Уулын үйлдвэрлэлийн технологийн үндэс

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Уулын үйлдвэрлэлийн технологийн үндэс

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  • 1. Yyn yypxarZH yfrngespnsnnfrri rexxonorrfru yngec HornyvgHftr r3corrrooH.q xopornox npaKrHK Eafigar. MexreH ycHsr 6onox ryyHr,rfi HorgnyyA xoprofr yqpaac regrespreil xapbL{ax.qaa rxaapAarAax xypaM 3aaBpbrr xaTyy MspAex acrofr. Menren ycHst KnapK 8.3'10-6% MeHrex yc aryynaru 20 op,urr,t opAoc 6Nfr. SArespeec yfrngsepnsnrfiH a,.t xo-n6orAonrofr Hb Kr4HoBapu HgS 6onxo. Meu xopgeporT, MeraqnHa 6apur, fiilBHHrcroHrlr, MaKqepM[Tr4T 6onou 3gc, cypbMa, Mbt[rbnK, qafrpurH MeHreH yc aryynaru cyns$m.quu opAcyyA 6ahgar. MexreFt ycHbr AaH Hafipnararaft epgcmfir ilcefiEyynox irtaraltraHA opyyrlx MoHreH ycbrr yypuyynaH xeprsx 3aMaap rapraH aBHa. XyApiafrr 500- 6000C xyprsn xanaaHa. Xygpr,1ilx xaflaaJ'rrur Hnyyg3r'i xyqilareperq 1yxnil opt{tiHA rByyflaxaA xufrt-t 6afrgnaap ffnrapcaH xyxop xyqr.nreper,{reft Hor.qox Al4oKa4A yycroHo. Xaprx xnitn 1afignaap nnrapcaH MeHreH yc xeprenrnfin eBL{aA LUtaHrgH TeneBT [rlr4nxl4Ho. Hepenresp rapcaH MeHrH ycur uyfx qoBoprryynHo. l-yH qeBopulyynenruitr qaaur4A xyr{rdn, rxyfiT aurrnax, eHgep gynaanrafr H3p9nT XrfrX Sariraap eByynHa. Xonnuor xafipnai-arafr xygpeec MeHreH yc rapraxbrH TynA 6asxnransrr reppoMerannypi-rilH apraap xafrnyynx (6yqanruar ye Oyxmfi 3yyxaHA 6yxry ecaen BaKyyM 3yyxaH.q xni,x) FnraHa" 3csen rmgpoMeraneyprNilH apraap MeHreH ycbrr raprax aBHa. Teuepnerufix cynuSmgsrri Sanxmang 6yit MeHrsH ycHbr cynb$Hgctr yycrax 6a gapaa nu xsHreH LlaraaH, Llafrp, TeMep 3spor reuepnerrsfr Sapuqangyynax 6a gapaanrfru uJarHbr npoqeccyy.qaap AaMxyynaH HTTAX ABHA. MarHH, Mg (o. Maftinfr, a. magnesium). l-Rnanscaa, MeHrsngr ToMepner. MarHrafir xeHreH qaraaH 6yny ecaen qafrpurH xaftnu:mHg opyynx xafrnu:Hsr qaHapbrr Hb cafixpyyngar. Sgreep xafrnuyyg Hu HHc3x oHroq, nyyxuH, qeuufix peaKTop, xeflenryypmilH eg aHril, 6arax, cyyAnbrH Ma[uHH, focHbr ulaxyypra, $oro 6a rmuo roxeepeMx, AypaH, qoxrnyypr anx 3oporr xaporlroHe. MarHufrr qoBpoop Hb BaHaAH, xpoM, Ti4Ta!-{, raflpHl4, ypaH, $p3r xyHA Fnrargax TeMeplrerYygwitr rsgreepxir'r HorAn3sc cafirax, rapraH aBaxag xoporflsHe. XruNfix HerI3J: 5ai,:.r,.aap rvrarunftr LleMeHT, rang recaepreil Toocro, pe3rH, Hgxu3ri uaac yfingBsplrsJltr 6onoH opraHrK xtaMr4E xop3rnoH3. Marxufr; rxa3i ' .?7"': Maiur,ri. ! -:;a- 3::cyg: AonoMrr CaMg(CO,)r, rrarHe3xr MgCC., 6pycrr '.': CH ; .,!-3.i.:'rr,,:r lvlgCl,'KCl'6H:O. Surc;irra; MgClr'6HrO. Marani,: .:ix,i---33- i--:=- 'r.'raaHbi api-aap iap:ax a3iia. Tuv'xi,riZ 3I Hb [i4gCi 6i'r:y 1:3-r-"i*-.",.--- "a3iai,1t.f 5.i{a. ':a

2. Yyn yypxaffn yringaepnenriH rexnonorraftn yHgec Ko6anur, Co, (o. xo6ansr, a. cobalt) finnrrrryfr FraaBTap 6yroy ecsen, xexeBTep ryearafr 6Yger caapan uJaprarrEyy eHreTsr TeMepner. Ko6anurrfiH xepornoo: . XanyyH Aaax, copoH3oH, xer xaryy, seapsxryil 6onox 6ycag xafinuJ, 6ypxyyn (rypxeq)-NilH 6yrqeg opHo. Sgreep Hb nyyxr4H oHroqHH ryp6nx, aroMuH 3agpanHr nByynax rexeeprmfiH xufiqyygeg qaHapnar raH, xaMraanaflTbrH Typxoq xsn6epeep aluHrrraEar. . Ko6ansruu Hergnyygnfrr naaraH, 6ygar, Baap, wnnani,t nafipnarag opyynAar. . Ko6ansrbrH'qaqpar uAoBxr4T 60Co rgoronsrr (xarac 3aApaflbrH xyraqaa ns 5.24 xrn) y- qaqparr yycBop 6onron rexuNx 6a aHaraax yxaaHE xepsrrreHe. . Ko6anuraA rynryypfiaH opraHHK cmHreshfiH sopuynanrrafr Karanu3arop xufigar. Ko6anursrH KJ]apK 0.001 8olo Ko6ansr aryyncaH 130 opvrarr,r epgoc 6uVt. Tyynnfi gorop 40 opvranlr xo6ansturH epAoc 6ah1ar. flnnHerr CO3S4, roEansrrafi nrpmr (Fe, Co)Sr, c$epoxo6anbrrr Co(Co.), cryrrepy4r4r CoAsr, lr.rruanurmx (Co, Ni)As., KappoJ'rrr Cu CorSo rcper epgcyyp MeH nhppon4H, neHTnaHAHT, xanbKonfipuT, apceHoflHpr4T sepor xygprfix opgcyygog ro6arsr aryynargaHa. Ko6ansrnfiH epgcyygrafrr epenxnfrg Hb Mbr.ubcKr, xyxepnor, ncongcoH rex 6ynernsHe. Ko6ansrrafr nasrurusrr HAyy xtgpilfir HxoBt{JroH MexaHilK 6anxyynanraxg opyynax 6a 6anH xvgpufir ulyyg xafrnyyngar. Arralauarr aBToKnaBHH npoL{eccoop xafrnyynanr xnilrgeue" Cu, Au, Ag, Bi, U seper AaraflAax oneMeHTyyg ryxafiu 6yner xvAspr opr.rlgor. Ko6anururx xyxspner xygpyyg 6onox xo6anur aryyncaH 3sc guqninn cyns$n4ufrx xygpufrr MexaHHK 6anxyynanraHg opyynx Ehq, sechfix EaRxrraanur nupoMerannyprrafix npoqeccr, rihppormHbr 6anxMaJrbtr ru.qpoMerannyprufrn;, 6onoacpyynaflraHg opyynHa. Ko6ansruu ucoagceH xygep ryyxmfi gorop xo6ansr aryynarq puqnfia xygprafir HxoBqfloH nhpoMeranflypr, rrgpoMerannyprrfix apraap 6onoacpyynx xo6anur 6a guqnrtr raprax aBHa. Cypuua, Sb, (o. cypbMa, a. antimony) Xexeerep rynarail MgHrener qaraaH reruepner.Taflcrnar 6onon 3 eep arvrop$ xen6sprefr opu,qor. Anaop$ xen6epr opuJr4x cypbMa Hb rocpsMxvil, xap, uap rox HopnoAor. Tecpeuxnfr cypbMa Hb ryyHg xypGXoE rocopgor. Xap 6a uap cypbMa ns xyeNpanrxafr 6ereeg qaaufiE rancrnar 1ailtranA' ulr,rflxl,{Hg. Xap, LiaraaH iyranrarafr xolibcoH xarZnu: Safrnraap aKKyMnffTopbrH 21 3. i'rJ, xa;4# 3i1.1 t4it TeX;".irJnOii4 t4H Yr rj;Se xaBraHryytr, KaSenHrH oypxyylt xr4,7ix3t1 x3p3ra3g3r. Xonxxa.{, x3Bn3nhfrH YCerHi4r 6ap, c;r,nt, T3c3pA3r cyM YililgB3pfl3x3l x3p3rrl3r-is. l-epruiaHu, qaxxyp 6ysag xarac' Aamx{Vyfi#.i,qeil cafrxpyynarq xo.rtbu 6onros xopernorcqsHg. Lleapoepae xHMHfiH yfrngeecneng xsper.risFlc. l-.[aqpar hAoBXr4T '22Sb ugoron;tr y-qaL{par, Hefrrpou;i ox yycBsp 6onrox auJilrfiaHa. CypurrrarrafrH KfiapK 5'10-s o/a Cypurr,ta aryyncaH 120 rapyin opgcooc 3oHxunox aq xonbcrAonrofr as 27 opgoc 5aintrar. Cypsnnanaftu, cypbMa-MsHreH ycHbi, cypbMa-xap ryrafiraHbr, anr-cypbMarnfiH, cypbMa-Bonu$par,,ti,tH spAcYYA 6ni,t. YfingespnenmilH a.{ xon6orgonrotZ anrnuoHrr SbrS3, KepfiH3xr SbrS2, BafleHruHr4r SbrO., crr6uxoHrr Sb[Sb2O6(OH)] aeper ap.3cYYA 6aitaa. Seprsepmr, gxeMcoHr4T, Terpaogpl4T, trBarqhr, t'txtsHHrcroHt4T 33p3r cynu$Ngyyg, MoFrrHT, cepBaHTur, cru6nxoxnr rex Mor ot(ct4AyyA, Ha.qopilr sepor oxcfi.qxnopmflyygbrr cypsuarnfrH xygop 6afignaap auHr'raAar. cypurtrar nHpoMeranfiypr, rrgpoMeTann5,prrfin apraap raprax aBHa. Tyyxraft reMepnerree 90% Hb cypbMa 6ahAar. XnunfiH qercp cypbMar HAeexrYfi xuitn opLtt4HA xailnyynax 3arilaap raprax aBEar. Bucsmyr, Bi, (o. BHcbMyr, a. bismuth) Hraaerap ryaarail MeHreIter caapan eHrereil TeMepner. ilaraaH Tyraflra, xapryraJ'tra, xagnarfi seperrefr Hufinyynx xnn6ap xafinax xafrnu rapraxaA Bi4cbMyrbtr xoporn3Ho. L{yrryypuu xapxfrH xuit4nfia xeB AapAac, ToMgsrns3, yrcpalrr, xsHaflTbrH Texeopryyg xuftxeg autaff]aHa. Hiacex cilrol{, aBToMaurHbr xegeflryyprafrH eE aurmfrx 3opnyr'tanrraft rax, ult4p-aM, xsHreH LlaraaHH xaftnu:rfrs 3acarAax qaHapbtr cailxpyynax 3opuJ-:lcDp Hafrpnarag Hb Br4cbMyrbrr opyynHa. Braeuuyrur oM V#.q xangBapryftxyynax, xaraax 3oprynanraap xopornens. Xttfruen MELifiac yfrnpeepns5eg ilEoBxxyynorqgap xsp3rnoHa. Arorirstu 3pqHM rey.lr+tx;i yfrngaspnsn4 BmcbMyrbrr trlhHroH gynaaH reor.{ 6onoH xeprerc syfr;: Oonron aulfirnaHa. l-{axmnraau rexHIKT Br,lcbMyr opoflt-lcoH xarac gauxnTy;ranrNfrr rapraH aBq xsporneHo. BrcuuyrutH uergnyygrfir u:nnuNfr xafrpnarag opyyncHaap repnr,rfiH xyrapnbtH xoe$$uqexrxfrr HoMor.nrynqe;-. Baapax s.qrsnufiH xnn6ap xafrnax naanaHA Bt'tcbMyr oponuoHo. Bxcsruyrurx KnapK X.7'104 o/o Brcsulr- aJl::a- 63 i-apyfr 3pA3c 6rafi. Bracsri,ryr Hb xap ryraflra-qafip, 3oc, t'qc:'iH6:e.---"::5a:isi. uaraaH Tyraflra-BonsQpar.,tutn xQfitztti4ot- xy.qprafix ;ai.c:,a-=- 5aFx xi roxl4onAoHc. 3:rsspsec B!4cbMyrbtr raprax 33?X=- :.3:3--33 si4cbMyrbrr eeprfrx>l H5 3p;1cYY433C finrax aa1ar. 6ai.l'a:,,7- :,r^=r,,,'- 3i=35.9-99 9oril ai,r:sr,.1Tf1i Bi.S.. 6mo;r,,:r 4. BizO3, 6uctrnyrur Bi2CO3(OH),, xo3anur Pb2Bi2S5' afrxaxur CuPbBiS'' iJtp,lgr"rr' BirTerS, rennyijoaracMyrl4r BirTer, 33por-Hb Bt4cbMyrblH epncwg 6onnol 3iprarr,r optro{ le.pparar (Cu,Ag). Pb2Bissrl' KpynKaur CupOAirSu, naBoHl4r (Ag,Cu)(Bi,Pb)rSu rex Mer xapbqaHryfi xoabp spACYYg TOXilOn,qoHo. Bncsrrayrstn xYgpraftx Aaranflax efieMeHTYYA Hs Pb, Cu,Ag' Au' Co' Ni' BucuuyruH xygpr,rfrr $noraquap 6anxyynaxag gecrfru 3cB3'I xap w*rin"' OasxMan Aorop Bt4cbMyr xypt4MrnarAaHa. YvNp Hb "ii"i*yt"'* gnoraqnargax qaHap Asopx spgcYYEreft ofipo:tl4oo 6ahnar. XYgepr sec 6a xap ryranraHut cynsSNgyryfl 6ara xyaurain 6on Bt4CbMyTbtH eepraftu Hb 6acxlvlan rapHa. BNCUnnyr aryy.r'larq 6yrsergexlryH Hb (ercuuryrutn 6a,xap TyraflraHbl 6anxr'nan) HxsBqfieH xip ryiin#uu yilngaepr reBnopAer yqpaac xap ryraflrHr LleBsprrrYYnsH snrax fiBqaA ByrcbMyrbtr raprax aBHa. Xap ryranraHaac BrcbMyrHr ,nruirt* ryn.q xaftnyyncaH xap ryranraHg xanuqrfi (Ca) rvrarHrafi (MgL rfir xonnHo. t