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<ul><li><p>PSYCHOLOGY<br>(9th Edition)<br><br>David Myers</p><p>PowerPoint Slides</p><p>Aneeq Ahmad</p><p>Henderson State University</p><p>Worth Publishers, 2010</p></li><li><p>Personality<br><br>Chapter 13</p></li><li><p>Personality</p><p>The Psychoanalytic Perspective</p><p>Exploring the Unconscious</p><p>The Neo-Freudian and Psychodynamic Theories</p><p>Assessing Unconscious Processes</p><p>Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective</p></li><li><p>The Humanistic Perspective</p><p>Abraham Maslows Self-Actualizing Person</p><p>Carl Rogers Person-Centered Perspective</p><p>Assessing the Self</p><p>Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective</p></li><li><p>The Trait Perspective</p><p>Exploring Traits</p><p>Assessing Traits</p><p>The Big Five Factors</p><p>Evaluating the Trait Perspective</p></li><li><p>The Social-Cognitive Perspective</p><p>Reciprocal Influences</p><p>Personal Control</p><p>Assessing Behavior in Situations</p><p>Evaluating the Social-Cognitive Perspective</p><p>Exploring the Self</p><p>The Benefits of Self-Esteem</p><p>Self-Serving Bias</p></li><li><p>Personality</p><p>An individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.</p><p>Each dwarf has a distinct personality.</p></li><li><p>Psychoanalytic Perspective</p><p>In his clinical practice, Freud encountered patients suffering from nervous disorders. Their complaints could not be explained in terms of purely physical causes.</p><p>Sigmund Freud</p><p>(1856-1939)</p><p>Culver Pictures</p><p>Preview Question 1: What was Freuds view of personality and its development?</p></li><li><p>Psychodynamic Perspective</p><p>Freuds clinical experience led him to develop the first comprehensive theory of personality, which included the unconscious mind, psychosexual stages, and defense mechanisms.</p><p>Sigmund Freud</p><p>(1856-1939)</p><p>Culver Pictures</p></li><li><p>Exploring the Unconscious</p><p>A reservoir (unconscious mind) of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. Freud asked patients to say whatever came to their minds (free association) in order to tap the unconscious.</p><p></p></li><li><p>Dream Analysis</p><p>Another method to analyze the unconscious mind is through interpreting manifest and latent contents of dreams.</p><p>The Nightmare, Henry Fuseli (1791)</p></li><li><p>Psychoanalysis</p><p>The process of free association (chain of thoughts) leads to painful, embarrassing unconscious memories. Once these memories are retrieved and released (treatment: psychoanalysis) the patient feels better.</p></li><li><p>Model of Mind</p><p>The mind is like an iceberg. It is mostly hidden, and below the surface lies the unconscious mind. The preconscious stores temporary memories.</p></li><li><p>Personality Structure</p><p>Personality develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our biological impulses (id) and social restraints (superego).</p></li><li><p>Id, Ego and Superego</p><p>The Id unconsciously strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives, operating on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.</p><p>The ego functions as the executive and mediates the demands of the id and superego.</p><p>The superego provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.</p></li><li><p>Personality Development</p><p>Freud believed that personality formed during the first few years of life divided into psychosexual stages. During these stages the ids pleasure-seeking energies focus on pleasure sensitive body areas called erogenous zones.</p></li><li><p>Psychosexual Stages</p><p>Freud divided the development of personality into five psychosexual stages.</p></li><li><p>Oedipus Complex</p><p>A boys sexual desire for his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. A girls desire for her father is called the Electra complex.</p></li><li><p>Identification</p><p>Children cope with threatening feelings by repressing them and by identifying with the rival parent. Through this process of identification, their superego gains strength that incorporates their parents values.</p><p>From the K. Vandervelde private collection</p></li><li><p>Defense Mechanisms</p><p>The egos protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.</p><p>1.Repression banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.</p><p>2.Regression leads an individual faced with anxiety to retreat to a more infantile psychosexual stage.</p><p>Preview Question 2: How did Freud think people defended themselves against anxiety?</p></li><li><p>Defense Mechanisms</p><p>3.Reaction Formation causes the ego to unconsciously switch unacceptable impulses into their opposites. People may express feelings of purity when they may be suffering anxiety from unconscious feelings about sex.</p><p>4.Projection leads people to disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.</p></li><li><p>Defense Mechanisms</p><p>5.Rationalization offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for ones actions.</p><p>6.Displacement shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.</p></li><li><p>The Neo-Freudians</p><p>Like Freud, Adler believed in childhood tensions. However, these tensions were social in nature and not sexual. A child struggles with an inferiority complex during growth and strives for superiority and power.</p><p>Alfred Adler (1870-1937) </p><p>National Library of Medicine</p><p>Preview Question 3: Which of Freuds ideas did his followers accept or reject? </p></li><li><p>The Neo-Freudians</p><p>Like Adler, Horney believed in the social aspects of childhood growth and development. She countered Freuds assumption that women have weak superegos and suffer from penis envy.</p><p>Karen Horney (1885-1952) </p><p>The Bettmann Archive/ Corbis</p></li><li><p>The Neo-Freudians</p><p>Jung believed in the collective unconscious, which contained a common reservoir of images derived from our species past. This is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as the mother being a symbol of nurturance.</p><p>Carl Jung (1875-1961) </p><p>Archive of the History of American Psychology/ University of Akron</p></li><li><p>Assessing Unconscious Processes</p><p>Evaluating personality from an unconscious minds perspective would require a psychological instrument (projective tests) that would reveal the hidden unconscious mind.</p><p>Preview Question 4: What are projective tests, and how are they used?</p></li><li><p>Thematic Apperception Test<br>(TAT)</p><p>Developed by Henry Murray, the TAT is a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.</p><p>Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc.</p></li><li><p>Rorschach Inkblot Test</p><p>The most widely used projective test uses a set of 10 inkblots and was designed by Hermann Rorschach. It seeks to identify peoples inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.</p><p>Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc.</p></li><li><p>Projective Tests: Criticisms</p><p>Critics argue that projective tests lack both reliability (consistency of results) and validity (predicting what it is supposed to).</p><p>When evaluating the same patient, even trained raters come up with different interpretations (reliability).</p><p>2.Projective tests may misdiagnose a normal individual as pathological (validity).</p></li><li><p>Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective</p><p>Personality develops throughout life and is not fixed in childhood.</p><p>Freud underemphasized peer influence on the individual, which may be as powerful as parental influence.</p><p>Gender identity may develop before 5-6 years of age.</p><p>Modern Research</p></li><li><p>Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective</p><p>There may be other reasons for dreams besides wish fulfillment.</p><p>Verbal slips can be explained on the basis of cognitive processing of verbal choices.</p><p>Suppressed sexuality leads to psychological disorders. Sexual inhibition has decreased, but psychological disorders have not.</p><p>Modern Research</p></li><li><p>Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective</p><p>Freud's psychoanalytic theory rests on the repression of painful experiences into the unconscious mind. </p><p>The majority of children, death camp survivors, and battle-scarred veterans are unable to repress painful experiences into their unconscious mind.</p></li><li><p>The Modern Unconscious Mind</p><p>Modern research shows the existence of non-conscious information processing. This involves:</p><p>schemas that automatically control perceptions and interpretations</p><p>the right-hemisphere activity that enables the split-brain patients left hand to carry out an instruction the patient cannot verbalize</p><p>parallel processing during vision and thinking</p><p>implicit memories</p><p>emotions that activate instantly without consciousness</p><p>self-concept and stereotypes that unconsciously influence us</p><p>Preview Question 5: How do contemporary psychologists view Freud and the unconscious?</p></li><li><p>Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective</p><p>The scientific merits of Freuds theory have been criticized. Psychoanalysis is meagerly testable. Most of its concepts arise out of clinical practice, which are the after-the-fact explanation.</p></li><li><p>Humanistic Perspective</p><p>By the 1960s, psychologists became discontent with Freuds negativity and the mechanistic psychology of the behaviorists.</p><p>Abraham Maslow</p><p>(1908-1970)</p><p>Carl Rogers</p><p>(1902-1987)</p><p></p><p>Preview Question 6: How did humanistic psychologists view personality, and what was their goal in studying personality?</p></li><li><p>Self-Actualizing Person</p><p>Maslow proposed that we as individuals are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. Beginning with physiological needs, we try to reach the state of self-actualizationfulfilling our potential.</p><p></p><p>Ted Polumbaum/ Time Pix/ Getty Images</p></li><li><p>Person-Centered Perspective</p><p>Carl Rogers also believed in an individual's self-actualization tendencies. He said that Unconditional Positive Regard is an attitude of acceptance of others despite their failings.</p><p>Michael Rougier/ Life Magazine Time Warner, Inc.</p></li><li><p>Assessing the Self</p><p>All of our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in an answer to the question, Who am I? refers to Self-Concept.</p><p>In an effort to assess personality, Rogers asked people to describe themselves as they would like to be (ideal) and as they actually are (real). If the two descriptions were close the individual had a positive self-concept.</p><p>Preview Question 7: How did humanistic psychologists assess a persons sense of self?</p></li><li><p>Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective</p><p> Humanistic psychology has a pervasive impact on counseling, education, child-rearing, and management with its emphasis on a positive self-concept, empathy, and the thought that people are basically good and can improve.</p><p>Preview Question 8: How has the humanistic perspective influenced psychology? What criticisms has it faced?</p></li><li><p>Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective</p><p>Concepts in humanistic psychology are vague and subjective and lack scientific basis.</p><p>The individualism encouraged can lead to self-indulgence, selfishness, and an erosion of moral restraints. </p><p>Humanistic psychology fails to appreciate the reality of our human capacity for evil. It lacks adequate balance between realistic optimism and despair.</p><p>Criticisms</p></li><li><p>The Trait Perspective</p><p>An individuals unique constellation of durable dispositions and consistent ways of behaving (traits) constitutes his or her personality.</p>Examples of TraitsHonestDependableMoodyImpulsive</li><li><p>Exploring Traits</p><p>One way to condense the immense list of personality traits is through factor analysis, a statistical approach used to describe and relate personality traits.</p><p>Each personality is uniquely made up of multiple traits. </p><p>Allport &amp; Odbert (1936), identified almost 18,000 words representing traits.</p><p>Preview Question 9: How do psychologists use traits to describe personality?</p></li><li><p>Factor Analysis</p><p>Hans and Sybil Eysenck suggested that personality could be reduced down to two polar dimensions, extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability.</p></li><li><p>Biology and Personality</p><p>Personality dimensions are influenced by genes. </p>Brain-imaging procedures show that extraverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low. Genes also influence our temperament and behavioral style. Differences in childrens shyness and inhibition may be attributed to autonomic nervous system reactivity.</li><li><p>Assessing Traits</p><p>Personality inventories are questionnaires (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors assessing several traits at once.</p><p>Preview Question 10: What are personality inventories, and what are their strengths and weaknesses as trait-assessment tools?</p></li><li><p>MMPI</p><p>The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. It was originally developed to identify emotional disorders.</p><p>The MMPI was developed by empirically testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminated between diagnostic groups.</p></li><li><p>MMPI Test Profile</p></li><li><p>The Big Five Factors</p><p>Todays trait researchers believe that earlier trait dimensions, such as Eysencks personality dimensions, fail to tell the whole story. So, an expanded range (five factors) of traits does a better job of assessment.</p>ConscientiousnessAgreeablenessNeuroticismOpennessExtraversion<p>Preview Question 11: Which traits seem to provide the most useful information about personality variation?</p></li><li><p>Endpoints</p></li><li><p>Questions about the Big Five</p><p>These traits are common across cultures.</p><p>3. How about other cultures?</p><p>Fifty percent or so for each trait.</p><p>2. How heritable are they?</p><p>Quite stable in adulthood. However, they change over development.</p><p>1. How stable are these traits?</p></li><li><p>Evaluating the Trait Perspective</p><p>The Person-Situation Controversy</p><p>Walter Mischel (1968, 1984, 2004) points out that traits may be enduring, but the resulting behavior in various situations is different. Therefore, traits are not good predictors of behavior.</p><p>Preview Question 12: Does research support the consistency of personality traits over time and across situations?</p></li><li><p>The Person-Situation Controversy</p><p>Trait theorists argue that behaviors from a situation may be different, but average behavior remains the same. Therefore, traits matter.</p></li><li><p>The Person-Situation Controversy</p><p>Traits are socially significant and influence our health, thinking, and performance (Gosling et al., 2000).</p><p>Samuel Gosling</p><p>John Langford Photography</p></li><li><p>Consistency of Expressive Style</p><p>Expressive styles in speaking and gestures demonstrate trait consistency.</p><p>Observers are able to judge peoples behavior and feelings in as little as 30 seconds and in one particular case as little as 2 seconds.</p></li><li><p>Social-Cognitive Perspective</p><p>Bandura (1986, 2001, 2005) believes that personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and their social context.</p><p>Albert Bandura</p><p>Preview Question 13: In the view of social-cognitive psychologists, what mutual influences shape an individuals personality? </p></li><li><p>Individuals &amp; Environments</p><p>Specific ways in which individuals and environments interact</p><p>How we view and treat people influences how they treat us.</p><p>Our personalities shape situations.</p><p>Anxious people react to situations differently than relaxed people.</p><p>Our personalities shape how we react to events.</p><p>The school you attend and the music you listen to are partly based on your dispositions.</p><p>Different people choose different environments.</p></li><li><p>Behavior</p><p>Behavior emerges from an interplay of external and internal influences.</p></li><li><p>Personal Control</p><p>External locus of control refers to the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate.</p><p>Internal locus of control refers to the perception that we can control our own fate.</p><p>Social-co...</p></li></ul>