монгол англи хэлний тооны айн тогтолцоо

  • Published on
    22-Jun-2015

  • View
    5.427

  • Download
    0

DESCRIPTION

Монгол Англи хэлний нэрийн тооны талаар энэ хичээлд товч үгүүлнэ

Transcript

  • 1. - . - .-, , E-mail: iregedui@gmail.com http://iregedui.blogspot.com/

2. . , . , . , . 3. . , . , . . 4. ., , - II , 2- , ., 1973, 74-77 . ., , , 1975, 11- , 106-120 . ., ,,, 1979 ., , ., 1980 ., , ., 1998, 2004, 186-196 . ., ongolian Grammar 19988 72-77 pp 5. .: , , , . , , . 6. .: , , 7. .: . . , . 8. . : 1968 , . , . 1999:128 . 9. : , , , :, , , , . . .: , , 10. A grammatical classification used in theanalysis of word classes which havecontrasts of singular and plural. Number contrasts in English are seen innouns (e.g.Boy boys), pronouns(she, they, myself, ourselves, this, these),determiners (this, these; each, all), andverbs (say, says; was, were) 11. Invariable and variable nouns variable[veariebl], invariable . Variable regular plurals, irregularplurals 2 . Regular plurals boy boys Irregular plurals voicing, mutation, -EN plural, zero, foreign . 12. : , , , , -s , : summation pluralsscissors, other pluralia tantum in sthanks; some plural proper name theNetherlands; unmarked plural nounscattle, personal adjectival heads the rich; 13. 1 regular plurals boy-boys 2 irregular plurals voicing calf calves; mutation foot-feet; -EN plural ox-oxen; zero sheep-sheep; foreign us i radius-radii; a-aelarva-larvae; um-a stratum-strata; thesis-theses; criterion-criteria; tempo-tempi; 14. Variable nouns Variable nouns have two forms, singular andplural, the singular being the form listed indictionaries. The vast majority of nouns arevariable in this way and normally the plural (-ssuffix) is fully predictable both in sound andspelling by the same rules as for the s inflectionof verbs.Spellingcreatesnumerousexceptions, however. treatment of y; nouns ofunusual form sometimes pluralize in s; nouns in-o have plural in os, with some exceptionshaving either optional or obligatory oes; 15. Irregular plurals Irregular plurals are by definitionunpredictable and have to be learned asindividual items. In may cases whereforeign words are involved, it is of coursehelpful to know about pluralization in therelevant languages particularly Latin andGreek. Thus, on the pattern of analysis-analyses; we can infer the correct plurals:axis-axes, basis-bases, crisis-crises etc, 16. Voicing + -S plural Some nouns which in the singular end in the voicelessfricatives spelled th and f have voiced fricatives inthe plural, followed by /z/. In one case the voicelessfricative is /s/ and the plural has /ziz/: house-houses. Nouns in th: there is no change in spelling. With aconsonant before the th, the plural is regular:berth, birth, length etc. with a vowel before the th, thepluralisagain often regular, aswithcloth, death, faith, moth, but in a few cases the pluralhas voicing (mouth, path) Nouns in f(e): Plurals with voicing are spelled ves.Regular plural only: belief, chief, cliff, proof, roof, safe; Voiced plural only:calf, elf, half, knife, leaf, life, loaf, self, sheaf, wolf etc. 17. Compounds Compounds form the plural in differentways, but below is the most usual. Plural in first element: attorney general-attorneys general, notary public notariespublic, mother-in-law-mothers-in-law, grant-in-aid grants in aid; Plural in both first and last element:gentlemen farmer gentlemen farmers;woman doctor-women doctors; Plural in last element: assistant director assistant directors, 18. Mutation Mutation involves a change of vowel in thefollowing seven nouns: foot feet, toothteeth, man men, woman women, mousemice, goose geese, louse lice With woman/women, the pronunciationdiffers in the first syllable only, whilepostman/postmen, Englishman/-men, etchave no difference in pronunciation at allbetween singular and plural. 19. The EN plural or Zero plural This occurs in three nouns: brother -brethren fellow members of religious society, child-children with vowel change /ai/ - /i/, ox oxen, Some nouns have the same spoken andwritten form in both singular and plural. Notethe difference here between, on the onehand, invariable nouns, which are eithersingular or plural, and on the other, zeroplural nouns, which can be both singular andplural. (this sheep looks small; All thosesheep are mine) 20. Animal names Animal names often have zero plurals. They tend to beused partly by people who are especially concernedwith animals, partly when the animals are referred toas game. Where there are two plurals, the zero pluralis the more common in contexts of hunting, etc. Wecaught only a few fish, whereas the regular is used todenote diiferent individuals or species. The fishes ofthe Mediterranean. The Degree of variability with animal is shown by thefollowinglists: regular plural:bird, cow, eagle, hen, rabbit etc. Usually regular:elk, crab,duck, bothplurals:antelope, reindeer, fish, flounder, herring, usually zero:pike, trout, carp, deer, moose; only zero:grouse,sheep, plaice, salmon 21. Foreign plurals Foreign plurals often occur along withregular plurals. They are commoner intechnical usage, whereas the s pluralmore natural in everyday language. Thusformulas (general) formulae inmathematics, antennas (general and inelectronics) antennae -in biology 22. A University Grammar of EnglishRandolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, 1973 The Oxford Dictionary of EnglishGrammar, Sylvia Chalker, EdmundWeiner, Reference Guide to English: A Handbookof English as a Second Language The Concise Oxford Dictionary ofLinguistics, Peter Matthews, 2005 23. A University Grammar of English 24. Concise Dictionary of Linguistics 25. Reference Guide to English 26. = numerals . suffix . . 4, (verb .demand) . , - . . , , repeated words =QuantitativeWords; , , , , . 27. . . , . . .