Achievment Gap

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<ul><li> 1. Exploring the Achievement Gap Carrie Anderson, Amber Aspevig, Kate Bertin As an introduction to our topic we created this video and posted it on youtube. The video is an original creation made for this presentation.</li></ul><p> 2. What is going on? 3. Why does the gap exist? </p> <ul><li> Andwho is accountable?? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><p> 4. </p> <ul><li> Each person likely has a strong opinion: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>unqualified teachers! </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>low expectations! </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>inadequate government funding! </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>overcrowded classrooms ! </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>racist curriculum! </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>culturally biased tests! </li></ul></li></ul><p> 5. </p> <ul><li> or... </li></ul><ul><li>-family background! </li></ul><ul><li>-socioeconomic conditions! </li></ul><ul><li>-emotional and psychological influences! </li></ul><ul><li>-anti-intellectual culture! </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><p> 6. There is no simple answer. 7. Yet two main, distinctive categories exist: </p> <ul><li>Sociocultural factors </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional factors </li></ul><p> 8. Sociocultural </p> <ul><li>Factors related to:</li></ul><ul><li>-students' socioeconomic status </li></ul><ul><li>-family background </li></ul><ul><li>-cultural environment</li></ul><p> 9. </p> <ul><li>Factors related to: </li></ul><ul><li>-schools </li></ul><ul><li>-teachers </li></ul><ul><li>-government </li></ul><ul><li>-institutional racism </li></ul><p>Institutional 10. Without question, bothelements influence and perpetuate an academic achievement gap - a startlingly wide gap... </p> <ul><li><ul><li>which has not narrowed significantly since 1954'sBrown vs. Board of Education </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>and whose under-performing group is comprised ofminority students of color and from low socioeconomic conditions. </li></ul></li></ul><p> 11. </p> <ul><li>In this presentation we will look atWHYthere is an achievement gap between students of color and white students,and also between students from higher socioeconomic conditions and those from lower socioeconomic conditions. </li></ul><p> 12. </p> <ul><li> But first, let's have some perspective from professionals on the front lines. </li></ul><p> 13. This short clip provides a first look, from California- (youtube, "Who is accountable?", Langerston &amp; Lee) 14. Jonathon Kozol (1991) "Savage Inequalities" </p> <ul><li>"Anyone who visits in the schools of East St. Louis, [Illinois] even for a short time, comes away profoundly shaken. These are innocent children, after all. They have done nothing wrong. They have committed no crime. They are too young to have offended us in any way at all. One searches for some way to understand why a society as rich and, frequently, as generous as ours would leave these children in their penury and squalor for so long -- and with so little public indignation. Is this just a strange mistake of history? Is it unusual? Is it an American anomaly?"(p.40). </li></ul><p> 15. East St. Louis is but one of many communities in the country held hostage to abject poverty. </p> <ul><li>-demographic 98% black </li></ul><ul><li>-"poor and devastated city" </li></ul><ul><li>-high poverty</li></ul><ul><li>-crumbling school facilities and shortage of teachers, resources and morale: </li></ul><ul><li>"Trapped within the parameters of their world, many children gradually lose hope. Their learning potential slowly erodes. Their aspirations slip away. Fewer and fewer opportunities remain open to them"(Kozol, 1991). </li></ul><p>photo from: 16. </p> <ul><li>20 years later... and equally pertinent . </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li></li></ul><p> 17. Thus we wonder: </p> <ul><li> Howhas it become so dire? </li></ul><ul><li>Whyhas our society allowed it? </li></ul><ul><li></li></ul><p> 18. Disadvantaged students: </p> <ul><li>The experience of students in East St. Louis is repeated throughout the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics of the achievement gap: urban minorities, Indianreservations, poverty and economically depressed communities, English language learners .</li></ul><p> 19. FACTS:</p> <ul><li>-According to the National Assessment on Academic Progress in 2009, White students had higher scores than Black students, on average, on all assessments. While the nationwide gaps in 2007 were narrower than in previous assessments at both grades 4 and 8 in mathematics and at grade 4 in reading, White students had average scores at least 26 points higher than Black students in each subject, on a 0-500 scale. </li></ul><ul><li>( </li></ul><ul><li>-The United States has "one of the most unequal education systems in the industrialized world" (Darling Hammond, 2007,1). </li></ul><p> 20. Mathematics: Figure 13-1: Average mathematics scale scores of 4th- and 8th-grade students, by school poverty level: Selected years, 2000-09 NOTE: The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics scores range from 0 to 500 for grades 4 and 8. The percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch ranges between 025 percent in low-poverty schools and between 76100 percent in high-poverty schools. For more information on NAEP, see supplemental note 4 and for more information on free or reduced-price lunch, see supplemental note 1 . SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), selected years, 20002009 Mathematics Assessments, NAEP Data Explorer. 21. Figure 13-2: Average mathematics scale scores of 12th-grade students, by race/ethnicity: 2005 and 2009 NOTE: The framework for the 12th-grade mathematics assessment was revised in 2005; as a result, the 2005 and 2009 results cannot be compared with those from previous years. At grade 12, mathematics scores on the revised assessment range from 0 to 300. For more information on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), see supplemental note 4 . Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. For more information on race/ethnicity, see supplemental note 1 . SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), selected years, 2005 and 2009 Mathematics Assessments, NAEP Data Explorer. 22. Reading: Figure 11-1: Average reading scale scores of 12th-grade students, by race/ethnicity: Selected years, 1992-2009 NOTE: The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading scale ranges from 0 to 500. Testing accommodations (e.g., extended time, small group testing) for children with disabilities and English language learners were not permitted in 1992 and 1994; students were tested with and without accommodations in 1998. For more information on NAEP, see supplemental note4 . Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. For more information on race/ethnicity, see supplemental note1 . SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), selected years, 19922009 Reading Assessments, NAEP Data Explorer. 23. Drop-out Rates: </p> <ul><li>High School Drop-out Rates, 2009: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Total- 8.1% </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>White- 5.2% </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Black- 9.3% </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Hispanic- 17.6% </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>American Indian/Alaska Native- 13.2% </li></ul></li></ul><p>taken from: 24. This begs the question: </p> <ul><li>To what extent do external and internal factors influence these results? </li></ul><ul><li>Canmoneyfix the problem? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><p> 25. </p> <ul><li>Or are social, cultural and family factors beyond the scope of an institutional, financial resolution? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><p> 26. Institutional : school-related factors </p> <ul><li>-funding </li></ul><ul><li>-legislation </li></ul><ul><li>-quality of schools </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><p> 27. Institutional :Inequitable funding </p> <ul><li>-10% of federal monies for education </li></ul><ul><li>- state responsibility, flexibility with federal $$ use </li></ul><ul><li>-% state tax spending on education:Vermont 5.5%, Delaware 2.5%, South Dakota 2.8%, Montana 3.8% ("Education Counts" cited in Epstein, 2011, p. 6) </li></ul><ul><li> -local property taxes = a primary butdisproportionaterevenue source </li></ul><ul><li> high povertyschool districts receive an average of$907 less per student </li></ul><ul><li> (Education Trust cited in Machtinger, 2011, p. 3). </li></ul><p> 28. Inequitable funding -&gt; </p> <ul><li>unequal access to quality education as a function of where students live (Roscigno &amp; Tomaskovic-Devey, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li></li></ul><p> 29. </p> <ul><li>"It costs moreto educate children who come from low-income families, are English language learners, or who qualify for special education services to the same level as those children who do not have these extra needs" </li></ul><ul><li>(Epstein, 2011, p.6)</li></ul><p> 30. Here is another look from California concerning school funding inequalities... </p> <ul><li>- </li></ul><p> 31. Institutional :Legislatio n</p> <ul><li><ul><li>1964, Civil Rights Act,Specifically aimed at desegregating schools. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>1965, Immigration Reform and Control Act,Changed who immigrated to the United States and had a huge impact on the cultural and ethnic diversity of the United States, specifically California. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>1965,The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), Increased federalization of education included head start, free lunches, special education students.Huge impact on the public school system. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>1971, Serrano Vs. Priest,Ca Supreme Court declared that property tax based school financing was unconstitutional.Funding now came from the state along with increased regulation.Districts such as LA that had large tax bases and often poorer students suffered loss of income.Similar type law suites spread across the US. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>1972, Title 9,Added amendment to ESEA on discrimination against women. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>1975, Education for All Handicapped Children Act,Stated that allphysically challenged students are entitled to a fair and appropriate public education.As the courts have interpreted this program, it has led to a large increase in special education classes.Currently, there fight has moved onto mainstreaming of handicapped children in schools. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>1978, Proposition 13 passes,Reduces state income significantly.Starts a tax payer revolt across the United States.Major impact on school funding. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>2002 ,No Child Left Behind Law,A very complex law that is having a huge impact on schools by requiring certain minimal standards be set.And if the school districts do not meet these standards, they may be taken overby the state. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>( </li></ul><p> 32. " Talking the talk, but not walking the walk " (Merrow, 2011, para 10) </p> <ul><li>data-driven decisions </li></ul><ul><li>accountability! standardized testing! </li></ul><ul><li>No Child Left Behind,Title I, and Head Start </li></ul><ul><li>"poor people don't give money to congressional campaigns. They're not the voices that we listen to closely. We listen to powerful, rich people" </li></ul><ul><li>(Zigler cited in Perkins-Gough, 2007, para 20) </li></ul><p> 33. Institutional: </p> <ul><li>" Programs for poor people are poor programs" </li></ul><ul><li> (Zigler, cited in Merrow, 2011, para 21) </li></ul><ul><li>"..create a system that's good enough for those with money, but make it available to everyone" </li></ul><ul><li>(Merrow, 2011, para 21) </li></ul><p> 34. Institutional: schools and teachers </p> <ul><li>"HQT" -High quality teachers, empty promise(Darling Hammond ,2007) </li></ul><ul><li>"Students who most need best teachers and best learning environments rarely have access to either"(Evans, 2005, p. 583) </li></ul><ul><li>Narrowing the curriculum -&gt;"narrow view of what constitutes learning"(Darling-Hammond, 2007, p. 3)</li></ul><ul><li>leadership traits of principals </li></ul><p> 35. Institutional: Racism The Stereotype Threat Claude M. Steele talks on NPR about how stereotypes can negatively impact academic performance... 36. Tim Wise speaks further as to the negative impact of racism on education... 37. Institutional Racism:Beyond Stereotypes </p> <ul><li> Racism is so universal in this country, so widespread and deep-seated, that it is invisible because it is so normal. </li></ul><ul><li>-Shirley Chisholm </li></ul><p>What is institutional racism? Institutional racism can include the adoption of practices that work to the disadvantage of students of color; the unquestioning adoption of middle-class values and expectations for all; or a tacit acceptance of racism by not confronting it head-on (Weissglass, 2001). 38. Sociocultural :</p> <ul><li>"Schooling has much less leverage on children than previously thought" (Evans, 2005, p. 584) </li></ul><ul><li></li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><p> 39. Sociocultural : Poverty and school-readiness PBS segment on low-income children's school readiness in Chicago- (click to view) Nearly 90% of the variance in students' math scores on some tests can be predicted without knowing anything about their schools; one only needs to know the number of parents in the home, the level of the parents' education, the type of community in which the family lives, and the state's poverty rate (D. Brandon and G. Robinson (1994),cited in Evans, 2005, p. 584) 40. Sociocultural: Poverty and school-readiness </p> <ul><li>"Educationally and linguistically, poor children are behind from the beginning"(Merrow, 2011, para 5) </li></ul><ul><li>Low-income kindergarteners are full year behind in reading. Statistically, their parents speak approximately</li></ul><ul><li>5,000 words per day, vs 20,000 for middle class peers(Evans, 2005, p.585) </li></ul><ul><li>Poor children have less access to early childhood education. There are not enough Head Start programs, and they can't afford expensive private preschools(Merrow, 2011, para 7) </li></ul><p> 41. Sociocultural: Poverty and school-readiness </p> <ul><li>"Children growing up in diverse economic and family circumstances do not have equal access to the relationships and environments that will support their earlybrain and mind development " </li></ul><ul><li>(Center for Urban Child Policy, 2009, para 4) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><p> 42. Like most pieces of this puzzle, the answer is complicated. Poor students often dont have access to good nutrition, either in utero or as children. Poor nutrition can lead to developmental limitations both at birth and as the child is growing. The student who lives in poverty may not have as many cultural enrichment opportunities (such as attending concerts or museums), may not experience as much parental support for education (due to the parents own educational limitations or bad experiences with ed...</p>