGO (, ..)

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Papert . , , . : , . ( ). http://www.e-yliko.gr/htmls/dir_soft/E_State.aspx

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. = . =

(connectionism) . . .

..;

R. Gagne, A. Newell & H. Simon

O: (Boyle,1997) . , . / : . . . . . .

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- .

: ( ). , (), . , , . , . , . , ( ) , .

46

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J. Bruner: L. Vygotsky (1896-1934): Albert Bandura (1925- ): , , Vygotsky, Leontiev, Luria, ardi: L. Doise & Mugny: J. Lave & E. Wenger:

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. (, , ) , (activities). . ( ), .

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( ) (activity theory) (situated cognition)- (self-regulated learning) (cognitive apprenticeship) (anchored instruction) (problem-based learning) (distributed cognition) (cognitive flexibility theory)

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Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) 1/2 : : , . (actual) (potential). . " , (, ) .

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Lev Vygotsky 2/2 , . / . , . : . : ) ) .

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Albert Bandura (1925- ) (. ) , , ( ). - . , . , - - (self-direction) , - , , (on the job training).

H Vygotsky, Leontiev, Luria, Nardi (cultural signs), , . : (/), (), (, , ) . activity theory - / ( , collaborative learning)

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(activity theory) (situated cognition, distributed cognition) . ., , .

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(1/2) , , . . . , . . , , , . / . .

(2/2) . . / (, , ), . . .

- , . Web 2.0 . . , . , - ...

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3 ( ) . : (, , , , ) - ppt (5-10) .

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( / ) . .. 3 , . 1-2 (. , ) .. Google.docs .

: http://www.etpe.gr/files/proceedings/uploads/eisigisi2.pdf : http://www.etpe.gr/files/proceedings/uploads/p125raptis.pdf, : http://www.cs.phs.uoa.gr/el/courses/neuroscience/brain-learning-memory.pdf ...: http://www.netschoolbook.gr/epimorfosi/theories.html : . " : http://paroutsas.jmc.gr/psychol.htm : http://conta.uom.gr/conta/publications/html/Mathisi%20Meso%20Drasis.htm : http://ekpaideusi.blogspot.com/ : http://users.hol.gr/~digiavri/theories%20mathisis%20perix.htlm Q http://www.aegean.gr/culturaltec/vandoulakis/Courseware06/p age7.html : http://hyperion.math.upatras.gr/tea/Bb.html#B15 : http://www.e-yliko.gr/htmls/langyliko/langyl1.aspx : www.cs.phs.uoa.gr/el/courses/introduction_psychology/Learnin g.revised.ppt : www.cs.phs.uoa.gr/el/courses/introduction_psychology/Learnin g.revised.ppt : http://www.etpe.gr/files/proceedings/uploads/p127raptis.pdf : http://www.ibrt.gr/ekpaideysi/2_enisxisi.pdf http://dtps.unipi.gr/files/notes/2003-2004/eksamino_6/ekpaideysh_apo_apostash/learningtheories.p pt : www.mtee.net/Comenius1/Nees_Texnologies.ppt : http://hyperion.math.upatras.gr/tea/Bb.html#B15 : http://www.etpe.gr/files/proceedings/uploads/p127raptis.pdf

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/ CD-ROM, , . , , , .

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E (situated cognition) Jean Lave (1/2) , . (community of practice). , , , , . , , , . . - (empowerment) - / .

E (2/2) - , , , . , -, , , ., : ) (, .), ) , ) (apprenticeship), ) , ) (self-reflection), ) (coaching, scaffolding), ) (tasks), ) (activities), ) (cognitive tools).. .

- (Self-regulated learning) : . . . , . . .

(cognitive apprenticeship) 1/2 (scaffold) . : (heuristics), (situated learning), (modeling), (coaching), (articulation), (self-reflection), (exploration), (increasing complexity).

2/2 . , , . , , , , . :

(anchored instruction) 1/2 Anchor = , . : , , . , : , - , / , .

(anchored instruction) 2/2 : , - - -.

(Problem-Based Learning) ) ) . I.D.E.A.L. (Identify, Define, Explore, Act, Look at) Bransford & Stein (1993). : . ( ), . . . .

(shared distributed cognition) ( ) , / . ( ) . , . , , , , . , , ( ).

(cognitive flexibility theory) 1/2 , . . (criss-crossing) , . : . . . , , ., , , , , , , , , , , forum, , site, blog, , .

2/2 : , , . (hypertext) . : , . . . , . . .

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