03 04 кодирование информации

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    XXVIII = 10+10+5+1+1+1 = 28

    XCIX = -10+100-1+10 = 99

    .., .., , : I-V-X-L-C-D-M1-5-10-50-100-500-1000, VI = 5 + 1 = 6, IX = 10- 1 = 9. ** .., .., 3

  • 2. x p,

    x=an*pn+an-1*pn-1++a1*p1+a0*p0, an...a0 - p , ,

    103510=1*103+0*102+3*101+5*100* .., .., *

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  • 2. () [binary number code] , [binary number system], - 1 0. , (binary digits). bit (), . . 0, 1, .

    10102 = 1*23+0*22+1*21+0*20 = 10. * .., .., *

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    .., .., N, k- , : 1) N ;2) k . 1607 2- . : 160710 = 110010001112. : 0000 0110 0100 0111. (-N) :1) N;2) 0 1 1 0;3) 1. -1607. 1607: 0000 0110 0100 0111. : 1111 1001 1011 1000. : 1111 1001 1011 1001 -- -1607. R m n p, : R = m * n . . , :12.345 = 0.0012345 x 104 = 1234.5 x 10-2 = 0.12345 x 102 . : 0.1p

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    , ASCII (American Standart Code for Information Interchange), ANSI (American National Standarts Institute). ASCII - . 0 127, 128 255. 33 ( 0 32) , ( , . .). 33 127 , , . 128 255 , , , . . , ., "" 1000001 (65), "s" 01110011 (115), "" 00101011 (43). , , ASCII.

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  • 6. Version 300Charset "WindowsCyrillic"Delimiter ","CoordSys Earth Projection 1, 0Columns 1 Char(10)DataRegion 1 639.029901 51.11460139.029886 51.11455439.029961 51.11452739.03036 51.1143139.033909 51.112537Pen (2,2,0) Brush (53,8245248) Center 39.038972 51.115592

    * .., .., *OziExplorer Track Point File Version 2.1WGS 84Altitude is in FeetReserved 30,1,0,Track 0001,1,10,0, 53373 357251.114601,39.029901,1,0,,,51.114554,39.029886,0,0,,,51.114527,39.029961,0,0,,,51.11431,39.03036,0,0,,,51.112537,39.033909,0,0,,,51.111805,39.035381,0,0,,,51.111778,39.035543,0,0,,,51.111778,39.035723,0,0,,,51.11179,39.035932,0,0,,,51.112336,39.038805,0,0,,,51.112598,39.040064,0,0,,,

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  • 6. Windows BitMap (.BMP) , Microsoft. , , , . .Graphics Interchange Format (.GIF) CompuServe Inc. . (transparency) . LZW.Portable Network Graphics (.PNG) LZW, ( GIF). 2 . .

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    .., .., . , , . . .Windows BitMap (.BMP) - , Microsoft, Windows. -, RGB. , . , , , Windows. , 24 . , , . . RLE (Run - length encoding) ( ), ( ), . , , . .Graphics Interchange Format (.GIF) - , CompuServe Inc. . (transparency). , GIF. , , , . . 256 . , , , . 256 . 64000 64000 . LZW, ( 40%) . , . Internet. Portable Network Graphics (.PNG) - 1, 8 24- . LZW , ( GIF). 2 . . , . Internet.** .., .., 3

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    .., .., Joint Photographic Experts Group JPEG (.JPG) - , C-ube Microsystems, , . , , . . -, , . , , 88 , . , , , , , , . RLE LZW - , . , , , . , , . , , , . , 3-5 . , ! , , . , , , ( , ). , , , ( ) , . , . JPEG , . TIFF (.TIF) - RGB, CMYK. , , . , , -. . , . . , , CMYK. TIFF , . , .** .., .., 3

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  • 7. * .., .., * - (Wave-Table) FM (Frequency Modulation)

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  • 7. WAVE (.wav) - , MPEG-3 (.mp3) . , , .WMA (Windows Media Audio) Microsoft . WMA , - , - . WMA8 128 / CD, . .RealAudio (.ra, .ram) - , Internet . MIDI (.mid) - (Musical Instrument Digital Interface). MIDI . MIDI- ( ),

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    .., .., WAVE (.wav) - . , . - - (Pulse Code Modulation, PCM), .MPEG-3 (.mp3) - , . . , , . . , - , .WMA (Windows Media Audio) Microsoft . , Windows , . WMA , - , - . WMA8 128 / CD, . . WMA . (DRM) , . , , . , Windows Media Audio 9.1, (.lossless), .MIDI (.mid) - (Musical Instrument Digital Interface). 80- . MIDI . MIDI . MIDI- , , , . , MIDI-, , MIDI- , MIDI- ( ), .RealAudio (.ra, .ram) - , Internet . Real Networks (www.real.com). , mp3 .** .., .., 3

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  • 8. Digital Video (.DV) - , . , MJPEG 5:1. CD AVI (Audio Video Interleave - ) - . () : Microsoft Video 1 (8- 16- ), Motion JPEG, Microsoft RLE (8- ), Indeo ..Windows Media Video , Microsoft Microsoft. .wmv. Windows Media.MPEG (Motion JPEG)(.mpg, .mpeg, .dat) - (MPEG - Moving Picture Expert Group). , . MPEG-2 MPEG-4. Quick Time Movie (.qt, .mov) - , Adobe Quick Time. , MPEG Indeo, .

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    ** .., .., 3 .., .., 3 [code] - , . , : , , , . . [coding, encoding] , , , . . [cipher] - , . .** .., .., 3 .., .., 3 , . , - , , . ** .., .., 3 .., .., 3 (, , , , ) . , , , , 251299 : ; ; ; ; 25 1999 .** .., .., 3 .., .., 3 (), : - (), - - - - , , , - , .. - () - - - -

    ** .., .., 3 .., .., 3 , , . . . . , , , . (), . , () , , / ( ), / (), / ( ) .. , . , . . , , . , . , , , . . , : , , , . ( , ), ., , , . , , . . , . , . . , . , . , , . . () (). . , , .. . . . () . , - . , ; .** .., .., 3 .., .., 3 1. , . , . , , . . , .2. . ( ; ; ).3. . . .4. . , .. .** .., .., 3 .., .., 3 , , . , , . , .** .., .., 3 .., .., 3 , : I-V-X-L-C-D-M1-5-10-50-100-500-1000, VI = 5 + 1 = 6, IX = 10- 1 = 9. ** .., .., 3 .., .., 3 , , . . . , - e . , , - . . - . . , . , , . , 5557 - , . , , , . - , . , x p, x=an*pn+an-1*pn-1+ a1*p1+a0*p0, an...a0 - ., , 103510=1*103+0*102+3*101+5*100; 10102 = 1*23+0*22+1*21+0*20 = 10. ** .., .., 3 .., .., 3 () [binary number code] , [binary number system], - 1 0. (: ASCII, Windows .). , (binary digits). bit (), . . 0, 1, . - 1, . .** .., .., 3 .., .., 3 , . () . , , , . (, , , ) , : - , , , , ** .., .., 3 .., .., 3 , : ( - , , / ); ; ; ( ).

    ** .., .., 3 .., .., 3 , , , . , . : 0 + 0 = 0, 0 + 1 = 1, 1 + 0 = 1, 1 + 1 = 0 ( ) : 0 * 0 = 0 , 0 * 1 = 0 , 1 * 0 = 0 , 1 * 1 = 1 , . 1101 101 ( ). : 1101 , 1, . 1101 , 11010, , , . , . , , .. . - , , , 0, .

    ** .., .., 3 .., .., 3 8- 16- 2, 8 16. , . (octal) 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. - 8. . (hexadecimal) . . , , , 0x. 0x11 11 - . . ** .., .., 3 .., .., 3 * : . ( "", - ""). . : M - , p - N, q - . M N . . () . . , ( ) . , , . , . k- 2k .

    * .., .., 3 .., .., 3 N, k- , : 1) N ;2) k . 1607 2- . : 160710 = 110010001112. : 0000 0110 0100 0111. (-N) :1) N;2) 0 1 1 0;3) 1. -1607. 1607: 0000 0110 0100 0111. : 1111 1001 1011 1000. : 1111 1001 1011 1001 -- -1607. R m n p, : R = m * n . . , :12.345 = 0.0012345 x 104 = 1234.5 x 10-2 = 0.12345 x 102 . : 0.1p

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