Rural Poverty and Instruction

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Sharon and Steve Metcalfe

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<ul><li>1.Rural PovertyInstructionIdeas for Teacher Education Sharon &amp; Stephen MetcalfeMount Vernon Nazarene University Sharon: sharon.metcalfe@mvnu.eduStephen: stephen.metcalfe@mvnu.edu</li></ul> <p>2. Views of PovertyPoverty Policies = Programs for peoplein the inner city. Deserving Poor versus Underclass 3. Urban/Rural Sociological Differences(Natchigal, 1982) RuralUrban Personal/Tightly Impersonal/looselylinkedcoupled Generalists Specialists Homogenous Heterogeneous Traditional Values Liberal Values Lower/smaller density Greater/Larger density Seasonal orientation Time-clock orientation 4. Views of RuralLess populated version of urban &amp; suburban America.(Natchigal. 1982)People Left Behind living beneath normal standards:hicks backward uncultured illiterate provincialA place where The Good Life can still be lived. Mayberry/Green AcresWhere city folks go to play, relax, escape. (Sinagatullin, 2009) 5. Rural Poor Demographics (Duncan, 1992) 30% of the U.S. population lives inrural areas. 40% of ALL poverty is rural. 80% of rural poor are White. *Most non-white rural families are poor. 6. Rural Poverty Demographics (Duncan, 1992)1. Typically working poor.65% of rural poor families have 1+ person employed. Rural Poverty American Dream:Steady job that allows me to make my waywithout owing anybody anything.2. Typically two-parent families.3. Higher percent are elderly. 7. SES CulturesTwo Lenses: (Neuman, 2009) Culture of Achievement: middle class routines/language fostering Culture of Material Hardship: Learned approaches to living without adequate resources (coping) 8. SES CulturesTwo Lenses of Cultural Capital (Bourdieu as cited in Holyfield, 2002, p. 53) Aesthetic Taste: middle class codes and guides to proper behavior Taste of Necessity: adaptation and acceptance of the necessary 9. Being Poor in the Country (Holyfield, 2002) Harder being poor in the country. Harder escaping from poverty in thecountry. 10. Being Poor in the Country(Holyfield, 2002) Poverty hides easier in the country. Typically single-car families. Lack of transportation isolates families. Isolation promotes invisibility. 11. Rural PoorEducational Attainment (Holyfield, 2002) Rural Poor Adults:44.5%= Less than a high school education32.8% = High school diploma only22.7% = Any schooling beyond high school77.3% = HS diploma or less 12. Rural Poor Educational Needs Language reflects acquired information.(Anastasiow &amp; Hanes, 1976) Product of both ethnicity and SESPoor English Spoken by the economically poor. Structurally less sophisticated. Often interpreted as less intelligent. Historical link to discrimination. 13. Rural Poor Cultural Tools Teachers assume Language of SchoolChildren of poverty translate school English. Reflects higher cognitive activity. 14. Poverty &amp; Brain Development(Jensen, 2009b)Environment impacts development.Poverty is an adverse environment. Affects these areas of life: Physical-Emotional-Psychological health;Linguistic development; Medical coverage;Social opportunities; Career options;Financial opportunities 15. Poverty and the Brain (Jensen, 2009b) Poverty: chronic mind/body condition. Chronic instability adds chronic stress. Poverty impacts the brain for the worse. Impulsivity Poor short-term memory development Greater instance of depression Physical brain structures of people in povertyare different than those who arent. Good News: The Brain can Change. 16. Common Poverty Risk Factors1. Emotional and social challenges2. Acute and chronic stressors3. Cognitive lags4. Health and safety issuesCommon teacher complaints about lowSES students: Chronic tardiness, Lack of motivation, Inappropriate behavior, Absenteeism 17. Poverty in Your Classroom Disadvantage responds much like disability. (Tokuhama-Espinosa, 2010) Poor school-readiness skills lead low SESchildren to exhibit classroom behaviors thatmay be unproductive-to-seriously disruptive. (Howard, Dresser, &amp; Dunklee, 2009, p. 29) 18. Poverty in Your ClassroomStudents from poverty are more likely to havechallenges or real-world concerns with:Organizational skills/supplies TransportationReading Readiness SkillsParental supportPrioritizing academics Short-term memoryEmotional/social regulation Medical/health issues(Jensen, 2009b) 19. Poverty in Your ClassroomPoverty-Related Deficits:Lack of a Present Tense orientation (Payne, 2006) No planning = no prediction No prediction impedes cause/effect skills Cause/effect identifies consequences. Consequence ID improves impulsivity control. Impulsivity control prevents TROUBLE 20. Poverty is Diversity Focus on how your students in poverty learn. Attend to what your students bring to thelearning setting. Diagnostic , not a programmatic approach.Whats going on here? 21. Rural-Specific Education(Schaft &amp; Jackson, 2010)3 foci: Identity Restructuring, affirming locality Place What does education have to sayabout the local experience? Community Linking education &amp; investment in local over global interests. 22. Strategies for Teaching Studentsin Poverty1. Build positive relationships with students and families.2. Conduct frequent formative assessment.3. Integrate learning experiences and instruction.4. Create a positive climate for instruction (level the playing field). (Howard, Dresser, &amp; Dunklee, 2009) 23. 1. Positive Relationships Model respect Low SES students need context, background, or skills. Always say please and thank you Avoid directives Avoid sarcasm Take responsibility for mistakes and makeamends Be consistent and fair 24. 1. Positive RelationshipsProvide hope; build supportive relationships Promote student status Embed social skills Basic meet-and-greet skills Turn-taking skills Teach/Remind students to use courtesy words. 25. 1. Positive RelationshipsLearn your students needs Academic tutoring/counseling; Reading materials Career, mental health counseling Child care for teen parents Life skills classes (finances, health, housing) Medical and psychological care; Dental care;Access to medications Arrangements for when students stay after school 26. 1. Positive RelationshipsEmpower students Take time to teach HOW to act differently Role-model problem solving strategies Introduce Responsibility and Making Restitution Conflict resolution/Anger management skills Goal setting Stress reduction techniques (recognize the signs of chronic stress) 27. 1. Positive RelationshipsInclude parents, provide support and outreach Schedule times convenient for parents who workdifferent shifts/group conferences for siblings. Encourage and organize carpooling or taxis. Be inclusive Our school, Our classroom Acknowledge students for small productive things Celebrate effort as well as achievement 28. 2. Formative and SummativeAssessments Frequent assessment: Informs instruction Helps identify what students do well Identifies sources of difficulties Assesses prior knowledge Provides corrective feedback, continuousimprovement 29. 3. Integrate Learning Experiences Link what is known to new learning. Tie content to students real-life. Engage students. 30. 3. Integrate Learning ExperiencesTeach, Model, Practice Core Skills Attention Sort-and long-term memory Sequencing and processing Problem-solving Perseverance; applying skills in long term Hopefulness and self-esteem Social skills 31. 3. Integrate Learning Experiences Teach Language Arts in all instruction.(Anastasiow &amp; Hanes, 1976) Cycle-of-failure potential increases withoutmastery of middle-class English. Decode language the teacher uses and match it.Train for the culture of commerce. (Delpit, 1995) 32. 3. Integrate Learning Experiences No more than 50% of instructional time for newcontent. Brain works best with time to absorb new learning. Learn, discuss, take a walk. Encourage processing. Add new strategies regularly, monitor progress Provide specific, customized, monitored, skill-building activities (30-90 min/day) Increase arts activities, physical activity. Brain aerobics 33. 3. Integrate Learning ExperiencesCHAMPSChampions Mind SetHopeful EffortAttentional SkillsNever assume intactcognitive strategies.MemoryProcessing SkillsSequencing Skills 34. 4. Positive Climate for Instruction Create a User-Friendly classroom. Create a democratic learning environment. Positive feedback early and often. Provide verbal and nonverbal cues. Deepen staff understanding, empathy, andcultural knowledge/relevance of instruction tolocal identity and community.(Woodrum, 2011) 35. 4. Positive Climate for Instruction Structure time effectively. Be flexible - culturally and academically. Sense of humor. Celebrate successes. Augment nutrition: healthy snacks, water. Before/after school homework clubs, transportation. 36. Seven Odds-Changing Instructional Principles(Neuman, 2009)1. Target your neediest students.2. Earlier is better.3. Coordinate services.4. Focus on compensatory instruction.5. Use the highest qualified instructors available.6. Dont dilute any instruction quality matters.7. Always hold high standards and accountability. 37. References Anastasiow, N. J., &amp; Hanes, M. L. (1976). Language patterns of povertychildren. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Bishop, B. (2010). Poverty highest in rural America: Rising in recession.Daily Yonder. Retrieved from http://www.dailyyonder.com/poverty-highest-rural-america-rising-recession/2010/12/21/3098 Conger, R. D., &amp; Donnellan, M. B. in Crane, D. R., &amp; Heaton, T. B., Eds.(2008). Handbook of families and poverty. Thousand Oaks, CA:Sage. Coombs, P. H., &amp; Ahmed, M. (1974). Attacking rural poverty: Hownonformal education can help. Baltimore, MD: The Johns HopkinsUniversity Press. Delpit, L. D. (1995). Other peoples children. New York, NY: New Press. 38. References (continued) DiFazio, W. (2006) Ordinary people: A little food and cold storage. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University. Duncan, C. M. (1992) Rural poverty in America. Westport, CT: Auburn House. Hansen, N. M. (1970). Rural poverty and the urban crisis. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University. Holyfield, L. (2002). Moving up and out: Poverty, education, and the single parent family Philadelphia, PA: Temple University. Howard, T., Dresser, S. G., &amp; Dunklee, D. R. (2009). Poverty is not a learning disability. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Jensen, E. (2005). Teaching with the brain in mind, (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Jensen, E. (2009a). Super teaching: Over 100 practical strategies, (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. 39. References (continued) Jensen, E. (2009b). Teaching with poverty in mind. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Leone, B. (1999) Poverty: Opposing views. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press. Marzano, R. J. (2007). The art and science of teaching. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Nachtigal, P. M. (1982). Rural education: In search of a better way. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Neuman, S. B. (2009) Changing the odds for children at risk: Seven essential principles of educational programs that break the cycle of poverty. Westport, CT: Praeger. OConnor, A. (2001). Poverty knowledge. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University. 40. References (continued) OHare, W. P. (2009). The forgotten fifth: Child poverty in ruralAmerica. Carsey Institute, University of New Hampshire, Vol. 10.Retrieved fromhttp://www.carseyinstitute.unh.edu/publications/Report-OHare-ForgottenFifth.pdf. Payne, R.K. (2003). A framework for understanding poverty, (3rd ed.).Highlands, TX: aha! Process, Inc. Pilisuk, M., &amp; Pilisuk, P. (1971). Poor Americans: How the white poorlive. New York, NY: Aldine Publishing. Provasnik, S., Kewal-Ramani, A. Coleman, M. M., Gilbertson, L.,Herring, W., &amp; Xie, Q. (2007). Status of education in ruralAmerica. National Center For Educational Statistics, Institute ofEducation Sciences. Washington D.C.: US Dept. of Education. 41. References (continued) Sinagatullin, I. M. (2009). Teaching is more than pedagogicalpractice: Thirty-three strategies for dealing with contemporarystudents. Lanham, MD: Rowman &amp; Littlefield Education. Tokuhama-Espinosa, T. (2010) The new science of teaching andlearning: Using the best of mind, brain, and education science inthe classroom. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Trilling, B., &amp; Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life inour times. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. US Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. (2004) Ruralpoverty at a glance. Retrieved from http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications /rdrr100/rdrr100.pdf. Watras, J. (2002). The foundations of educational curriculum anddiversity: 1565 to the present. Boston, MA: Allyn &amp; Bacon. 42. References(continued) Wilson, Z. (2011). Speak your piece: Rural education reform.Daily Yonder. Retrieved from http://www.dailyyonder.com/speak-your-piece-rural-educationreform/2011/08/22/3487. Woodrum, A. (2011). Rural education for the twenty-firstcentury: Identity, place, and community in a globalizingworld. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 26(5).Retrieved from http://jrre.psu.edu/articles/26-5.pdf. </p>