Open Access Now!

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Research notes in the form of a deck of slides assembled by Ernesto Priego for the Open Access debate organised by Roger Sabin at Central Saint Martins, University of the Arts, London, Monday 18 March 2013. Also available via Figshare as Open Access Now! Research notes in the form of a deck of slides assembled by Ernesto Priego for the Open Access debate organised by Roger Sabin at Central Saint Martins, University of the Arts, London, Monday 18 March 2013. . Ernesto Priego. figshare. http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.654622

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  • 1. OpenAccessNow!DrErnestoPriego,CityUniversityLondon@ernestopriegoResearchnotesintheformofadeckofslidesassembledbyErnestoPriegofortheOpenAccessdebateorganisedbyRogerSabinatCentralSaintMartins,UniversityoftheArts,London,Monday18March2013.
  • 2. TooMuchTextonTheseSlides! Yes.Theseslidesaremeanttobeaccessedopenlyonlineand readasadeckofresearchcardsornotes. Theydonotnecessarilyrepresentwhatwasshowninsitu. Thisisatypeofopenaccessscholarlyoutputoreducational resource.Ittooksometimeandeffort(i.e.)tocreate. Lessthan20peopleattendedtheevent.Thisisnormaland evensuccessfulinmanycasesofacademicevents.Many morewillhopefullygetanideaofwhatIdiscussedthrough thisresource. Theseresearchnoteswerepublishedonlineaftertheevent theywerecreatedforasaPDFandarelicensedbyErnesto Priegoundera CreativeCommonsAttribution3.0UnportedLicense.
  • 3. Youneverchangethingsbyfightingtheexistingreality.Tochangesomething,buildanewmodelthatmakestheexistingmodelobsolete.BuckminsterFuller,AmericanArchitect(18951983)
  • 4. DigitalScholarshipScholarsengagedindigitalscholarship:haveadvanceddigitalliteracyskillsselfarchivefilterandsharewithothersblogabouttheirresearchpublishinopenaccessjournalscommentopenlyontheworksofothersbuildnetworks (AfterTerryAnderson,2009;MartinWeller,2011) Scholarsask:allcool,butwhorewards/incentivises/funds allthis?
  • 5. ScholarlyOutputs(Cronin2012)From1970: From2010: Workingpaper Sameas1970plus Occasionalpaper Journalarticleand Preprint supplementarymaterials Hyperlinkedarticles Conferencepaper Journalarticle Tweets Blogs Letters Researchnotes Videos(YouTube) Monograph Epreprints Webpages Bookreview Webinars/podcastsetc. Literaturereview
  • 6. Scholarship=Dissemination Nolongercompletelydifferenttasks Theharderitistofindsomething,theharderitistoaccessit Theharderitistoaccesssomething,theharderitistofindan audience Theharderitistofindanaudience,theharderitistocreate sustainableengagement Theharderitistocreatesustainableengagement,theharderitisto haveanimpact Ifitcantbeaccessed,itwontberead Ifitcantberead,itwontbecited Again,sameissue:sincenoteveryonedoesitnaturally,anofficial systemofincentives/rewardsneedstoallocatefinancial, infrastructural,timeresourcesforthis
  • 7. Inaworldbasedinsharingandreusing(theWeb) attribution,reciprocityandfeedbackare thekeybestpracticeshttp://creativecommons.org/ http://www.oercommons.org/ GreatestanxietiesaboutOpenAccessrightnowarearound Intellectualproperty,plagiarism,copyrightlawinthedigitalage. Weneedtostudyandcommunicatebetterhowexistinglegal frameworksinteractwithexistingCreativeCommonslicensesand institutionalfundingandpublisherspolicies
  • 8. OpenAccessExplained*JorgeCham(2012)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L5rVH1KGBCY *OpenAccessisnotonlyforscientists!
  • 9. TheRealCost Forbetterorworse,theWebistheprimarygatewaytoinformation searchandaccess Whatisnotaccessedisnotused IntheWeb,frictionreducesattentionandusage Paradigmshiftintheattentioneconomyandtheeconomicsof onlineattention:iftheresapaywallyouwilljumpoveritwithout paying Weneedmorehonestyinwhyacademicworkispublishedinnon OAjournalsthatareexpensive,restrictiveanddifficulttofind Academicsalreadypaytowriteandpublisharticlesinpaywalled journalsevenifnotdirectly Weneedscholarsformarts,humanitiesandsocialsciencesfieldsto engageinacriticalrevisionofcopyright,lincensing,functionsof academicpublishing
  • 10. OA:NoPaywall Openaccess(OA)literatureisdigital,online, freeofcharge[tothereader;insomecasesto authorsthroughwaivers],and[ideally]freeof mostcopyrightandlicensingrestrictions [throughCreativeCommonslicenses]. WhatmakesitpossibleistheInternetandthe consentoftheauthororcopyrightholder. (PeterSuber2008)
  • 11. CompatiblewithResearchExcellence OAisentirelycompatiblewithpeerreview, andallthemajorOAinitiativesforscientific andscholarlyliteratureinsistonits importance. Justasauthorsofjournalarticlesdonatetheir labor,sodomostjournaleditorsandreferees participatinginpeerreview. (PeterSuber2008)
  • 12. OAisNotFreetoProduce OAliteratureisnotfreetoproduce,evenifitis lessexpensivetoproducethanconventionally publishedliterature. Thequestionisnotwhetherscholarlyliterature canbemadecostless,butwhetherthereare betterwaystopaythebillsthanbycharging readersandcreatingaccessbarriers. Businessmodelsforpayingthebillsdependon howOAisdelivered. (PeterSuber2008)
  • 13. OAReducesFriction SPARC2004
  • 14. MoreEvidence(Hajjem,HarnadandGingras,2005)
  • 15. Hajjem,HarnadandGingras,2005 TenYearCrossDisciplinaryComparisonof theGrowthofOpenAccessandHowit IncreasesResearchCitationImpact Papersonopenaccessjournalshaveahigher citationimpactthannonOAjournals
  • 16. OACanIncreaseImpactInordertomaximisetheimpactoftheir research,researchersneedtomakeitOpen Access RobertKiley,HeadofDigitalServices, WellcomeTrust(LSEFutureofAcademicImpactsconference,London,5December2012)
  • 17. OnlinePresence=Citations CitationsinWikipediacorrelatewithJCRdata (Nielsen,2007) Articlesinthetopquartileoftweetswere11 timesmorelikelytobeintopquartileofcitations 2yearslater(Eysenbach,2012) Positivecorrelationsbetweeninclusionin referencemanagersandcitation (BarIlan,2012;Lietal.2011;Priemetal.,2012) Downloadspredict/correlatewithsubsequent citation(Brodyetal.,2006). (Cronin2012)
  • 18. Tweeting,Bloggingand OARepositories Ifyoutellpeopleaboutyourresearch,theylook atit.Yourresearchwillgetlookedatmorethan paperswhicharenotpromotedviasocialmedia beforeIbloggedandtweetedthem,hadoneto twodownloads,eveniftheyhadbeeninthe repositoryformonths(oryears,insomecases). Uponbloggingandtweeting,within24hours, therewereonaverageseventydownloadsofmy papersMelissaTerras(2012).
  • 19. TwoMainPaths Therearetwoprimaryvehiclesfordelivering OAtoresearcharticles:1. OAjournalsand2. OAarchivesorrepositories. (PeterSuber,2004)
  • 20. PeterSuberonOAJournals OAjournalsperformpeerreviewandthenmaketheapprovedcontents freelyavailabletotheworld. Theirexpensesconsistofpeerreview,manuscriptpreparation,andserver space. OAjournalspaytheirbillsverymuchthewaybroadcasttelevisionand radiostationsdo:thosewithaninterestindisseminatingthecontentpay theproductioncostsupfrontsothataccesscanbefreeofchargefor everyonewiththerightequipment. Sometimesthismeansthatjournalshaveasubsidyfromthehosting universityorprofessionalsociety.Sometimesitmeansthatjournalscharge aprocessingfeeonacceptedarticles,tobepaidbytheauthororthe authorssponsor(employer,fundingagency).
  • 21. ArticleProcessingCharges(APCs) OAjournalsthatchargeprocessingfeesusuallywaivethem incasesofeconomichardship.OAjournalswith institutionalsubsidiestendtochargenoprocessingfees. OAjournalscangetbyonlowersubsidiesorfeesifthey haveincomefromotherpublications,advertising,priced addons,orauxiliaryservices.Someinstitutionsand consortiaarrangefeediscounts. SomeOApublisherswaivethefeeforallresearchers affiliatedwithinstitutionsthathavepurchasedanannual membership. Theresalotofroomforcreativityinfindingwaystopay thecostsofapeerreviewedOAjournal,andwerefarfrom havingexhaustedourclevernessandimagination. (PeterSuber,2008)
  • 22. PeterSuberon OAArchivesandRepositories OAArchivesorrepositories:OAarchivesor repositoriesdonotperformpeerreview,but simplymaketheircontentsfreelyavailabletothe world.Theymaycontainunrefereedpreprints, refereedpostprints,orboth. Archivesmaybelongtoinstitutions,suchas universitiesandlaboratories,ordisciplines,such asphysicsandeconomics.Authorsmayarchive theirpreprintswithoutanyoneelsespermission, andamajorityofjournalsalreadypermitauthors toarchivetheirpos