New Toefl iBT词汇分类突破

  • Published on

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


<ul><li>1.CIPiBT / . 2010.8ISBN 978-7-5012-3908-5. . . . H313CIP2010158883iBT 880x1230 1/32 9 10 000 201091 201091 ISBN 978-7-5012-3908-5 39.00</li></ul><p>2. 6 12UNIT001-UNIT1922WORD LIST2011253225532584261 3. 5 TOEFL212003TOEFL21An essay is written with words just as a house is built withbricks, but merely a collection of words cannot be called anessay any more than a pile of bricks can be called a house. 4. iBT6habitatdestructionhabitat destructiononeof the most significant predicaments that endangered speciesare confronting withhabitatdestructionhabitat destructionprotecting endangered speciesbiologicaldiversityprey1) 2) birdbirds of preybirds of preybirds of prey ++ 5. 7LlimbTtwiglimbtwiglimbrodentgnawingfaultearthquakeadaptionTOEFL/GRE/SAT1) 2) ETSETS1) 2) ETS squirrelrodentaccumulateacornssquander1/3litter up2/3rodentenameldentine 6. iBT8gnawingincisorskeensquirrelsquandergnawing1/3acornkeen2/3litter upacornlecture accumulate acorn dentine enamel gnaw incisor keen litter (up) rodent squander squirrelenamelenamelsquirrelgnawing 7. 9ETSETSpBTcBTiBTETS1/32/32/31/3++ETSTOEFL iBTETSETSpineconewren sparrow TOEFLwrensparroweaglebald eaglecondor() 192ETSMicrosoftEncarta 8. iBT10 cardinal : radical canopy preoccupation 9. 11 1. TOEFL2. 10. iBT12 MP3 145 3. 11. 1380%exorbitant10e-x-o-r-b-i-t-a-n-t exor-bi-tant ichthyosaurich-thyo-saur Hanna HodgesRudorf (1966)96% 1) cellistfacadeheirnichespecific 2) [ee] 12. iBT14 /i:/[ea] [i:]/e/ /ieu//e/lieutenant lieu /lu/[ae/e/ee/er/et/e/]/ei/ vertebrae, cafpe, soireefoyerbouquetdente sak 1) 2) enamele /e//i//e/ /i//n/ na/n/ mel/ml//inml/ ena beak /bi:k//bek/ea/i:/ /e//bi:k/ea /i:/ 4. TOEFL/IELTS/SAT/GRE/GMAT S1) What does S1 mean? M1 13. 151)2)S2M2M1M2R1&amp;2M1M2 1M1M2M1M2M2M1WhatWhy?How?2M1M2M1M2M1M2R1~2. M1M2R1~2. M1M2R1~2. M1M2R1~2x+y=zETS MP1MP2RP1~2 14. iBT16 1 Google 2 3 4 5 6 50 5. 192mp3 mp3 principalprinciple [telu]cello specific[spesifik] 15. 17 16. UNIT001UNIT192 i B T 18 17. iBTUNIT001Basic building materials include: timber, mud, stone,marble, brick, tile, steel, and cement concrete. Masonry wallsare built with stones or bricks, cohered through the use ofmortar, first composed of lime and sand. The profusion ofaluminum and its anodized coatings provided cladding materialthat is lightweight and virtually maintenance free. Glass wasknown in prehistory and is celebrated for its contributions toGothic architecture. timber [timb] n.marble [m:bl] n.tile [tail] n. cement concrete [siment-knkrit] n.masonry wall [meisnri-wl] n.cohere [kuhi] v.mortar [m:t] n., lime [laim] n.profusion [prfju:n] n. profusion of: aluminum [lu:mnm] n.anodized coating [nudaizd-kuti]n. [nodize v.: ]cladding [kldi] n.celebrated [selibreitid] adj.Gothic [ik] adj.architecture [:kitekt] n. 19 18. UNIT002 Two basic approaches to spanning over masonry wallsare post-and-lintel construction and arch, vault, and domeconstruction. span [spn] [pust-nd-lintl] n.arch [:t] n.vault [v:lt] n.dome [dum] n.20 19. iBT UNIT003 The Chicago architect Louis Sullivans career convergeswith the so-called Chicago School of Architects, whosechallenge was to invent the skyscraper or high-rise building,facilitated by the introduction of the electric elevator and theabundance of steel. The buildings skeleton could be erectedquickly and the remaining components hung on it to completeit, an immense advantage for high-rise buildings on busy citystreets.architect [:kitekt] n.converge [knv:d] [sku:l] n.skyscraper [skaiskreip] n.facilitate [fsiliteit] v.electric elevator [ilektrik - eliveit] n.abundance [bndns] n.skeleton [skelitn] n.erect [irekt] v. component [kmpunnt] n. immense [imens] adj. 21 20. UNIT004Interior design of apartments and houses, that is, dwellings,usually involves both practical and aesthetic decisions. Choiceshave to be made for almost every element, ceilings and lamps,curtains and blinds, corridor and doorway, niches and ledges,grate and ventilations, terraces and staircases, even sewers ordrainers. Sometimes such designs are extended to the facadeof the building, and even to a fountain, or a gardening yard.interior design [intiri-dizain] n. niche [nit] n.dwelling [dwel] n. ledge [led] n.involve [invlv] v. grate [reit] n.aesthetic [i:setik] adj.ventilation [ventilein] n.ceiling [si:li] n.terrace [ters] n.lamp [lmp] n.staircase [stkeis] n.curtain [k:tn] n.sewer [sju] n.blind [blind] n.drainer [drein] n., facade [fs:d] n.corridor [krid:] n. fountain [fauntin] n.doorway [d:wei] n. yard [j:d] n. 22 21. iBT UNIT005The lease is a contract of rent under which one party, called landlord or lessor, grants possession and use of the property for a limited term to the other party, who is called tenant or lessee. lease [li:s] [rent] n.landlord [lndl:d] n.lessor [les:] n.grant [r:nt] v. possession [pzen] [prpti] n.tenant [tennt] n.lessee [lesi:] n.23 22. UNIT006 A big city, or metropolis, is often accompanied by suburbs.Such cities are usually associated with metropolitan areas andurban sprawl, creating large amounts of business commuters.Once a city sprawls far enough to reach another city, this regioncan be deemed a conurbation or megalopolis. metropolis [mitrplis] n.suburb [sb:b] associated with [bi-suieitid-wi] v.metropolitan [metrplitn] adj.urban [:bn] adj.sprawl [spr:l] n.commuter [kmju:t] n.deem [di:m] v.conurbation [knbein] n.megalopolis [melplis] n.24 23. iBTUNIT007Sanitation is the hygienic means of preventing humancontact from the hazards of wastes, either physical,microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease,which include human and animal feces, solid wastes, domesticwastewater (sewage, sullage, greywater), etc. Hygienic meansof prevention can be practiced by using simple technologies (e. g.latrines, septic tanks), or by personal hygiene practices.sanitation [snitein] n.hygienic [haidi:nik] adj.hygiene [haidi:n] microbiological [[maikrubaildikl] adj.agent [eidnt] n.feces [fi:si:z] n.domestic [dmestik] adj.sewage [sjuid] n.sullage [slid] n.greywater [greiw:t] n.latrine [ltri:n] n.septic tank [septik-tk] n.personal hygiene practice [p:snl-haidi:n-prktis] v. 25 24. UNIT008 A public utility (usually just utility) is a company thatmaintains and provides the infrastructure for a public service.Although utilities can be privately owned or publicly owned, theyoften involve natural monopolies. public utility [pblik-jutiliti] n.infrastructure [infrstrkt] n.privately owned [praivitli-und] adj.publicly owned [pblikli:-und] adj.monopoly [mnpli] n.26 25. iBTUNIT009The field of transport has several aspects: infrastructure,vehicles, and operations. Infrastructure includes the transportnetworks (roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals,pipelines, etc.) that are used, as well as the nodes or terminals(such as airports, railway stations, bus stations and seaports).Vehicles travelling on the networks include automobiles,bicycles, buses, trains and aircraft. The operations deal withthe way the vehicles are operated on the network, and theprocedures set for this purpose including the legal environment(laws, codes, regulations, etc.). Policies, such as how to financethe system (for example, the use of tolls or gasoline taxes) maybe considered part of the operations.vehicle [vi:ikl] n.operation [prein] n.canal [knl] n.pipeline [paiplain] n. node [nud] n.terminal [t:minl] n.seaport [si:p:t] [l:] n.code [kud] n.regulation [rejulein] n.toll [tul] n.gasoline [sli:n] n.27 26. UNIT010Rail transport is the conveyance of passengers and goodsby means of wheeled vehicles specially designed to run alongrailways or railroads. Typical railway tracks consist of twoparallel rails, normally made of steel, secured to crossbeams,termed ties. The ties maintain a constant distance between thetwo rails, a measurement known as the "gauge" of the track.To maintain the alignment of the track, it is either laid on a bedof ballast or else secured to a solid concrete foundation. Railtransport is an energy-efficient and capital-intensive componentof logistics, in contrast, a traditional wagon can carry no morethan several tons of freight.rail transport [reil-trnsp:t] n. ballast [blst] n.conveyance [knveins] n.concrete [knkri:t] means of [bai-minz-v] prep. energy-efficient [endi-ifint] adj.consist of [knsist-v] [kpitl-intensiv] to [sikju-tu] v.logistics [ldistiks] n.crossbeam [krsbi:m] n.wagon [wn] n.tie [tai] n.freight [freit] n.gauge [eid] n.alignment [lainmnt] n.28 27. iBTUNIT011 Developments in technology have eroded some ofthe natural monopoly aspects of traditional public utilities.For instance, electricity generation, electricity retailing,telecommunication and postal services have becomecompetitive in some countries, and the trend towardsliberalization, deregulation and privatization of public utilities isgrowing, but the network infrastructure used to distribute mostutility products and services has remained largely monopolistic.erode [irud] v.retailing [ri:teili] n.postal service [pustl-s:vis] n.competitive [kmpetitiv] adj.trend [trend] n.liberalization [librlaizein] n.deregulation [di:rejulein] n.privatization [praivtzein] n.infrastructure [infrstrkt] n.distribute [distribju:t] v.monopolistic [mnplistik] adj. 29 28. UNIT012 An aspiring master would have to pass through the careerchain from apprentice to journeyman before he/she could beelected to become a master craftsman. He/She would thenhave to produce a sum of money and a masterpiece before he/she could actually join the guild. aspiring [spairi] adj.master [m:st] n.pass through [ps-ru:] v.apprentice [prentis] n.journeyman [d:nimn] n.masterpiece [m:stpi:s] n.actually [ktuli] adv.guild [ild] n. 30 29. iBTUNIT013A craftsperson who perhaps has at first sold craft itemsonly to friends or at local bazaars may find that increaseddemand leads to a wider clientele and sales by mail order, atcrafts fairs, or through a shop.craft [kr:ft] n.bazaar [bz:] n.clientele [klaintel] n.fair [f] n.31 30. UNIT014 There is a fine line of distinction between crafts producedby amateur hobbyists for their personal satisfaction andthose made by gifted artisans with a view toward the use andenjoyment of others. fine [fain] adj. distinction [distikn] n.amateur hobbyist [mt-hbiist] n.artisan [:tizn] n.32 31. iBTUNIT015 Fabric weaving involves interlacing warp and weft. Theyarn threads of warp are arranged parallel to one another andheld in tension on a loom, while the single thread wefts passover or under the warp threads to create a solid or patternedpiece of clothes. To create larger pieces, a treadle loom isusually needed.fabric weaving [fbrik - wivi] n.involve [invlv] v.interlace [int(:)leis] v.() warp [w:p] n.weft [weft] n.yarn thread [jn-red] n.parallel [prlel] adj.tension [tenn] n.loom [lu:m] n.solid [slid] adj.treadle loom [tredl-lum] n. 33 32. UNIT016 Basketry is the craft of making baskets and bags, mats,rugs, and other items through weaving, plaiting, and coilingtechniques, using materials such as reed, cane, rush, sisal fiber,ash-wood splints, and ropes twisted from strands of hemp.basketry [b:stkitri] n. sisal [sisl] n.mat [mt] n. rug [r] n.fiber [faib] n.plait [plt] v. ash-wood [-wud] adj.coil [kil] v.splint [splint] n.reed [ri:d] n.twist [twist] v.cane [kein] n.strand [strnd] n.rush [r] n.hemp [hemp] n. 34 33. iBTUNIT017In ornamental knotting, cotton, linen, or jute cord is used tomake bags, wall hangings, and containers.ornamental [:nmentl] adj.knotting [nti] n.cotton [ktn] n.linen [linin] n.jute cord [dut-kd] n.wall hanging [wl-hi] n.35 34. UNIT018In quilting, three layers of fabric (a decorative top layer,filler, and a liner) are stitched or tied together. quilt [kwilt] n. quilting [kwilti] n. layer [lei] n. decorative [dekrtiv] adj. filler [fil] n. liner [lain] n. stitch [stit] v.36 35. iBTUNIT019 Many useful objects can be fashioned from leather, usingsuch special tools as leather shears, punches for carving thickleather, thonging chisels, and lacing needles. fashion [fn] v.leather [le] n.shears [iz] n.punch [pnt] n.carve [k:v] v.thong [] v.chisel [tizl] n.lace [leis] v.needle [ni:dl] n. 37 36. UNIT020Ceramic objects can be molded completely by hand orthrown on a potters wheel. When the clay hardens, it is fired ina high-temperature oven, or kiln, to strengthen it. To make theobject waterproof, glazes may then be applied and the piecefired again. ceramic [sirmik] adj.mold [muld] v.throw [ru] n.()()potters wheel [ptz-wil] n.clay [klei] n.oven [vn] n.kiln [kiln] n.waterproof [w:tpru:f] adj.glaze [leiz] n.38 37. iBT UNIT021Such basic woodworking techniques as sawing, joining, and finishing can be employed to make a wide variety of useful and ornamental objects, from jewelry boxes to picture frames.woodworking [wudw:ki] n. adj.sawing [s:i] n.joining [dini] n.finishing [finii] n.ornamental [:nmentl] adj.picture frame [pikt-freim] n.39 38. UNIT022Carpenter tools include saws, planes, flat-edged chisels,semicircular gouge, boring tools such as brace, drills, andmeasuring tools such as steel rules, C-clamp, squares andtrisquare, etc. carpenter [k:pint] n. saw [s:] n. plane [plein] n. chisel [tizl] n. gouge [aud] n. boring [b:ri] n. brace [breis] n. drill [dril] n. C-clamp [si-klmp] n.C square [skw] n. trisquare [traiskw] n.40 39. iBTUNIT023 The tenon, a rectangular or square projection from the endof one member, fits snugly into the mortise cut in the secondmember, thus joining the two perpendicularly. tenon [tenn] n.()projection [prdekn] n.snugly [snli] adv.mortise [m:tis] n.perpendicularly [ppndikjulli] adv.41 40. UNIT024Finishes serve to protect and preserve the wood and tobring out the beauty of the grain. Pieces are finished with rasps,files, and sandpaper. Common finishes include waxes, oils,bleaches, fillers, stains, shellac, varnish, lacquer, sealers, andpaints, including enamels.bring out [bri-aut] v.shellac [lk] n.grain [rein] n. varnish [v:ni] n.finish [fini] n.rasp [r:sp] n. lacquer [lk] n. file [fail] n. sealer [si:l] n.sandpaper [sndpeip] n. ; v. paint [peint] n.wax [wks] n.enamel [inml] n.bleach [bli:t] n.filler [fil] n. stain [stein] n. 42 41. iBTUNIT025 Paints are formed by mixing a pigment and a binder, a fluidvehicle, such as linseed oil, that solidifies when exposed to air.A varnish is a transparent solution that solidifies into a protectivecoating. Opaque and colored varnishes are called lacquers.pigment [pimnt] n.binder [baind] n.vehicle [vi:ikl] n.linseed oil [linsid-il] n.solidify [slidifai] v.()expose [ikspuz] v.transparent [trnsprnt] adj.solution [slu:n] n.coating [kuti] n.opaque [upeik] adj.43 42. UNIT026Cookery involves a diverse array of cuisines. Food maybe immersed in liquids such as water, stock, or wine (boiling,poaching, stewing); immersed in fat or oil (frying); exposed tovapor (steaming and, to some extent, braising); exposed t...</p>