1. Building Vocabulary A research-informed, classroom- tested strategy for pre-teaching critical words.
2. The limits of my language are the limits of my mind. All I know is what I have words for. -Ludwig Wittgenstein
3. Does this sound familiar? When Im starting to read a chapter, I just sit down and open the book up and start from the top. I read every line once slowly, but if its too long, I skip to a new paragraph. If it is a long chapter I will take a few breaks. If there is a difficult word I dont know, I try to pronounce it or I might just skip it so I can finish faster. If it is really hard, I just wait for the teacher to go over it.
4. Effects of weakness in oral language Because poor readers read considerably less than better readers, the gap between good and poor readers in number of words read, and both receptive and expressive vocabulary becomes progressively greater as the child advances through school. Cunningham, A. and Stanoich
5. Importance of Vocabulary There is a strong relationship between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Vocabulary knowledge is so strongly related to intelligence that Klouis Terman, creator of modern IQ tests, stated that if he could use only one factor to determine a persons intelligence, it would be vocabulary.
6. How do you build vocabulary? Determine critical terms to be explicitly taught. Keep the list short. Essential lesson concept words Academic Vocabulary (see slide 20) Teach students meaningful work parts- prefixes, suffixes, and roots (handouts sent). Students must participate actively and accountably in explicit vocabulary instruction to process words more deeply. Reinforce use of vocabulary multiple times.
7. Explicit Vocabulary Teaching Connect - Create explanations before definitions. Longmans Dictionary does this. Process - Active elaboration through use of synonyms/antonyms, verbal examples, non- verbal examples, compare and contrast, apply in new contexts Practice - Receptive (read and listen) and Expressive (speak and write)
8. Determine what students already know about the words.
9. Vocabulary Knowledge Rating High Knowledge Low Knowledge 4- I could teach it to the class 2- I recognize it, but need review 3 - I am pretty sure what it means 1. I have no clue what it means Term Before Instruction After Instruction estatic, adj. Lexicon, n
10. Vocabulary Note-Taking Chart Term Synonym Explanation Example Image ecstatic Extremely happy Feeling excited or joyful
11. Instructional Sequence for Teaching Critical Words Taken from Dr. Kate Kinsella: Make sure students see the new word Lexicon Pronounce the new word Lek si kan Ask students to repeat the new word Lexicon Clarify the part of speech Noun
12. Instructional Sequence Provide an accessible synonym and/or a brief explanation Synonym: a dictionary Definition: all of the words of a particular language, the special vocabulary of a profession, hobby Provide a visual or non-linguistic representation and/or showing sentence. Medical lexicon Skater lexicon
13. Instructional Sequence Rephrase the simple definition/explanation, asking students to complete the statement by substituting aloud the new word To understand the doctors prognosis, you had to understand his lexicon. It was difficult to understand what the skater was explaining because of his lexicon. Check for understanding with a brief, focused question/task. Would you have a lexicon if you were cooking?
14. Effective Vocabulary Instruction Descriptions as opposed to definitions (see Longman dictionary) Use of linguistic and non linguistic representations Gradual shaping of word meaning over multiple exposure Teaching and using word parts Students interacting with the words they are learning
15. Differentiate Instruction Prepare lesson Provide note-taking scaffold to support listening and review. This provides for active participation in vocabulary instruction. Structure routine opportunities for students to apply the new word both in speaking and writing.
16. Vocabulary Note-taking Scaffold - Prepare Lesson Term Synonym/explanation Example/image/showing sentence Comparison n An examination/study of two or more things to show how they are alike and different comparison shopping for a new car The jeep looks tiny in comparison to the Hummer. Impact, n Effect or influence image of a Big Mac and fries Eating a junk food diet will have a negative impact on your health
17. Heavy Scaffold Term Synonym/explanation Example/image/showing sentence Comparison n An examination/study of two or more things to show how they are alike and ____________. comparison shopping for a new car The jeep looks tiny in comparison to ______________. Impact, n Effect or influence image of a Big Mac and fries Eating ____________ will have a negative impact on your health
18. Weaning from Scaffold Term Synonym/explanation Example/image/showing sentence Comparison n An examination/study of two or more things to show how they are alike and different comparison shopping for ________ . Impact, n image of a Big Mac and fries Eating a junk food diet will have a ___________ impact on __________.
19. Plan Vocabulary Instruction Which key words or concepts are vital to understanding? Is the word encountered frequently? Are their words that can be grouped together to enhance understanding of a central concept? How can I help students use the word/concept in meaningful ways in future speaking and writing contexts? How will I teach them to study academic vocabulary? What method is most appropriate for student to study the words?
20. Another resource for vocabulary instruction The Academic Word List - a high- incidence and high-utility 500 word list occur frequently over wide range of academic texts http://language.massey.ac.nz/staff/awl/ind
21. Assignment Create a vocabulary lesson using the note-taking structure. Modify the lesson by substituting blanks for some of the words based on the needs of the student you are following.