Khóa luận tốt nghiệp

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Kha lun tt nghip

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  • 1. Trng i hc ngoi thng Khoa kinh t ngoi thngKho lun tt nghip vn tiu chun cht lng, mi trng v x hi i vi hng ho xut khu sang eugio vin hng dn :Th.s Nguyn Thanh Bnh sinh vin thc hin : Nghim Qunh Nga Lp A2 K38A KTNT H ni, nm 2003

2. Kho lun tt nghipNghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38 Em xin chn thnh by t lng bit n su sc n Th.s Nguyn Thanh Bnh - ngi nhit tnh hng dn, ch bo v gip em trong qu trnh vit kha lun.Em xin chn thnh cm n cc thy c gio trng i hc Ngoi Thng dy d em kin thc, cch nghin cu, gip em c th hiu v x l ti vi kh nng ca mnh.ng thi, xin chn thnh cm n cc cn b th vin, cc cn b chuyn mn trong ngnh v cc bn cng kha gip ti thu thp ti liu hon thnh kha lun ny 3. Kho lun tt nghip Nghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38Mc lcDanh mc cm t vit ttLi ni uChng I: Cc tiu chun v cht lng, mi trng v x hi ca EU i vi hng ho lu thng trn th trng...................1.I Gii thiu chung v th trng EU...................1.1 Lin minh Chu u (EU)..........................1.2 c im v tp qun tiu dng ca th trng EU 2 .II Cc quy nh v tiu chun v cht lng ca th trng EU i vi hng ho lu thng trn th trng.. .7.1 Vn tiu chun ho v b tiu chun EN.......7.2 Tiu chun qun l cht lng ISO 9000.........10.3 Cc quy nh v m bo sc kho v an ton chongi tiu dng...................................14 .III Cc tiu chun v mi trng ca EU i vi hng ho lu thng trn th trng.........................28.1 Tiu chun qun l mi trng .................28.2 Bao b v ph thi bao b......................32.3 Nhn hiu sinh thi EU (Eco-label).............37.4 Cc quy nh v an ton v sinh thc phm c linquan n bo v mi trng........................40 .IV Vn trch nhim x hi ca th trng EU i vi cc doanh nghip xut khu............................44.1 Cc b quy tc ng x .........................44.2 B tiu chun SA 8000..........................47 Khoa Kinh T Ngoi Thng 4. Kho lun tt nghipNghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38 Chng II: Thc trng xut khu hng ho vit nam sang eu di tc ng ca cc tiu chun v cht lng, mi trng, v x hi.. .50.V nh gi thc trng chung ca hng xut khu Vit Nam sang EU di tc ng ca cc quy nh/ tiu chun ca EU v cht lng, mi trng v x hi................50.1 Thc trng quan h thng mi Vit Nam - EU. . . .50.2 nh gi thc trng ca cc doanh nghip xutkhu Vit Nam trong vic p ng cc tiu chun caEU v cht lng, mi trng & x hi.............61 .VI nh gi thc trng ca mt s ngnh xut khu ch yu ca Vit Nam sang EU di tc ng ca cc quy nh/ tiu chun ca EU v cht lng, mi trng v x hi. 87.1 Hng giy dp .................................88.2 Hng dt may ..................................95.3 Hng nng sn ................................104.4 Hng thu sn.................................110Chng III: Mt s gii php nhm p ng cc quy nh/tiu chun ca eu v cht lng, mi trng & x hi.....................116.VII Trin vng xut khu hng ho Vit Nam sang th trng EU............................................116.1 Chin lc xut khu ca Vit Nam sang EU giaion 2001- 2010..................................116.2 Trin vng xut khu hng ho Vit Nam sang thtrng EU........................................122 .VIII Nhng gii php ch yu nhm p ng cc quy nh v tiu chun ca EU v cht lng, mi trng v x hi133.1 Gii php v pha Nh nc....................133.2 Gii php v pha cc doanh nghip............140Khoa Kinh T Ngoi Thng 5. Kho lun tt nghip Nghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38 Kt lun......................................................147Danh mc tI liu trch dn v tham khoPh lc Khoa Kinh T Ngoi Thng 6. Kho lun tt nghip Nghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38Danh mc cm t vit tt K hiuTing Anh Ting Vit Nam BS British Standard Tiu chun ca Anh CE European ConformityNhn hiu CE CEEC Centre and Eastern European CountriesCc nc Trung v ng u CENComit Europen de Normalisation - U ban tiu chun ho chu uEuropean Committee for StandardizationCENELECComit Europen de Normalisation -U ban tiu chun ho k thutEuropean Committee for Electrotechnical in t chu uStandardization Electrotechnique CODEXTheo ting Latin l Food Codey ban quc t v thc phm CoCCode of ConductQuy tc ng x CSRCorporation Social ResponsibilityTrch nhim x hi doanh nghip DIN(Deutsches Institut fuer Normung - Tiu chun ca cGerman Institute for Standardisation)ECBEuropean Central BankNgn hng Trung ng chu u ECSC European Coal and Steel CommunityCng ng than thp chu u EEAEuropean Economic Area Khu vc kinh t chu u EECEuropean Economic CommunityCng ng kinh t chu u EFTA European Free Trade AssociationHip hi mu dch t do chu u EMAS Ecological Management and AuditChng trnh kim nh v qunScheme l sinh thi. EMUEuropean Monetary UnionLin minh tin t chu u EN European StandardTiu chun chu u ETSI the European TelecommunicationsVin tiu chun vin thng chuStandards InstituteuEU European Union Lin minh chu u EURATOM European Atomic Energy CommunityCng ng nguyn t chu u EUREPEuro-Retailer Produce Working GroupT chc cc nh bn l hng u chu u Khoa Kinh T Ngoi Thng 7. Kho lun tt nghipNghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38EVAEthyl Vinyl Acetate Nha EVA FRZFrizzyKhng sinh FRZ FAOFood and Agriculture Organization T chc nng lng quc t GAPGood Agriculture Practice Quy trnh canh tc nng nghipm boGMPGood Manufacturing Practice H thng thc hnh sn xut tt. GOST Gosstandart of Russia Tiu chun ca Lin X GSPGeneralised Scheme of Preferences Ch u i thu quan ph cp HACCPHazard Analysis and Critical ControlH thng phn tch, xc nh vPoint t chc kim sot cc mi nguytrng yu. IECInternational ElectrotechnicalU ban in quc tCommission ILOInternational Labour Organization T chc lao ng quc t ISOInternational Organisation forT chc quc t v tiu chunStandardization ho. ITUInternational Telecommunication Union Tiu chun quc t v vin thng. LEFASO Vietnam Leather and FootwearHip hi da giy Vit NamAssociation NAFTANorth American Free Trade Agreement Khu vc mu dch t do Bc M NF Necrotizing Fasciitis Khng sinh NF PU PolyurethaneNha PU SAISocial Accountability International T chc v tiu chun trchnhim x hi SAI TPUThermoplastic PolyurethaneNha TPU Khoa Kinh T Ngoi Thng 8. Kho lun tt nghipNghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38Li ni u y mnh xut khu l ch trng kinh t ln ca ng v Nh nc Vit Nam. Ch trng ny c khng nh trong vn kin i hi ng ton quc ln th VIII, Ngh quyt 01 NQ/TW ca B Chnh tr v mt ln na khng nh trong vn kin i hi ng ton quc ln th IX, nhm thc hin mc tiu chuyn dch c cu kinh t theo hng cng nghip ho, hin i ho. thc hin ch trng ca ng, chng ta cn phi tip tc tng cng m rng v a dng ho th trng xut khu.Lin minh chu u hin l mt trong nhng i tc thng mi quan trng, l khu vc th trng xut khu ln th hai ca Vit Nam sau M (theo s liu c tnh nm 2003, xut khu sang EU chim 19,2% kim ngch xut [1] khu ca c nc) . Tuy nhin quy m bun bn gia Vit Nam - EU hin nay vn cn nh (mi chim 0,12% tng kim ngch ngoi thng ca EU v chim 13,7% tng kim [2] ngch ngoi thng ca Vit Nam). c bit trong nhng nm gn y, tc tng trng xut khu ca Vit Nam sang EU li c xu hng gim st. Mt trong nhng nguyn nhn l do hng xut khu ca Vit Nam cn ngho nn v chng loi, tp trung cao vo mt s t mt hng, cht lng hng thp, khng t ng u... ng thi EU li l mt trong nhng th trng kh tnh trn th gii vi hng ro tiu chun k thut rt cao v nghim ngt.Hn na trong xu th hin nay, vic tip cn th trng chu u s cn kh khn hn do s lng cc yu cu ca th trng v an ton, sc kho, cht lng, mi Khoa Kinh T Ngoi Thng 9. Kho lun tt nghip Nghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38trng v cc vn x hi ang tng ln nhanh chng, thay th cho cc bin php bo h bng thu quan, hn ngch... ang dn b ct gim vi qu trnh t do ho thng mi din ra si ni khp mi ni.Xut pht t nhng l do nu trn, em chn Vn tiu chun cht lng, mi trng v x hi i vi hng ho xut khu sang EU lm ti kho lun tt nghip ca mnh. Mc tiu nghin cu ca kho lun:- Mc tiu tng qut: Nghin cu cc tiu chun vcht lng, mi trng v x hi i vi hng hokhi nhp khu vo th trng EU- Mc tiu c th:+ Lm r cc yu cu v cht lng, mi trng v x hi ca EU i vi hot ng sn xut v xut khu hng ho ca cc nc th ba (trong c Vit Nam) vo th trng EU+ nh gi kh nng p ng cc quy nh trn ca hng Vit Nam xut khu sang EU.+ xut gii php p ng cc quy nh, tiu chun v cht lng, mi trng v x hi ca EU nhm nng cao sc cnh tranh v y mnh xut khu hng ho ca Vit Nam vo th trng ny. i tng nghin cu:Vic tun th cc quy nh v cht lng, mi trng v x hi ca hng Vit Nam khi xut khu sang EU Phm vi nghin cu:Hng ho ca Vit Nam xut khu sang EU (gii hn i su vo 4 nhm hng ch lc: giy dp, dt may, nng sn v thu sn)Khoa Kinh T Ngoi Thng 10. Kho lun tt nghip Nghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38 Ni dung ca kho lun:Ngoi li m u, kt lun v cc ph lc, kho lun c chia lm 3 chng:Chng I: Cc quy nh/ tiu chun v cht lng, mi trng v x hi ca EU i vi hng ho lu thng trn th trng.Chng II: Thc trng xut khu hng ho Vit Nam sang EU di tc ng ca cc quy nh/tiu chun v cht lng, mi trng, v x hi.Chng III: Mt s gii php p ng cc tiu chun ca EU v cht lng, mi trng v x hi.y l mt ti c tnh thi s v mi m c v l lun cng nh thc tin, ng thi do kinh nghim v trnh bn thn cn hn ch nn kho lun khng trnh khi nhng thiu st v ni dung cng nh hnh thc. Em rt mong nhn c s nh gi gp ca cc thy c gio, bn b v nhng ai quan tm n vn ny ti nghin cu c hon chnh hn.H Ni, thng 12 nm2003 Nghim Qunh Nga Khoa Kinh T Ngoi Thng 11. Kho lun tt nghip Nghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38 Chng I: Cc tiu chun v cht lng, mi trng v x hi caEU i vi hng ho lu thng trn th trng.IGii thiu chung v th trng EU .1Lin minh Chu u (EU)Ngy 18/4/1951 ti Paris, 6 nc: Php, c, Italia, B, H Lan, Lcxmbua k Hip c thnh lp Cng ng than thp chu u (ECSC) iu hnh vic sn xut v tiu th than thp ca cc nc thnh vin nhm y mnh tin b khoa hc k thut trong sn xut, phn phi, tiu th v nng cao nng sut lao ng.Da vo kt qu hp tc t c, cc quc gia ny m rng lin kt sang cc lnh vc khc. Thng 7 nm 1957, Cng ng nguyn t chu u (EURATOM) v Cng ng kinh t chu u (EEC) c chnh thc thnh lp, trong EURATOM iu hnh sn xut nng lng nguyn t v EEC iu hnh ton b cc lnh vc sn xut 6 nc. Tuy nhin, nhm trnh s chng cho trong hot ng ca 3 cng ng, n nm 1967, cc quc gia ny li nht tr hp nht cc thit ch ca c 3 cng ng trn thnh Cng ng chu u (EC)Trong qu trnh hot ng, EC ln lt kt np thm 6 thnh vin na l Anh, Ailen, an Mch, Ty Ban Nha, B o Nha v Hy Lp. EC cng xc tin vic pht trin suhn na lin kt kinh t v k Hip c Maastricht vo thng 2/1992 nhm lm chu u thay i mt cch cn bn, ng thi i tn EC thnh Lin Minh Chu u (EU). Nm 1995, EU kt np thm 3 thnh vin 12. Kho lun tt nghipNghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38mi: o, Phn Lan v Thy in, tr thnh cng ng 15 quc gia. Cc quc gia thnh vin EU chia s chnh sch chung v Nng nghip, An ninh, i ngoi, Hp tc t php v Ni v, p dng mt ch thng mi chung. Ngoi ra cn c 12 quc gia thnh vin tham gia Lin minh tin t (EMU) vi ng tin chung Euro c chnh thc lu hnh t 1/1/2000. Hin nay, EU l mt trung tm kinh t hng mnh trn th gii vi GDP chim khong 20% GDP ton th gii, ng sau M (~ 11.200 t USD) v trn Nht Bn (~ 4.500 t USD). T 1997 n nay, EU vn gi c n nh v duy tr tng trng GDP mc tng i cao (8.700 t USD[3] nm2002) . Gi tr thng mi ca EU cng chim khong 22.6% gi tr thng mi th gii (nu tnh c thng mi trong khi, EU chim 40% lng hng ho xut nhp khu trn ton th gii), vt ch tiu tng ng ca M v Nht Bn (20,47% v 8,1%). Vai tr quan trng ca EU nh mt khi thng mi s cn tng ln vi vic m rng din ra trong vng 5 - 10 nm ti, khi m mt vi nc ng u c kt np lm thnh vin mi ca EU..2c im v tp qun tiu dng ca th trng EU EU l mt th trng rng ln bao gm 15 quc gia vi khong 380 triu dn. iu ny c ngha rng th trng EU ln gp ba ln th trng Nht Bn (vi ~ 127 triu dn), ln hn th trng M khong 40% (vi ~ 280 triu dn) v xp x ton b khu vc mu dch t do Bc[3] M (NAFTA), vi khong 400 triu dn . Thm vo , 13. Kho lun tt nghip Nghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38th trng ny cn m rng sang cc nc thuc Hip hi mu dch t do chu u(EFTA) gm Na Uy, Ai-len, Thy S v Liechtenstein, to thnh khu vc kinh t chu u (EEA).EU l mt th trng thng nht cho php t do di chuyn hng ho, dch v, vn v lao ng gia cc nc thnh vin. Trong th trng thng nht ny, hng ho c sn xut ti hoc c nhp khu vo mt quc gia thnh vin th cng c th c di chuyn sang cc quc gia thnh vin khc m khng gp phi mt hn ch no. Tin cho s di chuyn t do ny l s thng nht v lut l v quy nh lin quan n hng ho sn xut trong nc hoc hng ho nhp khu. Vi c im trn, khng ch thng mi ni khi c iu kin pht trin m cc nc bn ngoi cng gp nhiu thun li hn trong vic thm nhp th trng ca cc nc thnh vin EU. Bn cnh , ng tin chung Euro v cc chnh sch tin t do Ngn hng Trung ng chu u (ECB) ch o cho thy s hi nhp v gn kt vng chc nh cao ca nn kinh t chu u.Mc d Lin minh chu u c xem l mt th trng thng nht nhng v phng din a l, kh hu, nhn khu hc, cc nt c trng vn ho x hi, nhu cu tiu dng v hnh vi tiu dng th li hon ton khng phi l nh vy. Khu vc bn trong v xung quanh vng Rhine- Ruhr thng c coi l trung tm kinh t ca EU - gm H Lan, Php, B v c - l ni tp trung ch yu dn 14. Kho lun tt nghip Nghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38s, cng nghip v c s h tng. Mt s khu cng nghip c t ti cc khu vc khc nh: min trung v nam nc c, min bc Ty Ban Nha, min bc nc , trung tm nc Anh (bn trong v xung quanh Lun n). nhng vng khc nh min nam Ty Ban Nha, min nam nc , nc Hy Lp, nc B o Nha.... c nn sn xut cng nghip tng i thp, hot ng ch yu l nng nghip v du lch. V mt kh hu cng c s khc bit ng k. Cc nc vng Scandinavia c kh hu lnh, trong khi cc nc a Trung Hi li c kh hu cn nhit i. Gia hai vng ny l cc nc ty bc EU nm trong vng kh hu n ho. Nhng c im v kh hu l yu t nh hng n hnh vi mua hng ca ngi tiu dng EU, c bit i vi nhng mt hng nh may mc, c ni tht...Mt s khc bit ln v dn s v quy m th trng cng ang tn ti ngay chnh trong bn thn EU. Cc khu vc c mt dn s cao nm vng ty bc ca nc c, H Lan, ty nam nc Anh v min bc nc . Cc quc gia vng ty bc EU ng thi l nhng quc gia c th ho cao , vi mt dn s ti th kh ln. Tri li, B o Nha v o l hai quc gia c mt dn s nng thn cao nht.Th trng EU a vn ho, a sc tc. Hin ti c tt c khong 10 triu ngi khng c ngun gc EU, phn ln n t Bc Phi, Th Nh K v Nam T c, ang sinh sng ti y. S a dng tng i v vn ho khng ch 15. Kho lun tt nghip Nghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38gia cc quc gia thnh vin m cn nm trong chnh ni b mi quc gia. V d nh nhng ngi min Nam nc c c np sng v t duy khc vi ngi sng vng cng nghip Ruhr, v nhng ngi ny li khc vi ngi vng ng c c. Ti Ty Ban Nha cng vy, ngi x Basc min bc c nn vn ho khc cn bn vi nhng ngi cc x khc....Cng vi s khc bit v nhn khu hc v vn ho, thi quen tiu dng v hnh vi mua sm cng khc nhau gia cc nc thnh vin EU. Ti nhng khu vc phn ty bc EU, do sung tc hn nn ngi dn c thng s dng phn ln thu nhp vo vic mua sm nh ca, cc dng t tin, gii tr, du lch, chm sc y t. V th m cht lng ca hng ho v dch v cung cp cho cc quc gia thuc vng ny thng c ch trng hn. Tnh a dng trong s thng nht ca th trng EU cho chng ta hiu cm t ngi tiu dng chu uni chung khng tn ti. Cc quc gia bn ngoi khi mun thm nhp hiu qu vo cc th trng thnh vin EU khng th khng tnh n nhng nt c trng ca tng th trng.EU l th trng c mc sng cao, yu t cht lng, sc kho v an ton cho ngi tiu dng lun c t ln hng u thng qua vic t ra nhng yu cu rt nghim ngt i vi hng ho lu thng trn th trng. C th ly v d v quy ch m bo an ton ca EU i vi mt s sn phm tiu dng nh: cc loi thu hi sn phi c kim tra cht ch thnh phn tp cht v d 16. Kho lun tt nghipNghim Qunh Nga Anh2 K38lng khng sinh, ng thi qu trnh nui trng, khai thc, ch bin v vn chuyn cng phi tun th cc quy nh nhm khng gy tc ng xu n mi trng; i vi vi la, EU lp ra mt h thng thng nht v m hiu cho bit cc loi si cu thnh nn loi vi hay la c bn ra trn th trng, v khi bt c loi vi hay la no c lu hnh cng phi ghi r m hiu ca nhng loi si ch yu km theo t l % ho...