Вторичные химические источники тока

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    26-Jun-2015

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2. 2 () 3. 4. 4 1859 ., () , , 5. 5 H2SO4 H+ + HSO4 - Pb + HSO4 - = PbSO4 + H+ + 2e (IV) PbO2 PbO2 + 3H+ + HSO4 - + 2e = PbSO4 + 2H2O H2SO4 (28-40%) 6. 6 Pb + PbO2 + 2HSO4 - + 2H+ = 2PbSO4 + 2H2O Pb + PbO2 + 2H2SO4 = 2PbSO4 + 2H2O : 1. . 2. (II). 7. 7 ( - ) Pb | H2SO4 | PbO2 (+) U. = ( !) = 2,047 + 2,3(RT/F) lg(aH2SO4/aH2O) 8. 8 , / (H2SO4) a(H2O) E, 1,050 0,0069 0,96 1,922 1,334 118 0,48 2,190 : , 9. 9 . 1. , PbSO4 . , PbSO4 10. 10 2. . 11. 11 3. PbSO4 . , PbSO4Pb 2. , . , . 12. 12 1 2 3 4 5 - 6 7 () 8 9 10 11 12 13 . 13. 13 1. 2. 3. , , ( SbH3 AsH3) 14. 15. : , Li , , , , , , - 16. 17. Dell 18. : - (, ) LiPF6 , , LiCoO2 19. : - 20. : Li+ Li1-xCoO2 + xLi+ + x LiCoO2 LiC6 Li1-xC6 + xLi+ + x LiC6 + Li1-xCoO2 Li1-xC6 + LiCoO2 21. - + 3,5-3,7 + 500-1000 + 20 +60 + 2,0 - 2,5 LiCoO2 10 + LiNiO2 LiMn2O4 22. - - () 2000 67% Li-ion , 24% 9% (, ) - - , , -