1. When India was being ruled by the British, itwas the Indian National Movement thatexpressed the aspirations and demands of thepeople of India, bound together by theiridentity as a nation and the spirit ofnationalism. Various factors had contributedto the growth of national consciousness in thecountry. The Nationalist Movement hadstarted with the establishment of IndianNational Congress.
2. The British considered themselves superiorto the Indian and followed a policy of racialdiscrimination. The British rule promoted theattitude of racial hatred and racial arrogancetoward Indians. Railway compartments werereserved for Europeans and Indians were notallowed to enter restaurants and parks 3. Many political associations were formed invarious parts of the country before theformation of Indian National Congress in 1885but these organizations were localized andhad limited participation and the need of anall-India political organization. Thus IndianNational Congress was formed.