Ch11 (12) urban structure

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<ul><li><p>Wendy A. Mitteager</p><p>State University of New York, Oneonta</p><p>CITY </p><p>SPACES: </p><p>URBAN </p><p>STRUCTURE</p></li><li><p>Urban Structure - Key Terms</p><p>Land Use &amp; Spatial </p><p>Patterns</p><p> North American Cities</p><p> European Cities</p><p> Islamic Cities</p><p> Unintended </p><p>Metropolises</p><p> Mega Cities</p><p> Dualism</p><p> Infrastructure</p><p>Urban Land Use </p><p>Models</p><p> Racial Segregation</p><p> Smart Growth</p><p> Urban Sprawl</p><p> Gentrification</p><p> Edge Cities</p></li><li><p>City The term is a political designation</p><p> Refers to a municipal entity that is governedby some kind of administrative organization</p><p> In Europe the largest cities (especially capitals) are often </p><p> the foci of the state</p><p> microcosms of their national cultures</p></li><li><p>Urban Structure</p><p>Isotropic surface</p><p> A hypothetical uniform plane representing a City &amp; its Use Zones</p><p> Accessibility of a location is a function of its utility, which decreases steadily with distance from the city center. </p><p> Utility decreases from center but at different rates for different land users. </p><p>Figure 11.1 Accessibility, bid-rent, and urban structure</p><p>Bid-rents - Different users are </p><p>prepared to pay different </p><p>amounts for locations at various </p><p>distances from the City center.</p><p>Trade-off model</p><p> Urban dwellers trade-off </p><p>between accessibility &amp; living </p><p>space</p></li><li><p>North American City Structure</p><p> Central business district</p><p>(CBD) traditional city development based on </p><p>urban center with administrative functions </p><p>including government, banking, law, education, </p><p>&amp; retail functions.</p><p> Zone in transition as city space evolves &amp; </p><p>changes, previous zones of industrial use fall </p><p>into decay, may develop into new business </p><p>with different land use; mixture of growth, </p><p>change &amp; decline.</p><p>Figure 11.2 Chicago's </p><p>Globalized Financial CBD</p><p>Historic 3rd Street </p><p>Central Business </p><p>District</p><p>Santa Monica, CA</p><p>1950s to 2012</p></li><li><p>North American Cities </p><p>Figure 11.3 The ecological model of urban land use </p><p>The Chicago Model</p><p>Zones of concentric land use in a model City. </p><p>Central business district (CBD) at center, location of </p><p>original agricultural farmers markets, livestock </p><p>transport &amp; slaughter, rail yards for shipping nationally </p><p>&amp; regionally. Manufacturing. Historic ethnic enclaves </p><p>with distinct cultural fabric in proximity to groups </p><p>experiencing discrimination due to race and ethnicity.</p><p>http://www.chicagohs.org/history/stockyard/stock6.html</p><p>Kids in the Dump yards of </p><p>Chicagohttp://www.chicagohs.org/history/stockyard/stock8.html</p><p>Worker Housing</p><p>Chicago Union Stockyards, Railroads </p><p>Manufacturing Zones</p><p>http://www.chicagohs.org/history/stockyard/stock6.htmlhttp://www.chicagohs.org/history/stockyard/stock8.html</p></li><li><p>Urban Population &amp; Congregation</p><p> Congregation provides a means of cultural preservation. Allows religious &amp; cultural practices to be maintained &amp; strengthens group identity </p><p>through daily involvement in routines &amp; ways of life.</p><p> Minority groups are population subgroups that are perceived as different </p><p>from the general population. Defining characteristics of minority groups can </p><p>be based on race, language, religion, nationality, caste, sexual orientation, or </p><p>lifestyle.</p><p> Segregation The combined result of congregation &amp; discrimination, the spatial separation of specific subgroups within a wider population.</p><p> Enclaves are tendencies toward congregation &amp; discrimination are long-</p><p>standing but dominated by internal cohesion.</p><p> Ghettos long-standing products of discrimination than congregation.</p><p> Colonies result from shorter lasting congregation, discrimination or both. </p><p>Persistence depends on continuing arrival of new minority-group members. </p></li><li><p>Racial Segregation</p><p>Detroit</p><p>Long BeachNew York</p><p>Washington, D.C.</p><p>Figure 11.a,b,c,d</p><p> Segregation The combined </p><p>result of </p><p>congregation &amp; </p><p>discrimination, the </p><p>spatial separation </p><p>of specific </p><p>subgroups within </p><p>a wider </p><p>population.</p><p> Development of </p><p>American Cities </p><p>reflect historical </p><p>trend of racial </p><p>segregation.</p></li><li><p>Spatial Organization</p><p>Figure 11.6 Decentralized multiple-nuclei model</p><p>Contemporary American urbanization; ever-</p><p>increasing metropolitan sprawl with outlying nodes </p><p>of residential &amp; economic development</p><p>Ex: Los Angeles &amp; southern California regions, </p><p>Northeastern Indiana Chicago metropolitan region</p><p>Figure 11.5 Hoyt's model of urban structure: </p><p>Sector model</p><p>Hoyt observed dominant patterns of population </p><p>classes in as concentric &amp; sectors of land use.</p><p>Wage earners live in proximity to manufacturing </p><p>The Central Business District containing </p><p>administrative functions &amp; segregated low &amp; higher </p><p>income residential areas. </p><p>Where </p><p>are </p><p>vistas </p><p>located?</p></li><li><p>Spatial OrganizationFigure 11.7 </p><p>Polycentric new metropolis</p><p>Non-concentric reality of American </p><p>Urban &amp; suburban growth</p><p>Both multiple-nuclei &amp; polycentric</p><p>Metropolitan urban regions merge into </p><p>megalopolis Gottmans 1961</p><p>Conceptualization of the urbanized region</p><p>from Boston New York Baltimore </p><p>Washington, DC &amp; its role in industrial, </p><p>trade/shipping, financial, &amp; </p><p>government activities.</p><p>Edge City </p><p>Tysons Corner, Virginia**</p><p>Urban development with new </p><p>Business, commercial, retail, &amp;</p><p>Upscale residential areas </p><p>Outside of more established cities.</p><p>Business Parks are ex. of outlying</p><p>Centers of economic innovation.</p><p>Also planned developments such as Irvine, CA</p></li><li><p>Spatial Organization</p><p>Figure 11.9 Gentrification in Philadelphia Elite </p><p>economic class enjoys revitalization of older core </p><p>residences near the CBD &amp; Downtown of American </p><p>cities. Controversial for displacing lower income </p><p>residents &amp; neighborhoods.</p><p>Figure 11.8 Metroburban landscapes merging of </p><p>urban centers with edge cities of residences, retail </p><p>centers, &amp; business parks. Commute times are </p><p>extended but over time the regions merge into </p><p>interconnected metro-urban areas. Example is San </p><p>Diego from Mexico border north east and north </p><p>west is all developed commercially &amp; residentially &amp; </p><p>connected via freeway networks to Orange County </p><p>and to Los Angeles. </p></li><li><p>Smart Growth versus Sprawl</p><p>Figure 11.F Smart growth in Pasadena</p><p>Figure 11.E Transformation of California farmland to </p><p>suburban sprawl Water comes from Colorado River </p><p>Water &amp; from Water Table via municipal wells.</p><p>Pasadena was founded in 1900, part </p><p>of original Los Angeles landscape at </p><p>turn-of-century; not the same as </p><p>contemporary sprawl, not really a </p><p>good comparison, nations 1st freeway </p><p>led from downtown LA over pass LA </p><p>River into town against Mts. Pasadena </p><p>used to be connected to Pacific Ocean </p><p>via the Red Cars trolley system </p><p>removed when automobiles became </p><p>popular.</p></li><li><p>Problems of North American Cities Central cities inner-city cores experience decay, crime, poverty.</p><p> Fiscal squeeze Occurs when tax revenue goes down (businesses </p><p>leave area, homeowners move out) plus increasing demand for </p><p>money to improve &amp; support urban infrastructure &amp; city services. </p><p> Detroit entire industry leaves &amp; city disintegrates</p><p> Infrastructure Bridges, roads,</p><p> Sewers, electrical grids, public</p><p> Transportation all has to be maintained</p><p> Poverty- lower wage populations who </p><p> need support to escape cycle of poverty.</p><p> Neighborhood decay lack of investment in maintenance of </p><p>properties - low income areas needs investment</p><p> Redlining racial/financial profiling of homebuyers nice word for </p><p>economic Racism. Contributes to economic decline by undermining </p><p>neighborhood stability.Figure 11.10 Decaying infrastructure, Minneapolis</p></li><li><p>Problems of North American Cities</p><p>Figure 11.11 Devastation of Poverty in the District of Columbia or DC</p><p>The Department of Housing and Urban Development oversees homes owned by the government, and ensures that </p><p>tenants and renters are treated fairly under the law. http://www.usa.gov/Agencies/Federal/Executive/HUD.shtml</p><p> The mission of the Office of Housing is to:</p><p>Contribute to building and preserving healthy neighborhoods and communities</p><p>Maintain and expand homeownership, rental housing and healthcare opportunities</p><p>Stabilize credit markets in times of economic disruption</p><p>Operate with a high degree of public and fiscal accountability</p><p>Recognize and value its customers, staff, constituents and partners</p><p>http://defeatpovertydc.org/</p><p>Addresses Literacy as many as 37% of DC residents are functionally illiterate. </p><p>Discrimination in Education, Employment &amp; Housing: What </p><p>explains such significant racial disparities?</p><p>Historically, African Americans have faced many uphill challenges </p><p>that partly trace back to longstanding spatial segregation, social </p><p>and economic exclusion, and isolation. All, in turn, can </p><p>undermine employment and educational success especially in </p><p>neighborhoods served by failing public schools. Some disparities </p><p>in employment and income stem from underlying disparities in </p><p>education and even health. Then there's the outright </p><p>discrimination revealed in paired testing studiesequally </p><p>qualified potential home buyers or job seekers get treated </p><p>differently because of race or ethnicity. Clearly, </p><p>disadvantages in one area, such as education, can undermine </p><p>outcomes in others such as employment and earnings.</p><p>http://www.usa.gov/Agencies/Federal/Executive/HUD.shtmlhttp://defeatpovertydc.org/</p></li><li><p>European Cities City planning based on Centuries of History</p><p> Beaux Arts style</p><p> Modern movement</p><p> Features</p><p> Low skylines Zoning</p><p> Lively downtowns</p><p> Neighborhood stability</p><p> Based on historic Nationalism</p><p> Municipal socialism</p><p>Figure 11.12 Vigevano, Italy</p></li><li><p>Urban History</p><p> Urbanization</p><p> Related concepts Primate city</p><p> Metropolis</p><p> CBD-</p><p> Central Business District</p><p> Finance, Govt. &amp; Courts, </p><p> Parks, Libraries, Museums</p><p>Sequent Occupance ancient relics, </p><p>historical City planning of boulevards, &amp; </p><p>modern architecture</p></li><li><p>Primate Cities A countrys largest city</p><p> Always disproportionately</p><p>larger than the second </p><p>largest urban center -- more </p><p>than twice the size</p><p> Especially expressive of the </p><p>national culture</p><p> Usually (but not always) the</p><p>capital</p><p> Examples: Paris, </p><p> London, Athens</p></li><li><p>Modern Urban Structure</p><p>Figure 11.16 La Ville Radieuse Le Corbusier was a </p><p>Swiss-born architect who imagined the city of the future </p><p>criticized but also prophetic, take a look at his work: His </p><p>buildings are to the right:</p><p>https://www.google.com/search?q=la+ville+radieuse+le+corbusier&amp;hl=en</p><p>&amp;tbm=isch&amp;tbo=u&amp;source=univ&amp;sa=X&amp;ei=lrpuUcy2D8jRyAGD64Fw&amp;ved</p><p>=0CC0QsAQ&amp;biw=1600&amp;bih=758</p><p>Chandigar, India - Le Corbusiers Hand</p><p>Monument: The city of Chandigarh was the first</p><p>planned city in India post independence in 1947 </p><p>City of Brasilia, </p><p>Brazil, capital </p><p>based on La </p><p>Ville Radieuse </p><p>designed by Le </p><p>Corbusier, </p><p>famous early 20th</p><p>century architect </p><p>&amp; visionary.</p><p>Criticized for dis-</p><p>affecting </p><p>landscape, </p><p>presaged </p><p>modern Cities.</p><p>https://www.google.com/search?q=la+ville+radieuse+le+corbusier&amp;hl=en&amp;tbm=isch&amp;tbo=u&amp;source=univ&amp;sa=X&amp;ei=lrpuUcy2D8jRyAGD64Fw&amp;ved=0CC0QsAQ&amp;biw=1600&amp;bih=758https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planned_city</p></li><li><p>Figure 11.17 The Brazilian National Congress buildings, Brasilia</p><p>Latin American architecture representative of the Frontier</p><p>Architecture: Who's Oscar?</p><p>Considering the easy nature of the Brazilians, it's almost </p><p>an enigma that such a country could foster an architect </p><p>like Oscar Niemeyer. He is the main architect behind </p><p>Brasilia, the artificial and mostly unbearable capital of </p><p>Brazil. Perhaps his greatest work is the Niteri </p><p>Contemporary Art Museum in Niteri, a short boatride just </p><p>across the Guanabara bay from Rio de Janeiro. Oscar </p><p>Niemeyer is almost 100 years old, and still going strong. </p><p>He is currently working on a statue to put down the US </p><p>blocade of Cuba. </p></li><li><p>Spanish Colonial Architecture</p><p>Volcano overlooking Antigua, Guatemala</p><p>Grid street system with </p><p>Churches, govt. offices, stores, &amp; </p><p>slaughter house at Center with </p><p>Central Plaza </p></li><li><p>Islamic Cities globally</p><p> Basic principles</p><p> Personal privacy and </p><p>virtue</p><p> Communal well-being</p><p> Inner essence of things</p><p> Jami (principal </p><p>mosque)</p><p> Kasbah (citadel)</p><p>Figure 11.18 Mosque in Pakistan</p><p>http://www.lonelyplanet.com/indonesia/java</p><p>/travel-tips-and-articles/76171</p><p>Religious architecture of Islam</p><p>Seville, Spain (1167) - Almohad Mosque</p><p>http://www.lonelyplanet.com/indonesia/java/travel-tips-and-articles/76171</p></li><li><p>Islamic Cities in Arid Regions</p><p>Figure 11.19 A suq, a covered bazaar, in Iran</p><p>Figure 11.20 Housing in Tunisia</p><p>Interior public spaces </p><p>addresses hot arid climates.</p></li><li><p>Landscapes of Wealth - Dubai, United Arab </p><p>Emirates</p><p>Figure 11.H Luxury development, Palm JumeirahFigure 11.G Dubai cityscape</p><p>Figure 11 Dubai real estate bust do the buildings </p><p>remind you of Las Vegas?</p><p> Over-building, speculation </p><p>without basis for profit </p><p>contributed to real estate crisis in </p><p>UAE during global economic </p><p>crisis of 2009.</p><p> Large numbers of transnational </p><p>migrant workers from Turkey &amp; </p><p>other middle Eastern nations </p><p>contributed to economy &amp; </p><p>construction.</p></li><li><p>Cities of the Periphery</p><p> Unintended metropolises</p><p> Meaning no planning for</p><p> Low Income Population</p><p> Underemployment</p><p> Dualism</p><p> The informal economy</p><p> Slums = Unaddressed Poverty</p><p> Transport &amp; infrastructure</p><p>problems</p><p> Environmental degradationFigure 11.23 Dualism in Rio de </p><p>Janeiro:</p><p>Upper middle class &amp; wealthier </p><p>official residents of the City vs. </p><p>unofficial residents of the Favelas</p></li><li><p>Cities of the Periphery</p><p>Figure 11.26 Self-help as a solution to housing problems in ZambiaFigure 11.25 Informal economic activities in Bangkok, </p><p>Thailand</p><p>Figure 11.22 Recent explosive growth in Lagos, Nigeria due to </p><p>oil economy &amp; Rural to Urban Migration. Figure 11.24 Garbage picking in Bangkok, Thailand for Survival</p></li><li><p>Cities of the Periphery</p><p>Figure 11.28 Water-supply problems in India</p><p>Figure 11.27 Infrastructure problems in Columbia, </p><p>S. America</p><p>Philippines Garbage is the business of very poor groups,</p><p>Shantytown fire in Philippines, people living in containers. </p></li><li><p>Future Geographies</p><p>Sao Paulo, Brazil</p><p>Megacities Population </p><p>outstrips </p><p>Major Issues:</p><p> Slum housing, environmental </p><p>degradation, &amp; lack of infrastructure </p><p>for sewage treatment, unsafe water </p><p>supplies or none at all.</p><p> Disease &amp; health risks, especially to </p><p>children, lack of education &amp; </p><p>healthcare. </p><p> Economic competition for space &amp; accessibility along with tendency toward </p><p>social &amp; ethnic discrimination, congregation, &amp; segregation are apparent in </p><p>World Cities.</p></li><li><p>End of Chapter 11</p></li></ul>