한국어 과목 이 배우다

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by Yoon Zacky

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<ul><li> 1. KOREAN LANGUAGE GUIDE1. This, It and ThatIn this lesson, we learn about some of the most common and useful words, This, It andThat.This = It = That = Example sentences[Informal written form] . = This is a pencil. . = It is a window. . = That is a flower.[Polite written form] . = This is a pencil. . = It is a window. . = That is a flower.Note: For more information on the formality and the written and spoken forms, pleaseread Nouns - Present, Past., and are mainly used in the written form. The equivalent spoken forms are, and .Please note that , and are actually contracted forms of , and. Here are the sentences in the spoken form.[Informal spoken form] . ()</li></ul><p> 2. . .[Polite spoken form] . . ."Here, there and over there" are used in similar ways to "This, it and that".Here = There (it) = Over there = Alternatively, (A bit more formal)Here = (Lit. This place)There (it) = (Lit. That place (it) )Over there = (Lit. That place over there)Example sentences ? = Where is this place? (Where are we?) . = This place is Seoul (Were in Seoul.) ? = What is that place over there? . = That place (It) is a Seoul City Council. ? = Where is that over there? . = That is Namdaemun (shopping center). . = And this place is Sejong Cultural Center. is also usually contracted to for the pronunciations sake. Similarly, , and are used with to make the following words to denote a certaindirection. = This direction = That direction (it) = That directionExample sentences . = This way is (to) the living room.() 3. . = That way (It) is (to) to the verandah. . = That way is (to) the exit. [Sam]: ? [Where is the toilet here?] [Minji]: . (The toilet is that way.) [Sam]: ? [What about a bookstore? (Lit. Where is abookstore?)] [Minji]: . [The bookstore is this way.], and are used with nouns to mean this, it and that respectively. = This tree = That house (It) = That mountain = This apple is delicious = That apple is delicious, too. = This restaurant is famous for Bibimbap. (Lit. Thisrestaurant, Bimbimbap is famous.) 63 = That building is the 63 building. (The landmark building inSeoul)Note:Bibimbap - is a popular Korean dish. The word literally means "mixed meal." Bibimbap isserved as a bowl of warm white rice topped with , namul (sauted and seasonedvegetables) and , gochujang (chili pepper paste). A raw or fried egg and sliced meat(usually beef) are common additions. The ingredients are stirred together thoroughly justbefore eating. It can be served either cold or hot.[1]2. Nouns - Present, PastNouns []In this lesson, were going to learn how to say a word in present and past tenses plus howto use the same expression in polite forms.Present and Past TensesEach table below show how to say an apple and a pencil in four different ways. The table () 4. is divided into present and past tenses, and positive and negative forms. Also, the first tableshows the written form of Korean and the second table shows the spoken form. The written form is used in literature such as books, newspapers and any form ofwriting that is not conversational. The written form, in essence, is literary, factual anddeclarative. It is rarely used in normal everyday conversations. However, the news on TVuses this written form of Korean. It is also used in public speeches. The reason is probablydue to the fact that the news and public announcements or speeches are usually alldeclarative and/or factual. The spoken form is the usual way in which people speak and have a conversation.It is used in all types of spoken Korean such as normal conversations, dramas, and movies,with the possible exceptions of news, documentaries and other factual, formal types ofprograms on TV and radio.Informal Written PresentPast FormPositive Negative Informal SpokenPresentPast FormPositive Negative () () () () = an apple = a pencil = is an apple = is not an apple = was an apple = was not an apple = is a pencil() = is not a pencil = was a pencil() = was not a pencil () 5. Note: The verb ending, , is used for nouns without a final consonant, and for nounswith a final consonant. Likewise, in the spoken form, is used for nouns without finalconsonant and for nouns with a final consonant. Therefore: Note: In spoken Korean, the particles are usually omitted. In the above example, / arein brackets to show that they are usually left out.For more information on the / particle, please read Particles - , .Polite FormEach table below shows the polite form of the respective written and spoken forms wevelooked at above which were in the informal form.Polite Written FormPresent Past Positive Negative Note: To change the informal form to the polite form, the following rules apply:In the case of the present tense, = (or in the case of nouns with a final consonant, e.g.) is taken off and replaced by = is changed to In the case of the past tense, is changed to . Polite Spoken Form Present Past Positive () 6. Negative () () () () Note: To change the informal form to the polite form, the following rules apply:In the case of the present tense: = changes to (or in the case of nouns with a finalconsonant, e.g. ) = changes to In the case of the past tense, is attached at the end. Here are some example sentences in the written form. = is a shop = is a bag = was beef = was a teacher = is not a flower = was not a port = was not an animalTry translating the following sentences in the spoken form. What do they mean?() () () Answers:is a clock/watchis a housewas a pigeonwas a personis not a cloudwas not a building() 7. was not chicken (meat)Now try rewrite the English sentences above in the polite spoken form of Korean, andpronounce them one by one.At this point, Id recommend that you get hold of someone who is Korean to teach you thecorrect pronunciation of each sentence, but I think many of you would not have that kind ofluxury. So alternatively, as imperfect as it may be, Id recommend the GoogleTranslates Listen feature. It allows you to listen to the pronunciation of the words you putin.3. Nouns - Nominalizing VerbsIn this lesson, were going to learn how to nominalize a verb, which means converting averb to a noun.First, take off the plain form of a verb, and then attach to it. (For a list of verbs in theplain from, please refer to Verbs - Present/Past)The following is a list of some of the verbs which have been converted to nouns. = reading = writing = listening = speaking = doing = going = coming = watching = eating = drinking = sleeping = walking = running = buying = selling = standing = sitting = living() 8. = dyingExample Sentences = Walking is an exercise that (we) can do easily = I like shopping (Lit. I like doing shopping) = Hannah likes eating an icecream = Its not easy going to school in a rainy day CD = Jane wanted selling an old CDplayer = shopping = like = Hannah (Also a Korean female name) = icecream = rain (noun) = come = a day = a rainy day (Lit. a rain-coming day) (For more information, refer toVerbs -Descriptive I) = a school = easy = easy (Adjectives - Descriptive) = exercise = Jane = oldCD = a CD player = want (Please refer to Verbs - Want to learn how to form want to do)Here are some more example sentences using nominalized verbs. . = Buying and selling are the businesss basis. = business = basis, foundation . = Ji-young liked walking in thepark and listening to birds singing. = Ji-young (A female name) () 9. = a park = walk = a bird = a song = listen, hear , , , . = When we learn aforeign language, reading, writing, listening and speaking are all very important. = a foreign language = learn = When we learn (To learn how to use when, please read Conjunctions - When) = all = very = important4. Nouns - Numbers and CountingThere are two ways of pronouncing numbers in Korean. These are: Sino-Korean numerals - , , , ... Native Korean numerals - , , , ...The Sino-Korean numerals are used for dates, minutes and prices.The native Korean numerals are used for counting, age and hours.Sino-Korean Numerals [Dates, Minutes and Prices]The key to memorizing the pronunciations of the Sino-Korean numerals is to learn from1() to 10(), and use these ten numbers as building blocks to learn the rest of thenumbers. Here is a list of the first ten numbers:1= 2= 3= 4= 5= 6= 7= 8= () 10. 9=10 = From 11 to 19, what you need to do is say 10() first and say the ones number.For example,11 = 10 + 1 + = 12 = 10 + 2 + = 13 = 10 + 3 + = 17 = 10 + 7 + = 19 = 10 + 9 + = From 20 and onward, it works in the same way. But in addition, 20, 30, ..., 90 arepronounced in the following way:20 = + = (Lit. two-ten)30 = + = (Lit. three-ten)50 = + = 80 = + = 90 = + = Additionally,21 = + = (Lit. two-ten one)22 = + = 32 = + = 45 = + = 57 = + = 89 = + = 100 is , and 200 is which literally means two-hundred. Then how do you say 300 asa Sino-Korean numeral? Yes, its (Lit. three-hundred)100 = 101 = 105 = 127 = 200 = 219 = () 11. 324 = 508 = 731 = 945 = 1000 is , then 2000 is? Yes, its . Then how do you say 3283 in a Sino-Korean way?Its . [Lit. three-thousand two-hundred eight-ten three]1000 = 1001 = 1035 = 2427 = 8492 = What is 10000? Its . It is not (or ten-thousand). 20000 is , 30000 is and soon.10000 = 10002 = 10034 = 20673 = 84832 = Now 100000 is and 200000 is . At this point, itd help you understand thenaming system of these numbers if you think them in terms of their number of zeros. Here iswhat I mean:10000 is 10,0000 is 100,0000 is 1000,0000 is 1,0000,0000 is (NOT )10,0000,0000 is 100,0000,0000 is 1000,0000,0000 is 1,0000,0000,0000 is You can see that numbers obtain a new name every time they get additional 4 zeros. This isdifferent to English where the name of numbers change after every additional 3 zeros. Forexample, thousand, million and billion. () 12. However, when we write numbers, we follow the international standard in that the comma isplaced after every threes. The examples above where the comma is placed after every 4zeros are for the purpose of easier understanding only. Therefore: = 10,000 = 100,000 (NOT 10,0000) = 1,000,000 (NOT 100,0000)Lets revise what weve learned above: 11 = 12 = 13 = 20 = 25 = 30 = 40 = 50 = 56 = 70 = 80 = 100 = 101 = 107 = 120 = 150 = 200 = 202 = 537 = [500 +30 + 7 + + = ] 1000 = 2000 = 2500 = 10000 = 10500 = [10000 + 500 + = ]53847 = [50000 + 3000 + 800 + 40 + 7 + + + + = ]() 13. The following are the examples of how the Sino-Korean numerals are used for dates,minutes and prices.[Dates]The order in which the date is written is reversed in Korean. A day of the week comes first,then a month and then a year. [a year = , a month = , a day of the week = ]Notice how the Sino-Korean numerals are used in pronouncing dates.28 Jan 2010 2010 1 28 = 17/10/2011 2011/10/17 = 2011 10 17 = Note: 10 is not , but rather . This exception is due to the awkwardness ofpronouncing , which is quite cumbersome to pronounce. Therefore 10 is for thepronunciations sake.[Minutes]The Sino-Korean numerals are also used for minutes but not for hours. The native Koreannumerals which are used for pronouncing the number of hours are explained below in thesecond section of this post.[an hour, oclock = , a minute(s) = , am = , pm = ]9:38 am 9 38 = 6:19 pm 6 19 = [Prices]The Korean currency is called won. Its symbol is , and its pronounced .12,800 12,800 = 39,130 39,130 = Native Korean numerals [Counting, Age and Hours]The basic numbering system of the native Korean numerals is the same as that of the Sino-Korean numerals. However, in addition to one to ten, there is a need to learn the specialpronunciations of tens, i.e. 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90. () 14. From 100, the pronunciation is the same as the Sino-Korean numerals weve looked atabove. [hundred (100) = , thousand (1000) = , ten thousand (10000) = ] 1 = 2= 3= 4= 5 = 6 = 7 = 8 = 9 = 10 = 11 = 12 = 13 = 17 = 20 = 21 = 22 = 23 = 30 = 40 = 50 = 55 = 60 = 70 = 75 = [70 + 5 + = ] 80 = 90 = 100 = 189 = [100 + 80 + 9 + + = ]Below are the examples of how the native Korean numerals are used in counting, age andhours.[Counting] () 15. The native Korean numerals are used for counting, e.g. the number of people in a class, thenumber of cars in a car park, the numbers of apples on an apple tree, the numbers ofpencils or pens on a desk, etc.1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ... = , , , , , ...When counting, we use distinctive identifier words called counters. Each kind of object (orperson for that matter) has their own counter to distinguish them from other kinds. Thiscounter system is a bit like the system found in English, i.e. 3 cups of juice, 5 glasses ofwater. However, the Korean counting system extends to every object.For example,three cups of juice = five glasses of water = six people = ()five cars = three apples = two pencils = four books = ten roses = Listed below are some of the most common counters used in counting. = people = animals = cars = objects (this is very widely used for any inanimate objects) = long, lean objects = trees = flowers = shoes = paper = books = age = floor [The Sino-Korean numerals are used for counting the number of floors,i.e. the first floor = , the second floor = , and the eighth floor = ]Please also note that becomes , and the final consonant of each of , , and is omitted when they are attached to counters. For example,() 16. () = a glass of water (NOT ) () = two pieces of paper (NOT ) () = three pairs of shoes (NOT ) () = four people (NOT ) () = twenty (years of age) (NOT )The counters work in a similar way to some of the counter words in English, e.g. issimilar to pieces and is similar to pairs.[Age]As weve looked at above, the counter, , is attached to years of age. For example: 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 = 7 = 10 = 11 = 12 = 13 = 17 = 20 = 24 = 32 = 58 = [Hours]The native Korean numerals are also used for hours but not for minutes which use theSino-Korean numerals. 10:25 am 10 25 = 7:30 pm 7 30 = or ( means a half)() 17. [Months] = 1 month = 2 months = 3 months = 4 months = 5 months = 6 months = 7 months = 8 months = 9 months = 10 monthsExample sentence2 2 = I went to school for 2 months andhad a break(holidays) for 2 weeks.5. Adjectives - Present, Past [Adjectives]Were going to look at adjectives in this post. First of all, please have a look at the twotables below, which are similar to the way the nouns were presented in the previouspost, Nouns - Present, Past.As Ive mentioned before in Nouns - Present, Past, there are two primary forms in whichKorean is used, the written and spoken forms. The written form is used in literature such as books, newspapers and any form ofwriting that is not conversational. The written form...</p>