23 глобальные компьютерные сети

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<ul><li><p> 23 Internet Internet </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * , (, , ) . () (Metropoliten area network MAN), (Wide area network, WAN). , , RELCOM, "" ("Infonet"), "" . , .</p><p> .. . ., * , , , , , . (wide area network, WAN). Internet, FIDONET, RELCOM, . </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * , . 1990- . 1996. " (RUNNet)" RUNNet -. (64/), - -. 1997 , - . 2000 "</p><p> .. . ., * , . 1990- . , TCP/IP- UUCP- , BBS- FIDO-. 1996. " (RUNNet)" RUNNet -. (64/), - -. , TCP/IP; e-mail - . 1997-1999, . - 1997 , - . 1997 4 (10/, 10Base-T). 254, 143 , 50 -- ( ), 61 -- . "-2000 , ( ) , , ( ) (10 /) . . 2004 , (11-54 /), 10-15 , (11 /), 5-6 . 1997 - [4-97] [1-98, 2-98, 6-99] . . , (1998.) , (http://www.urbannet.ru/ 1999.). 2001-2004 . 2000 "": ( , ..) 1,5 . 2004, 2000 702: 99 603 . , , , , , . </p></li><li><p> .. . ., *RelcomRelcom IP- 1990 . Relcom - Reliable Communications ( ). . off-line, , (News-mail) (FTP-mail). on-line . 1995 . </p><p> .. . ., *Relcom IP- 1990 . Relcom - Reliable Communications ( ). . Unix- . off-line, . , (News-mail) (FTP-mail).on-line . 1990 30 , Internet (Eunet). 1995 . Relcom (News-, FTP-, Wais-, Gopher- WWW- ), Internet. , . </p></li><li><p> .. . ., *Relcom Relcom , . Relcom 60 2500 260 . </p><p> .. . ., * Relcom , . Relcom , -2. , , . . (Relcom) 60 2500 260 . , , , , , . . Relcom : , , . . </p></li><li><p> .. . ., *Fidonet () . . . . </p><p> .. . ., * () . . . . IBM PC. Fidonet. . : Fido, Fidonet. , . , -, 1984 . , . : " - 1 - 2 . . : , . , - ". </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * BBS ( ), : 1984 , 3 , 30 , 1985 160, 1987 2000, 1992 20000, 1995 37000 ! BBS, , , , .</p><p> .. . ., * BBS ( ), . 1984 , 3 , 30 , 1985 160, 1987 2000, 1992 20000, 1995 37000 ! BBS, - , ; , . , . 1990 . - , (!). Fidonet , 1995 . Fidonet : 420 Fidonet. , . , ( ).</p></li><li><p> .. . ., * . . : 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6 . . , , () . . . (node). , , (Policy). (). , (point). , .</p><p> .. . ., * . , , , (). Fidonet - . - , (Nodelist), Fidonet . - . . : 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6 . . , , () . . . (node). , , (Policy). (). , (point). , . , . , , , . : : /: . ( , , ). 50- () 20- (). 60- , , 6023 . , Fidonet, 2:5020/113, 113 5020 50 2. : 2 - , 50 - , 5020 - . , : 2:5020/1829.2. </p></li><li><p> .. . ., *</p><p> .. . ., </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * </p><p> .. . ., </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * : : /: . ( , , ). 50- () 20- (). 60- , , 6023 . , Fidonet, 2:5020/113, 113 5020 50 2. : 2 - , 50 - , 5020 - . , : 2:5020/1829.2 </p><p> .. . ., </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * Fidonet , Fidonet, : ; ; . </p><p> .. . ., * , Fidonet, : ; ; . Fidonet. , Fidonet, , . Fidonet - . , , . , . - -, Fidonet. , . , ; , Fidonet 1500-2000 . Fidonet Internet: , , . . Internet, , - , , . . . Fidonet , , . Fidonet , , . Fidonet , Internet, - , , , , . . Fidonet : , - , . </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * </p><p> .. . ., </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * </p><p> .. . ., </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * </p><p> .. . ., * 05/03/2007 - 21:43 - - , Fidonet [3]. Fidonet , , ( - ) , , , , , , , , . ? , , , . [9] , -, , [10] , . , Wi-Fi WiMAX dial-up.http://webplanet.ru/news/life/2007/03/05/medvedev_answers.html </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * 1969 , . (ARPA) . 1971 , . 1973 , . 1984 1989 , . -, HTTP, HTML URL.</p><p> .. . ., * , Internet . , 60-, ARPA (Advanced Research Project Agency), . , ARPAnet , . , . ARPANET. ARPANET , , . 1975 ARPANET . 1983 TCP/IP, , , , . TCP/IP , , Internet . 1983 ARPANET MILNET, . Internet : MILNET ARPANET. 1991 ARPANET , Internet , , . </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * 1990 ARPANET 1991 , 1993 - Mosaic, . 1995 , FTP, (W3C). 1996 . 1990- ( , FidoNet, ). , , . 1997 10 , 1 . .</p><p> .. . ., </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * </p><p> .. . ., *Internet - , . , 2005 1 . . : 1995- 45 ., 2000 420 . 2011 2 . . 7-10%. Internet , , , . - , 197,8 . . 119,5 . , (86,3 .) (50,6 .). , Internet , , , , , . , . , , . , . , , . ( ) , , ()., , . , , . , . , , .</p></li><li><p> .. . ., * ; , . . , , , , </p><p> .. . ., * ; , . , 1998 - CNN (http://www.cnn.com) , . (http://www.rbc.ru), . , . , . , , , . , . , . , , , . ( , , , . , , . , , , , .) : , . , , - , . </p></li><li><p> .. . ., *, - . - , . 24 , 7 . - , . - , . - . - , , , . . </p><p> .. . ., *, . , . : , . - . - , . 24 , 7 . - , . , . (UPS). UNIX. , -. - , , . Microsoft Windows . - . . , . - , , , . . </p></li><li><p> .. . ., *</p><p> .. . ., </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * - - (, , ) , "" (. cache). . "-" (. proxy-server). </p><p> .. . ., * -. - (, , ) . . , -, "" (. cache). , -, . "-" (. proxy-server). - , . , - -. , - . , . , - - . - , . </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * Internet TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol). IP , .. , , , . , . IP- , 256, . : 192.112.36.5. .. , , 1500 , . , , 1500 . </p><p> .. . ., * TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol). TCP/IP - , , . IP , .. , , , . , . ( ), .IP- , 256, . : 192.112.36.5. , , 1500 , . , , 1500 . . TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) UDP (User Datagram Protocol).TCP , , , , . TCP IP. TCP , . - , . </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * -(Domain Name System, DNS) - . (IP) (, www.rbc.ru 194.186.36.142). . . , , cyb123.vsau.ru. , , . cyb123.vsau.ru cyb123 IP . vsau ( ). vsau , ( ru). </p><p> .. . ., * IP- (, 192.112.36.5.) , . Internet (Domain Name System, DNS). . . , , cyb123.vsau.ru. , , . cyb123.vsau.ru cyb123 IP . vsau ( ). vsau , ( ru). </p></li><li><p> (URL) URL (uniform resource locator). url : ( , ) ( , , http) () . : http://iomas.vsau.ru/nauka/nauka.shtmlhttp:// - iomas.vsau.ru ()nauka nauka.shtml </p><p> .. . ., *</p><p> .. . ., URL "uniform resource locator" ( ). . URL : FTP, .. HTML - url -. , , , url , . url , , , , .</p><p>Google Chrome3 September 2010, 8:00 pm Net Applications , Internet Explorer 60,4% , Mozilla Firefox 22,9%, Safari 5,2%. Google Chrome .</p><p>*</p></li><li><p> , . - , . , " " . , , - , , . . (, "" "Renault"). ( ) - : , , www.doktor.ru www.doctor.ru. !</p><p> .. . ., *</p><p> .. . ., </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * , . , , , , Internet. Internet , . , . </p><p> .. . ., * , . Internet, - , , . , , , , Internet. . ( ) , , . Internet , . Internet , . , . , Internet . . , , , . Internet , . 1-2 . , , , . </p></li><li><p> World Wide Web (" ") - (pages) , , . World Wide Web 1989 - . World Wide Web :1) URL (Universal, Uniform Resource Locator) - 2) HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) - 3) HTML (Hyper-Text Markup Language) .</p><p> .. . ., *</p><p> .. . ., World Wide Web (" ") - , . (pages) , , . (graphical browser programs, ) , , . World Wide Web :1) URL (Universal, Uniform Resource Locator)2) HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)3) HTML (Hyper-Text Markup Language)</p><p> (World Wide Web, WWW, ) - , . , , ( ). - (, , ), , . World Wide Web, Internet, . . , , FTP-, , , , , FTP DOS. , .World Wide Web 1989 - . : 1) ( , ); 2) ; 3) (universal readership) . , WWW, , . 1993 , Web-. (Viola Mosaic Window), WWW . 50 Web- (0,1% Internet) WWW 500 1993-. , Web Mosaic . WWW MS Internet Explorer Netscape Navigator. Microsoft Web- ( Netscape), Windows 95, Windows 98, , .*</p></li><li><p>World Wide WebWorld Wide Web Internet. "" Web , "" Web . . Web . WWW -, . WWW . - , ().</p><p> .. . ., *</p><p> .. . ., World Wide Web Internet. "" Web , "" Web . . Web . WWW -, . WWW . - , ().*</p></li><li><p>World Wide Web . , - "". , , . HTML (Hyper-Text Markup Language,) . </p><p> .. . ., *</p><p> .. . ., . , - "". , , . HTML (Hyper-Text Markup Language,) . *</p></li><li><p> .. . ., * HTML (HyperText Markup Language)</p><p> .. . ., * . , , , , , . - . , . , - , , , , , . , , , , , , . , , , , - , : . , , . , , , , . , , . , . , , . - . , (, , ), , . , , -, , , . , - . - , : , , . - , -. , , . , - (), , , , . - . WWW HTML (HyperText Markup Language, " "). *.htm *.html. - - () ( . browse - , ). , . - HTTP. </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * HTML </p><p> .. . ., * ., HTTP, , , . , . , . -, . - - - (. http://www.mail.ru) -, . , Netscape Navigator Internet Explorer. , , . , . . , . </p></li><li><p> (browser programs) HTML , (URL).</p><p> .. . ., *Internet Explorer</p><p>Opera</p><p>Firefox</p><p>Chrome </p><p> .. . ., (browser programs, ) HTML , (URL).*</p></li><li><p> .. . ., * </p><p> .. . ., * . , . . . - : - ("" ), . , , . (URL), . , . - , " ". . , () . , , . , , . . , . . . , . . , . . , . , . - -, . - , . - Google (http://www.google.com/), , . </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * </p><p> .. . ., </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * </p><p> .. . ., * . , , , . "" ("Search") . , , 10 . . , "" (. .). , , , . , . , , . . . , . . , , , . , . , 6 (!) . , , , . , , . , , , , , , - . </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * </p><p>http://www.yahoo.comhttp://altavista.digital.comhttp://www.hotbot.comhttp://www.infoseek.comhttp://www.northernlight.comhttp://www.google.comhttp://www.google.ru http://www.rambler.ru http://www.yandex.ru http://www.aport.ru http://www.list.ruhttp://www.gogo.ru http://www.ru</p><p> .. . ., </p></li><li><p> .. . ., * . : _@_, (, ivanov@mail.ru) -. : Microsoft Outlook Express, The Bat! . :: (To:) ;: (Cc:) , ; Bcc: , , , ; : (Subject:) , .</p><p> .. . ., * , . , (, , ), . , . , . . . . , , , , . . : _@_, (, ivanov@mail.ru) @ - , , . - "" "", - at, , , ivanov mail.ru. -. , , . , , . . , . , , , . - , , , , . 10-15 . , () , . . . - , () . , . , . , . Windows 95/98. Microsoft Outlook Express - , Microsoft Office Microsoft Internet Explorer. . IMAP . The Bat! RITLABS. , , . . , , , . . , , , .. : : (To:) ;: (Cc:) , ; Bcc: , , , ; : (Subject:) ,...</p></li></ul>

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