- 1. TEACHING ENGLISH CONSONANTS VICTOR GAOZHEJIANG EDUCATION INSTITUTE
2. Place of Articulation 3. The speech organs 4.
5. 6. Places of articulation 7. Places of articulation 8. Places of articulation 9. Places of articulation 10. Places of articulation 11. Vocal tract structures relevant for speech nasal cavity oral cavity Pharynx 12. Vocal tract structures relevant for speech
13. State of the glottis (laryngeal setting) 14. Other consonant parameters: oral vs. nasal 15. Alveolar ridge Hard palate Velum Tip Blade Front Back root 16.
- The alveolar ridge ( AV )
AR HP V U 17. Some more terms to remember
Sagittal sectionof the tongue T B F B R 19. Some terms to remember
Sagittal sectionof the tongue 20. The supralaryngeal vocal tract
- Palate (the roof of the mouth)
the three cavities Articulators (passive or active) NB: the pharynx can also act as anarticulator 21.
Airflow constriction 22. Sagittal section of the vocal tract text J.J. Ohala, September 2001 / 23. 24. Speech Organs / 25. / 26. Description of English consonants 27. 28. Places of articulation 29. Places of articulation 30. 31. The three cavities: 1) Pharynx cavity 2) Oral cavity 3) Nasal cavity 32. The three cavities: 1) 2) 3 ) 33. 34. Places of articulation 35. Vocal Tract 36. Places of articulation 37. The Vocal tract
38. Places of articulation 39. Look at me! 40. This is my speech organs . 41. [UCLA Phonetics Lab demo] 42. The larynx viewed from above Arytenoid cartilage Vocal folds Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Glottis 43. 44. Larynx and vocal folds
- A structure made of cartilage and muscle
- Located above the trachea (windpipe) and below the pharynx
- Vocal Folds (vocal cords)
- Two bands of muscle and tissue in the larynx
- Sounds produced when the vocal folds are vibrating are said to be voiced, those produced when the vocal folds are apart are voiceless
- The nose is composed of two nasal cavities, or spaces, separated by a middle wall, which is called the nasal septum.
- The sinuses are are air-filled cavities behind the nose in the cheeks and forehead.
46. Oral-nasal process
- Oral sounds: The soft palate is raised so there is a velic closure.
- Nasal sounds: The soft palate is lowered so air escapes from nose.
[From: Dan Jurafsky slide] 47. Rules for English consonant allophones
- 18. Velar stops become more front before front vowels ( cap, kept, kit, key, gap, get, give, geese ).
- 19. The lateral /l/ is velarized (transcribed as / /)when after a vowel or before a consonant at the end of a word ( fill/ fi /)
48. 49. text J.J. Ohala, September 2001 Places of articulation 50. /t , d/ 51. 52. / s, z / 53. 54. / p, b / 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61.
- 1. Bilabial (made with two lips)
- 2. Labiodental (made with lower lips and upper teeth)
- 3. Dental (made with tongue tip or blade and upper front teeth).
- 4. Alveolar (made with tongue tip or blade and the alveolar ridge)
- 5. Palato-alveolar (tongue blade and the back of the alveolar ridge).
- 6. Retroflex (tongue tip and the back of alveolar ridge).
- 7. Palatal (front of the tongue and hard palate).
- 8. Velar (back of the tongue and hard palate).