Master Yacht - Luong lach

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Ti liu hng dn lung lch sng ngi ti Vit Nam. Trng o to Du thuyn Master Yacht hin l Trung tm hun luyn cp bng li du thuyn duy nht v u tin ti Vit Nam. Hon tt kha hc v thi thc hnh, hc vin c cp cc loi chng ch v bng cp chnh quy ca B Giao thng Vn ti Vit Nam Cp.

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<ul><li> 1. GII THIEU MON HOC LUONG LACH </li></ul><p> 2. PHAN I SONG NGOI VA DONG CHAY CHNG I: SONG NGOI I/NGUON GOC VA S TAO THANH SONG NGOI 3. Ha lu Ca bien S (Nam) E (ong) W(Tay) N(Bac) Thng lu Hnh thanh qua 3 giai oan : bat nguon, tao thanh, phantan. a so chay theo hng t Tay bac en ong nam. 4. .II/ NHNG YEU TO C BAN HNH THANH SONG NGOI VIET NAM 1/ V tr gii han : Viet Nam nam pha ong nam Chau AE&amp;ES giap bien ong; W&amp;WN giap Cam Pu Chia va Lao; N giap Trung Quoc. -Gii han :+Chieu dai bi=23 o 22 (N )&amp; 8 o 23(S) +Chieu rong bi =102 o 10 (W) &amp; 109 o 24 (E) 5. Nhat Ban TRUNG QUOC Mong Co An o THAI BNH DNG Viet Nam 6. HA NOI SAI GON =23 o 22 (N) = 8 o 23(N) = 109 o 24 (E) =102 o 10 (E) LAO CAM-PU-CHIA TRUNG QUOC HUE B I E N O N G 7. 2/ Khai quat ve a hnh a/ Khu vc Bac Bo :a hnh Bac Bo kha phc tap, phan ln la nui a voi, vung nui cao tap trung pha N &amp; WN, hnh thanh cac cao nguyen o va thap dan ve pha E&amp;ES. a so song ngoi co hng chay t WN ESb/ Khu vc Trung Bo :phc tap nhat, phan ln la oi nui, chieu ngang rat hep. Chnh day nui Trng Sn tao nen dang ch S, song ngan &amp; doc, mot so song nh Ben Hai, song Hng, song Ve, Thu Bon, Tra Khuc khong chay theo hng WN-ES ma t W E (song Ben Hai ) hoac t WSEN. c/ Khu vc Nam Bo :kha bang phang, cao trung bnh so vi mat nc bien15m , a so song ngoi co hng chay t WN ES. Ngoai 2 h/t song C.Long va .Nai, con co mot mang li kenh rach chang cht khac. 8. .III/HE THONG SONG NGOI BAC BO 1/ He thong Song Hong a/ Song Hong :Bat nguon t Van Nam Trung Quoc. Chay vao Viet Nam hn 510km. Dong chay theo hng t tay bac en ong nam, song co o doc trung bnh tren dong chnh la 0,23m / km. Nguon nc chu yeu la do ma mua ha, mua can mc nc trung bnh 2,8m, Ha Noi toi thieu cuoi nam ch con 1,7m. Mua lu trung bnh la 9m, mc nc toi a co luc len ti 14m, vung ha lu song chu anh hng che o nhat trieu bien vi bien o 2m. Luong lach tren Song Hong thay oi that thng va co rat nhieu con bai ngam, noi ven b hoac cac ca song. 9. b / Cac song khac thuoc he thong Song Hong a so cac song nay eu bat nguon t cac cao nguyen thuoc bien gii pha bac va tay bac nc ta. Neu ke t ha lu ngc len th pha hu ngan Song Hong co cac phu lu nh song Ninh C, song ay Re, Song a. Ve pha ta ngan co song Tra Ly, Song Luoc, Song uong, song ay Con, Song Lo, Song Chay. Rieng Song uong va Song Luoc la 2 con song noi thong he thong Song Hong vi he thong song Thai Bnh. Cac song nay noi chung kha nang khai thac van tai thuy con co nhieu han che so vi Song Hong. 10. HA NOI S.A S.HONG S,CAM S.LO S.CHAY C.BA LAT S.AY CON S.LUC NAM S.THAI BNH C.THAI BNH C.VAN UC S.CAU S.THNG S.AY S.UONG TRUNG QUOC LAO SONG NGOI KHU VC BAC BO 11. 2/ He thong song Thai Bnh a/ Song Thai Bnh :Song Thai Bnh khong co nguon chnh, no c hp thanh bi Song Cau (t Thai Nguyen), Song Thng (t On Chau Lang Sn),song Luc Nam ( t Luc Ngan ) don ve Pha Lai, sau o tach ra nhieu chi lu nh song Kinh Thay o ra ca Cam, song Bach ang o ra ca Nam Trieu, song Kinh Mon ( t nga 3 Keo en nga 3 Nong ) chay vao Song Cam e o ra ca Cam. -Dong chnh cua song Thai Bnh o ra ca Thai Bnh, ca Van Uc, ca Lach Tray. - long song Thai Bnh rong, nc chay yeu, mc nc t thay oi ot bien, luong lach on nh, t bai boi, ghenh, lNen tau thuyen lu thong c quanh nam. 12. b/ Cac song khac thuoc he thong song Thai Bnh :bao gom cac song nh Song Cam, song Bach ang, Song Cau, Song Thng va song Luc Nam. Cac song nay noi chung eu mc o nho hn song Thai Bnh va kha nang khai thac van tai thuy cung han che hn. 13. .IV/HE THONG SONG NGOI TRUNG BO Cac song thuoc khu vc Trung Bo keo dai t Thanh Hoa en Ninh Thuan, nhn chung khong lien ket hnh thanh cac he thong song ma phan bo rai rac va phan ln song ch co 1 ca ra bien, song co t 2 ca tr len rat t. Do a hnh mien Trung va dai lai va hep nen cac song eu bat nguon t cac cao nguyen bien gii pha tay Viet Lao cua day nui Trng Sn, chnh v cac yeu to nay ma song ngoi mien trung eu ngan va doc. 1/ Cac song co hng chay t tay bac en ong nam -Bao gom cac song nh : Song Chu, Song Ma (Thanh Hoa) o ra ca Lach Trng, Lach Trao. Song Ca, Song La (Nghe Tnh) o ra ca Hoi va ca Lo. Song Gianh, 14. song Nhat Le (Quang Bnh) o ra ca Gianh, ca Nhat Le. Song Thach Han (Quang Tr ) o ra ca Thach Han, ong Ha. Song Ha Giao (Bnh nh) o ra ca Quy Nhn. Song a Rang (Phu Yen) o ra ca Tuy Hoa. 2/ Cac song co hng chay t tay nam en ong bac : -Bao gom cac song nh : Song Hng (Hue) o ra ca Thuan An. Song Thu Bon (Quang Nam) o ra ca Hoi An. Song Tra Khuc, Song Ve (Quang Ngai) o ra ca Co Luy, rieng Song Ve o ra 2 ca laca My Yva ca Co Luy. 3/ Song co hng chay t tay sang ong : -Ch co mot con song duy nhat chay theo hng o la song Ben Hai ( Quang Tr) o ra ca Tung. 15. SONG NGOI KHU VC TRUNG BO B.THUY S.LA S.CA C.HOI S.GIANH C.NHAT LE S.BHAI C.TUNG HUE A NANG S.THU BON C.HOI AN Q.NGAI Q.NHN S.A RANG VINH .HI Q.TR HAI NAM LAO CAM-PU-CHIA BIEN ONG 16. .V/HE THONG SONG NGOI NAM BO 1/ He thong song Cu Long He thong song Cu Long la phu lu cua song Me Cong, bat nguon t Tay Tang thuoc tnh Van Nam Trung Quoc, o cao 5000m, chieu dai toan bo ti 4200km, chay qua cac nc nh Mien ien, Lao, Thai Lan, Cam Pu Chia, phan chay vao nc ta ch la oan ngan cua ha lu song Me Cong theo hng t tay bac en ong nam, chia nhanh tai nga 3 Nong Penh thanh Song Tien va Song Hau. Ngoai ra con co mot he thong kenh , rach chang cht khac tao thanh mang li noi thong cac song lai vi nhau vo cung thuan li cho giao thong thuy van. 17. a/ Song Tien :Nhanh chay pha bac la Song Tien, dai 330km chay qua cac tnh ong Thap, Cu Long, Tien Giang va Ben Tre. Song Tien o ra bien bi 4 chi lu va 6 ca : -Song Co Chien dai 74km o ra 2 ca la ca Co Chien va ca Cung Hau. -Song Ham Luong dai 72km o ra ca Ham Luong -Song Ba Lai dai 68km o ra ca Ba Lai -Song My Tho dai 42km o ra 2 ca la ca ai va ca Tieu. b/ Song Hau :Nhanh chay pha nam la Song Hau, dai 319km, chay qua cac tnh nh An Giang, ong Thap, Hau Giang, Cu Long.- Song Hau o ra bien bi 3 ca la nh An, Ba Thac va Tranh e. 18. 2/ He thong song ong Nai : He thong song ong Nai chu yeu bat nguon t trong nc nh cao nguyen Lam Vien va Di Linh, do cac nhanh phu lu nh a Nhim, a Dung, La Nga va Song Be hp thanh. Bao gom cac song nh song ong Nai, song Sai Gon, song Vam Co ong va Vam Co Tay, song Long Tau, o ra mot dong chnh la song Nha Be va mot ca chnh la caSoai Rap. Nhanh phu theo song Long Tau o ra ca phu la ca Can Gi, ngoai ra con nhieu kenh, rach nho khac, cho sau nhat la ca Soai Rap va nga 3 en o.- Rieng song ong Nai dai vao khoang 500km, rong t 40 600m, ha lu co ni rong t 600700m, tau bien co trong tai hang van tan co the vao sau trong noi a. 19. SAI GON THU DAU MOT S.LA NGA S.ONG NAI S.BE TAY NINH CA MAU CAN TH S.TIEN S.HAU BAC LIEU PHU QUOC CON AO BIEN ONG SONG NGOI KHU VC NAM BO CAM PU - CHIA C.SOAI RAP C.TIEU C.AI C.BA LAI C.HAM LUONG C.NH AN C.BA THAC C.TRANH E C.COCHIEN C.CUNG HAU 20. CHNG II :DONG CHAY .I/QUAN HE GIA CHAT AT, LONG SONG VA DONG CHAY 1/ Chat at : Trong be mat cua lp vo trai at bao boc quanh no c tao thanh bang nhieu lp at hp lai, rieng ay chung ta ch e cap en 3 loai at c ban lien quan en song ngoi la : a/ at bun :La loai at co hat kch thc nho, hnh cau, bong, nhan, nhe va trn. Thng co mau toi nh nau xam, xam tro, co trong lng rieng gan bang vi nc, de hoa lan, khi lang ong at bun thng mem deo, cham thoat nc, lau kho va cng ran khi kho. 21. b/ at cat :La loai at co hat kch thc nho nhng ln hn at bun t 2 en hang chuc lan, t hoa tan trong nc, hnh the a dang, be mat thng tho nham, co mau vang cat , vang nau, trong lng rieng so vi nc nang hn t 2 lan tr len, du t hay kho eu cng, ri rac t bam dnh, nhanh thoat nc va mau kho. c/ at soi :La loai at a do qua trnh phan hoa lau i tao thanh, chung co hnh the a dang, ln hn so vi at cat t hang chuc en hang tram lan tr len, be mat thng san sui, loi lom, nham. at soi thng co mau vang, nau, nau o, trong lng rieng ln, khong hoa lan trong nc, chung rat cng, du kho hay t eu ri rac, khong lien ket. 2/ Long song :- La be mat phan at tiep xuc quanh ngoai dong chay, 22. keo dai t ni bat nguon en ca song ra bien, pha tren luon c phu bang nhieu lp at khac nhau, long song thng dien bien thay oi phc tap nh : sau, can, con, bai, chng ngai vat vvNhng thay oi o c ban la do cac thanh phan chat di ong trong nc lang tu tao thanh ma dong chay ong vai tro chu ong. 3/ Dong chay : - La qua trnh di chuyen thoat nc cua cac khoi nc lien tuc t ni cao xuong ni thap tao thanh dong chay. No luon tac dung bao mon trc tiep be mat cua phan at tiep xuc nh lu vc, b, ay song. Kha nang bao mon va lang ong trong qua trnh hoat ong cua dong chay phu thuoc vao lu toc, o doc va ieu kien kh tng, thuy van, vao chat at ay, vao hnh thai long song vv quyet nh. 23. .II/ANH HNG CUA THI TIET, KH HAU EN DONG CHAY VA GIAO THONG THUY VAN 1/ Thi tiet : - La nhng dien bien thay oi nhanh ve nhiet o ( nong, lanh, ma, nang ) cua moi trng kh quyen trong thi gian ngay, thang. - Thi tiet thng dien bien thay oi ma s thay oi ln cua no thng xay ra hien tng boc hi neu nang nong va ngng tu thanh may ma vvTao ra s mat can bang cua nc trong t nhien. 24. 2/ Kh hau : - La nhng dien bien thay oi cua thi tiet theo chu ky tuan hoan tng oi hang nam va theo tng khu vc cua a cau. - Tuy thuoc vao cac kinh, v o ma cac che o kh hau co s tuan hoan khac nhau. Rieng vi nc ta thuoc kh hau xch ao nhiet i gio mua, c dien bien tuan hoan theo chu ky nam la 2 mua, mua kho va mua ma. - Lng nc ma nhieu nhat trung bnh vao thang 8 am lch, nen vao nhng ngay thang nay luong lach nc ta thay oi nhanh va phc tap, nhat la vao nhng ngay co bao, ngoai gio manh va xoay con kem theo ma to gay nen lu lut, tao thanh dong chay phu luong rat nguy hiem. 25. 3/ Bao nhiet i va cac bien phap phong chong bao : a/ Bao va anh hng cua bao :bao la mot vung ap suat thap cua khong kh phat sinh tren cac bien nhiet i vi sc gio manh t cap 8 tr len ( 62km/ h tr len). Bao thng kem theo ma to va nhieu hien tng khac. Neu vung ap suat thap cua khong kh phat sinh tren cac bien nhiet i ch co gio manh cap 6, cap 7 th c goi la ap thap nhiet i. - Ap thap nhiet i va bao eu la nhng hien tng thi tiet nguy hiem. Mc o nguy hiem phu thuoc vao tnh hnh gio manh, tnh hnh song bien va ma. b/ Cac bien phap tien hanh phong chong bao : - Khi c tin bao co bao, neu con au ben hoac cang, th co the xin hoan lenh ri ben e lam cong tac phong chong bao tai ben. 26. 4- Quy ao bao nhiet i : Xch ao 0 o Nam ban cau Bac ban cau 20 o 20 o Ban vong nguy hiem Ban vong hang hai c Ban vong hang hai c Ban vong nguy hiem 27. - Trng hp ang tren ng i ma c tin co bao, neu con thi gian th tot nhat la tm ni neo au an toan tai mot ben hay cang nao gan nhat. Luc nay thuyen trng phai cho trien khai nhanh chong cac cong viec sau ay :+ Lenh cho thuy thu co nh tat ca cac trang thiet b dung cu tren tau gon gang, chac chan, ha thap o cao cua cot tn hieu hoac cot buom (neu co the c), a can cau ve v tr quy nh. Kiem tra va lam kn nap ham hang e phong nc bien hoac nc ma co the tran vao lam h hong hang hoa, tang cng neo va gia co them day buoc tau. Tang cng em va ve pha man tiep xuc vi cau tau hoac vi phng tien khac, khi buoc day phai am bao an toan, chac chan, ung ky thuat. + oi vi nha bep phai chuan b cm va khau phan an d phong trc khi bao en, ong thi thu don noi neu, 28. bat da, bep dau xep vao thung co em lot bang vat lieu mem khong e rung lac lam o be. + Phai luon luon c mot to thng trc tau va gan khu vc au tau e khi can co the huy ong kp thi phong chong bao, khi bao en tat ca thuyen vien phai co mat tren tau nghiem chnh thc hien menh lenh cua ngi ch huy mot cach chnh xac va hieu qua nhat. + oi vi y ta cua tau phai chuan b san mot so thuoc, bong bang can khi cap cu. - Trng hp bao ap en bat ng khi tau ang hanh trnh th thuyen trng cung phai to chc cac bien phap nh tren ong thi van dung het kha nang ieu ong cua mnh va cong suat cua may tau e a tau vao nhng ni an toan hoac tranh cho tau b troi dat vao nhng ni nguy hiem. 29. .III/AC TNH C BAN CUA THUY TNH VA ONG LC HOC1/ ieu kien tnh : - Nc la mot trong nhng dang chat long, khi cac khoi nc ieu kien tnh co nhng ac tnh nh sau : + Luon co xu hng can bang, phang ve mat thoang. + Luon can bang lc tac dung moi hng. 2/ ieu kien ong : - Khi cac chat long chuyen ong th trang thai dien bien cua chung nh sau : + Co s ma sat trn, trt va bam dnh vi phan tiep xuc tnh xung quanh. + Co quan tnh ty le thuan vi toc o khoi lng cua no. 30. + Co xu hng c/ong thang t ni P cao en ni P thap. + Co xu hng tr ve trang thai can bang ve mat phang khi ngoai lc thoi tac dung. + Gap vat can chung co s c/ oi hng, v, s thay oi nay p/thuoc vao phng c/ cua d/chay &amp; be mat vat can. Dong chay an toan thng co mau xanh tham, sau hn, be mat phang va em, keo dai lien tuc va co v nhanh hn so vi nhng dong chay khac hoac vi hai ben b . Ngc lai nhng dong chay khong an toan co mau sang lap lanh nhat la vao nhng em trang sang hay tri nang to, be mat dong chay xuat hien dong nc cuon, xoay, co nhieu ngan nc, song nhap nho go ghe hoac co bot trang, dong chay khong lien tuc hay gian oan th o la nhng ni khong on nh , ay song dien bien phc tap rat nguy hiem cho viec chay tau. 31. .IV/AC IEM CUA CAC DANG OAN SONG 1/ Dang oan song thang : Mat cat ngang songmat nc gia song sau bai ven b 32. B doi Bai can Nc sau B vnh mat cat ngang song2/ Dang oan song cong 33. .V/AC IEM DIEN BIEN CUAAY SONG QUA CAC GIAI OAN 1/ Giai oan thng lu : Thng lu Ha lu Mat cat doc song Thng lu Chng ngai vat 34. Mat cat doc song Thng lu Thng lu Ha lu Chng ngai vat 2/ Giai oan trung lu a/ Ve mua ma :giai oan nay mac du lu toc giam nhng khong ang ke, ve mua ma hau nh nc chay mot chieu, con bai hnh thanh tng t nh giai oanthng lu nhng uoi con hoac bai ngam ngan hn.b/ Ve mua kho :con bai hnh thanh ca 2 pha 35. 3/ Giai oan ha lu :ay la ieu kien ly tng e langong cac chat di ong trong nc. Con, bai hnh thanhve ca 2 pha tng oi eu, uoi con lan toa ra 2 ben. Mat cat doc song Thng lu Thng lu Ha lu Chng ngai vat 36. A B C D E Thng lu Ha lu .VI/QUY LUAT DIEN BIEN CUACAC DANG DONG CHAY 1/ Dong chay phan luong : 37. Dong chay an toan 2/ Dong chay phu luong : Dong chay phu luong thng xuat hien vao mua nc ln, nhat la nhng ngay co lu, mc nc song dang len cao ot ngot. ac iem cua dong chay phu luong la: Lam cho ngi ieu khien phng tien tren song mat phng hng, kho xac nh luong i an toan. 38. B loi (b doi) B lom ( b vnh ) Dong chay tren mat Dong chay di ay ng chaytau an toan 3/ Dong chay van : Thng xuat hien nhng oan song cong va sinh ra hai dong chay gan nh ngc chieu nhau : 1 dong tren mat va 1 dong di ay. 39. Tam xoay Xu the cua dong chay 4/ ac iem dien bien cua dong chay xoay: a/ Dong chay xoay am ap truc ng : Thng gap oan song co b lom, tao thanh dong chay roi cuon tron theo hnh tron oc t tren xuongdi, tam xoay nh cai ron nc b lom han xuong. 40. Xu hng cua cai be be Tam xoay b/ Dong chay xoay dng ap truc ng : Sinh ra dong chay nay la do dong nc ang i thang gap b loi hay ghenh a, chng ngai vat an nho raSong. Dong chay co dien bien ngc lai vi dong chayxoay am ap truc ng. 41....</p>