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    Salmonella -

    Epidemiology, Serotypes Distribution and Drug Susceptibility Testing

    of Salmonella Isolated from Swine farms in Chiang Mai-Lamphun 1 1 2 3 3

    Kittipong Kumpapong1 Danai Sinthuya1 Nattakarn Awaiwanont2 Panuwat Yamsakul3 and

    Prapas Patchanee3

    Salmonella

    Salmonella 12 41.23

    36.84

    Salmonella Norfloxacin Ampicillin

    : , , , Salmonella

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence, quantification and drug susceptibility testing

    of Salmonella contamination in swine farms. Pigs fecal and environmental samples were collected from pigs

    farms. Then all samples were cultured in a laboratory for Salmonella detection using conventional

    microbiological method. The findings revealed that, the highest Salmonella prevalence was demonstrated in

    pigs aged 12 weeks at 41.23 percent. From environment samples, boot sample was found to contain the

    highest prevalence at 36.84 percent. Salmonella showed the highest susceptibility for Norfloxacin and the

    highest resistant Ampicillin.

    Keywords: Epidemiology, Drug susceptibility, Serotypes distribution, Salmonella

    1 2 | 3 1Master Student in Veterinary Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,Chiang Mai University. Email: 541431010@cmu.ac.th 2Researchers, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University. Email: a.nattakarn@gmail.com 3Department of Food Animal Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University. Email: patprapas@gmail.com

  • 3

    Salmonella [1] ..2555 Salmonella 87,557 [2] Salmonella [3] Salmonella [4]

    Salmonella Salmonella Salmonella Salmonella 20 [5] 12.3 [6] 28 [7]

    Salmonella Salmonella

    Salmonella 70 Salmonella 101-103 Salmonella Salmonella Salmonella Salmonella

    Salmonella 2,579 [8] Salmonella Salmonella Enteritidis Salmonella Typhimurium [9] Salmonella [10] Salmonella Weltevreden [11,12]

    Salmonella Salmonella (Multi-drug resistant) Salmonella [13-15]

  • 4

    Salmonella Salmonella -

    (Cross-sectional study)

    Salmonella 6 830 642 3, 8, 12, 18 24 188

    100 Buffered Peptone Water (BPW) 1:10 25 Swab Technique 100 4-8 24

    ISO 6579:2002, Amendment 1:2007, Annex D

    Salmonella Most Probable Number (MPN) 3 25 Buffered Peptone Water (BPW) 225 1:10 Stomacher 2 37 24 100 Modified Semi-solid Rappaport-Vassiliadis (MSRV) 42 24 MSRV Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate XLD agar Brilliant-green Phenol-red Lactose Sucrose BPLS agar 37 24

    100 BPW 1:10 37 24 100 Rappaport-Vassilliadis RV broth 10 1 Tetrathionate TT broth 9 42 24 RV broth 37 24-48 TT broth RV TT broth XLD agar BPLS agar 37 24 Salmonella WHO: The National Salmonella and Shigella Center

  • 5 Salmonella

    95 (95% Confident Interval) PHStat 2.7 (Add-In for Microsoft Excel 2010) (Average Log10MPN/g) Salmonella @Risk 5.5 (Palisade Corporation 798 Cascadilla Street Ithaca, New York 14850 U.S.A.)

    1 Salmonella

    Type of sample Prevalence (%(n)) 95% Confident

    Interval Average Log10MPN/g

    95% Confident

    Interval

    Sow 19.79 (19/96) 11.82-27.76 2.07 1.47-4.04

    Boar 21.21 (14/66) 11.34-31.07 2.45 1.86-2.96

    3 weeks old 10.41 (10/96) 4.30-16.52 1.97 1.47-2.72

    8 weeks old 10.52 (17/95) 4.35-16.69 1.69 1.47-1.96

    12 weeks old 41.23 (40/97) 31.44-51.03 2.08 1.47-3.46

    18 weeks old 25 (24/96) 16.33-33.66 2.02 1.47-3.66

    24 weeks old 23.95 (23/96) 15.42-32.49 1.98 1.47-3.38

    Feed 0 0 0 0

    Water 0 0 0 0

    Feeder 13.33 (4/30) 1.16-25.49 2.45 1.55-3.38

    Nipple 16.66 (5/30) 3.30-30.00 2.45 1.55-3.38

    Floor 16.66 (5/30) 3.30-30.00 2.45 1.55-3.38

    Worker hand 0 0 0 0

    Worker boot 36.84 (7/19) 15.15-58.53 2.45 1.55-3.38

  • 6 2 Salmonella

    (%) Ampicillin 92.3

    Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 5.7 Chloramphenicol 24

    Ciprofloxacin 1.9 Cefotaxime 6.7

    Nalidixic acid 0.9 Norfloxacin 0

    Streptomycin 88.5 Tetracycline 80.76

    Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim 45.19

    3 Salmonella

    () (%) Salmonella Rissen 34.61 Salmonella Typhimurium 29.80 Salmonella Anatum 8.65 Salmonella Weltevreden 5.76 Salmonella I. 4,5,12:i:- 5.76 Salmonella Panama 4.80 Salmonella Lexington 4.80 Salmonella Weltevredenvar 15+ 2.88 Salmonella Augustenborg 0.96 Salmonella Krefeld 0.96 Salmonella I. 4,12:i:- 0.96

    100

    Salmonella 12 41.23 18 24 25 23.95 ( 1) 36.84 16.66 ( 1) Salmonella Norfloxacin (NOR) 100 Salmonella 3 Ampicillin (AMP) 92.3 Streptomycin (S) 88.46 Tetracycline (TE) 80.76 ( 2) Salmonella Salmonella Rissen 34.61 Salmonella Typhimurium 29.8 Salmonella Anatum 8.65 ( 3)

  • 7

    12 41.23 ( 1) 2.08 Log10MPN/g Garca-Feliz et al (2009) Salmonella 44 [16] 18 24 25 2.02 Log10MPN/g 23.95 1.98 Log10MPN/g Salmonella Salmonella 28 [7] Salmonella Salmonella 29 [17] Salmonella 36.84 2.45 Log10MPN/g Salmonella Dorn-In et al (2009) 38.6 [18] 19.79 21.21 ( 1) ( 3 8 ) Salmonella [19] 13.33 16.66 Julie Funk (2004) [19]

    Salmonella (Biosecurity system) Salmonella

    Salmonella Salmonella Rissen 34.61 Salmonella Typhimurium 29.8 Salmonella Anatum 8.65 ( 3) Salmonella Norfloxacin Ampicillin Streptomycin Tetracycline

  • 8

    Salmonella 12, 18 24 Salmonella Salmonella

    () ( P-10-10409) WHO: The National Salmonella and Shigella enter Salmonella

    1. Thorns CJ. Bacterial food-borne zoonoses. Rev.Off. Int. Epizoot. 2000; 19(1): 22639.

    2. . Annual epidemiological surveillance report 2012 [Internet].

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    5. Ruttayaporn Ngasaman. Prevalence of Salmonella in breeder sows in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

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    7. Sanguankiat A, Pinthong R, Padungtod P, Baumann MPO, Zessin K-H, Srikitjakarn L et al. A cross-

    sectional study of Salmonella in pork products in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 2010;

    7(8): 8738.

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    9. WHO. WHO Global Salmonella survey; progress report 2000-2005. Geneva: World Health Organization;

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    surveillance and global Salmonella distribution, 2000-2002. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2006; 12(3): 3818.

  • 9 11. Bangtrakulnonth A, Pornreongwong S, Pulsrikarn C, Sawanpanyalert P, Hendriksen RS, Lo Fo Wong

    DMA. Salmonella serovars from humans and other sources in Thailand, 1993-2002. Emerging Infect. Dis.

    2004; 1(1): 1316.

    12. Padungtod P, Kaneene JB. Salmonella in food animals and humans in northern Thailand. Int. J. Food

    Microbiol. 2006; 108(3): 34654.

    13. Patchanee P, Zewde BM, Tadesse DA, Hoet A, Gebreyes WA. Characterization of multidrug-resistant

    Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolated from humans and animals. Foodborne Pathog. Dis.

    2008; 5(6): 83951.

    14. Hendriksen RS, Bangtrakulnonth A, Pulsrikarn C, Pornreongwong S, Hasman H, Song SW. Antimicrobial

    resistance and molecular epidemiology of Salmonella Rissen from animals, food products, and patients

    in Thailand and Denmark. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 2008; 5(5): 60519.

    15. Zhao S, McDermott PF, White DG, Qaiyumi S, Friedman SL, Abbott JW. Characterization of multidrug

    resistant Salmonella recovered from diseased animals. Vet. Microbiol. 2007; 123(1-3): 12232.

    16. Garca-Feliz C, Carvajal A, Collazos JA, Rubio P. Herd-level risk factors for faecal shedding of

    Salmonella enterica in Spanish fattening pigs. Prev. Vet. Med. 2009; 91(2-4): 1306.

    17. Wilkins W, Rajic A, Waldner C, McFall M, Chow E, Muckle A. Distribution of Salmonella serovars in

    breeding, nursery, and grow-to-finish pigs, and risk factors for shedding in ten farrow-to-finish swine

    farms in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Can. J. Vet. Res. 2010; 74(2): 8190.

    18. Dorn-In S, Fries R, Padungtod P, Kyule MN, Baumann MPO, Srikitjakarn L et al. A cross-sectional study

    of Salmonella in pre-slaughter pigs in a production compartment of northern Thailand. Prev. Vet. Med.

    2009 Jan1;88(1):1523.

    19. Julie Funk WAG. Risk factors associated with Salmonella prevalence of swine farms. J Swine Health

    Prod. 2004; 12(5): 24651.

    Cover prc proceeding 2556 2556 2 2 2 2 Salmonella - (Spirogyra neglecta) 2 (transport incubator) 2,000 2 : (): Lotos trnK-matK 2 Aspergillus niger 1.2/50 sWRF 6063 (MFA) DMAIC 7 Greens 4 5 ABC (AFTA) - : : () (. ) (Facebook) 2The First International Conference onDengue Fever Situation and Its ControlMessage from President, University of PhayaoMessage from President, University of PhayaoContentsIntroductionPresentation ProgramSummary Day 1Summary Day 2Oral PresentationSituation of Dengue Fever in ThailandDengue Fever in Asia and in the WorldMalaysian Effort in Eradicating Dengue FeverExperiences and Practices on Dengue Fever Control in ThailandIllness and PovertyDengue Control Program in Amphur Muang, Chiang MaiA Lesson of Universal Health Coverage, Case of Pa Dat DistrictOverview of Dengue Vaccine DevelopmentDengue Vaccine Development: US NIHRAG-Dengue-Control Summarize SessionThe Rotary Foundation Future Vision PlanPresentation AbstractSusceptibility level of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to insecticides in 8upper northern provinces of ThailandSeasonal Variation and Biting Pattern of Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) inChiang Mai, Northern ThailandMark-Release-Recapture Study to Measure Dispersal of Aedesalbopictus (Skuse) inChiang Mai Province, Northern ThailandFormulations Citronella Oil Repellent and Academic Services for Prevention the DengueFeverSuccess Factors in Applying Grant for Dengue Fever Control and Network Forming inPhayao Province: Participatory Based ApproachExperiences of Clinical Management During Crisis of Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) inLanna Hospital, Chiang Mai, ThailandSlogans Proposed for Dengue Fever ControlTherapeutic Landscape Design and Insect Repellent in Amphur Pong, Phayao ProvinceWith RAG on Dengue, We Can Make the World Dengue-Free for Our Children: Fight theDengue Do the 4 Oclock HabitMalaysian Efforts to Eradicate DenguePassion and Pride of the HostPhayao Model for Dengue Fever Control CampaignArea for activity implementation under Phayao Province Dengue Fever Control Campaign

    Full Text Final Report 25042013Appendix for Final Report25042013Binder1Appendix for Final Report11Appendix-1AppendixCover appendiceAppendix ISOISO6579amendment

    Most Probable NumberAppendix KU Conferance 50AP-Ohm KU conferance 50-PDFcover -danai Ku1

    -PDFcover -KK

    Prevalence and Quantification of Salmonella Contamination in Swine breeding-PDFCover AGRCDanai Proceeding AGRC CMUcoverHS-66 Danai (p.366-370)

    Cover cmuHS-14 Kittipong (p.91-98) (2) PDFcover Phayao research 2-1-1forapendices -1fornt cover prc proceedings copy

    1_Part1-1

    _Part2_Part3_Part4_Part5_Part6

    Salmonella -PDFOriginal article KK19032013-1Poster download

    Salmonella spp-PDFCPF seminarsCP seminars

    55-1455

    -1 100 -1

    AA1ISOISO6579amendment

    MPN Calculator Most Probable NumberKU Conferance 50AP-Ohm KU conferance 50-PDFcover -danai Ku1

    -PDFcover -KK

    Prevalence and Quantification of Salmonella Contamination in Swine breeding-PDFCover AGRCDanai Proceeding AGRC CMUcoverHS-66 Danai (p.366-370)

    Kittipong Proceeding AGRC CMUCOVERHS-14 Kittipong (p.91-98)

    Salmonella -PDFPosterCOVER_UP Conferencecover Phayao research -1fornt cover prc proceedings copy

    1_Part1-1

    _Part2_Part3_Part4_Part5_Part6

    Salmonella spp-PDFCPF seminarsCP seminars -1ScholarOne ManuscriptsZoonoses and Public Health Salmonella Patchanee . .

    .-AppendixCover appendiceAppendix ISOISO6579amendment

    Most Probable NumberAppendix KU Conferance 50AP-Ohm KU conferance 50-PDFcover -danai Ku1

    -PDFcover -KK

    Prevalence and Quantification of Salmonella Contamination in Swine breeding-PDFCover AGRCDanai Proceeding AGRC CMUcoverHS-66 Danai (p.366-370)

    Cover cmuHS-14 Kittipong (p.91-98) (2) PDFcover Phayao research 2-1-1forapendices -1fornt cover prc proceedings copy

    1_Part1-1

    _Part2_Part3_Part4_Part5_Part6

    Salmonella -PDFOriginal article KK19032013-1Poster download

    Salmonella spp-PDFCPF seminarsCP seminars

    55-1455

    -1 100 -1

    scan0001

    ScholarOne ManuscriptsZoonoses and Public Health Salmonella Patchanee . .

    Appendix for Final Report111Appendix-1AppendixCover appendiceAppendix ISOISO6579amendment

    Most Probable NumberAppendix KU Conferance 50AP-Ohm KU conferance 50-PDFcover -danai Ku1

    -PDFcover -KK

    Prevalence and Quantification of Salmonella Contamination in Swine breeding-PDFCover AGRCDanai Proceeding AGRC CMUcoverHS-66 Danai (p.366-370)

    Cover cmuHS-14 Kittipong (p.91-98) (2) PDFcover Phayao research 2-1-1forapendices -1fornt cover prc proceedings copy

    1_Part1-1

    _Part2_Part3_Part4_Part5_Part6

    Salmonella -PDFOriginal article KK19032013-1Poster download

    Salmonella spp-PDFCPF seminarsCP seminars

    55-1455

    -1 100 -1

    AA1ISOISO6579amendment

    MPN Calculator Most Probable NumberKU Conferance 50AP-Ohm KU conferance 50-PDFcover -danai Ku1

    -PDFcover -KK

    Prevalence and Quantification of Salmonella Contamination in Swine breeding-PDFCover AGRCDanai Proceeding AGRC CMUcoverHS-66 Danai (p.366-370)

    Kittipong Proceeding AGRC CMUCOVERHS-14 Kittipong (p.91-98)

    Salmonella -PDFPosterCOVER_UP Conferencecover Phayao research -1fornt cover prc proceedings copy

    1_Part1-1

    _Part2_Part3_Part4_Part5_Part6

    Salmonella spp-PDFCPF seminarsCP seminars -1ScholarOne ManuscriptsZoonoses and Public Health Salmonella Patchanee . .

    .-AppendixCover appendiceAppendix ISOISO6579amendment

    Most Probable NumberAppendix KU Conferance 50AP-Ohm KU conferance 50-PDFcover -danai Ku1

    -PDFcover -KK

    Prevalence and Quantification of Salmonella Contamination in Swine breeding-PDFCover AGRCDanai Proceeding AGRC CMUcoverHS-66 Danai (p.366-370)...

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