Эрэл ба нийлүүлэлт

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    20-Jun-2015

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prepared by J.Gantulga

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  • 1. :
    ??
    ?
    ?
    ?
    ?
    ?
    ?

2.
.

.
:
QdQs .
3.
Qd

=
P
%Q
%P
E =
: P Qd- .? ?
4.
Qd

=
P
P
:
P2
P1
15%
10%
P 10%-

=
1.5
D
Q
Q2 Q1

Q 15%-
5.
(%)
:

.


P
A
250
B
- x 100%
:
200
D
(250200)/200 = 25%
Q
812
6.
:

:


- ,
P 25%-Q 33%-,
= 33/25 = 1.33
- ,
P 20%-Q 50%-,
= 50/20 = 2.50
P
A
250
200
B
D
Q
812
7.
: //
.
x 100%

P2
P1

100%
)
(
P2
P1
+
1
2
8.
.
x 100%

Q1
Q2
Q1

100%
)
(
+
1
Q2
2
9.
:
P
250 200
225
x 100%
22.2%
=
Q
12 8
x100%
=
40.0%
10
10.

B
250
C
()
A B-= 1.8
225
A

200
180
160
D
0
12
8
10

11.
Q2 Q1
Q1
1
+
(
Q2
)
2
%Q
E
=
=
P2
P1
%P

1
)
(
P2
P1
+
2
12.

.
?
?
13.
0%
Qd

=
=
=
0
P
10%
D
D-:
P

P2
P1
:
0
Q 0%-

:
0
Q
P 10%-
Q1

14.

1
P 10%-
Q1
Q2
Q

Q 10%-
17.
Qd
%


=
=
=

P
0%
P
D-:

D
P2=P1
:

:
Q
P 0%-
Q1
Q2


Q %
18.
Ed =
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Ed > 1
Ed = 1

Ed < 1
Ed = 0
012345678910
19.

.
P
200%
E=
300
= 5.0
40%
67%
E=
= 1.0
200
67%
200%
= 0.2
E=
100
40%
0
Q
600
400
200
20.
Qd

=
P
= P x Q
> 1
Q %>P %
21.

( = 1.8)

(Q)
(P)
P
P = 200,
250
Q = 12
TR = 2400.
200
D
P = 250,
Q = 8
TR = 2000.
Q
8 12
D .
22.
Qd

=
P
= P x Q
< 1
Q % < P %
23.
TRE= 4x6=24
TRF= 6x4=24

012345678 9
10
E = 1
TR
8
F

6

E
C

4
A
B
2
24.

E < 1
TR
012345678 9
10
TRG = 1 x 9 = 9
TRH = 2 x 8 = 16
8
6



4

H
2
G
C
B
A
25.

E > 1
TR
10
K
J
8
TRG = 1 x 9 = 9 TRH = 2 x 8 = 16
6



4

2
0 123456789

26.
Ed > 1

Ed = 1



Q0
Ed < 1

Ed = 0
0

Q0
27. 1:
P


S2
D1
S1
P2
P1

Q
Q1
Q2

28. 2:
P


D1
D2
S
P1
P2

Q
Q1
Q2

29.
Qs

=
P
P
S
:

P2
P1
P 8%-

16%
8%
Q
Q2 Q1
=
2%

Q 16%-
30.
.
6.00
5.50

5.00

A
4.50
B
()
4.00
C
3.50

A B =
3.00
0.18
0
470
480
490

31.
Q2 Q1
Q1
1
+
Q2
)
(
2
%Q
E
=
=
P2
P1
%P

1
)
P2
P1
(
+
2
32.

1
P
10%
P
S :
S

P2
P1

:

P 10%-

Q
:
>1
Q1
Q2
Q 10-

35.
any%
Q

=
=
=
infinity
P
10%
P
S curve:

S
P2=P1

:

P 0%

:
Q
Q1
Q2

Q %

36. 3:

():
P
S
D2
D1
P2
P1
B
A
Q
Q1
Q2
37. 4:

():
P
D2
D1
S
B
P2
P1
A
Q
Q1
Q2
38. 1
?
P
S

Q
.
15
12
4
3
Q
200
100
525
500
39.
: // , /Qd/ .
Qd

=

:.
>0.
0