Stuart Hall - Audience Positioning
- 1. Stuart Hall–Encoding/Decoding
- Stuart Hall is a cultural theorist and Professor of Sociology at the Open University.
- Stuart Hall looked at the role of audience positioning in the interpretation of mass media texts by different social groups. Hall came up with a model suggesting three ways in which we may read amedia text:
2. Encoding and decoding
- Dominant reading - reader fully acceptsthe preferred reading(audience will read the text the way the author intended them to) so that the code seems natural and transparent.
- The negotiated reading– the reader partly believes the code and broadly accepts the preferred reading, but sometimes modifies it in a way which reflects their own position, experiences and interests.
- The oppositional reading– the readers social position places them in an oppositional relation to the dominant code. They reject the reading.
3. Media Power
- Hall was concerned with media power, including how it propagates particular social values, to createdominant ideologies(in other words framing public debate surrounding certain issues; e.g. the role of women in society, asylum and immigration, the welfare system, the monarchy etc...)
- He believes that the mass media create and define issues of public concern and interest throughaudience positioning .
- Polysemy - is the capacity for a text to havemultiple meanings. It is to do with how individuals interpret anddecode readingsin different contexts and cultures.
For A2 Film students