Training Of Trainers' Course @ Malaysian Maritime Academy

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    TrainingofTrainersCourseDevelopmentthroughCollaborativeAction

    ResearchattheMalaysianMaritimeAcademy

    KalyanChatterjea,Capt.MazlanHamidBHamzah,LauSengChuan,ChuaKimMuar,Capt.ChengKimChoon,Lt.Cdr.(Retd.)ImanFiqrieBMohammed,Capt.LeeGhimTeck

    MalaysianMaritimeAcademy,Batu30,TanjungDahan

    78200,KualaSungaiBaru,Melaka,Malaysiahttp://www.alam.edu.my

    Abstract Embarkingoncollaborativeactionresearch,aTrainingofTrainersCourseisbeingdevelopedattheMalaysianMaritimeAcademy.AlthoughtheframeworkforthecourseisbasedontheIMOModelCourse6.09(TrainingCourseforInstructors2001),somechangesarebeingmadetoupdatethecontent.ChangeswouldreflectthepresentdayteachingandlearningpracticesintheMETinstitutes,whichhaveundergonesubstantialoverhaulduringthelastdecade.Thepaperdescribestheprocessofthiscollaborativesemesterlongworkundertakenbyagroupofacademicstaffattheacademy.TheworkisbasedonthecyclicKemmismodelofactionresearchandconstitutesweeklyclassroomactivities,wheresomeoftheparticipantsalsotaketurntoactasfacilitators.Thecourseframeworkisthusreviewedthroughacommunitybasedreflectivepracticeinaprocessofdemocraticenquiry.Theobjectiveoftheprojectistodevelopthecoursespecificationandthemethodologyofthecoursedelivery.Therearesuggestionsforinclusionoftheoriesoflearning,ICTinteachereducationandreplacementofinstructionistapproacheswithopprtunitiesforconstructionistpracticesinteachingandlearning.Theemergingproposedskeletalframeworkwillbeincludedinthepaper.

    1. Introduction

    TrainingCourseforInstructorsisanIMOModelCourse(6.09)andwheninmid2009weconsidereddevelopingaformalcoursefortrainingofnewtrainersattheMalaysianMaritimeAcademy,thisModelCoursewasinvariablyreferredtoforsettingthecourseframework.IMOModelCourse6.09setsoutatendaycourseinvolvingsixtyhoursforthelecturesandactivitiestotrainthetrainersforMaritimeEducationandTraining(MET)Institutes.ItwasfoundthatwecouldnotincorporatethetendaycoursemodelaswenormallyhavetwoorthreenewtrainersjoiningtheAcademyatanyonetime.Weneededmoreparticipantstomakethecourseviable.Asteachingandlearningskillscanbesharpenedatanytimeduringthetenureofateachersprofessionalcareer,werequestedsomeofourexperiencedteacherstojointhecourseforhoningtheirpedagogicproficiencywhilehelpingtodevelopthiscourseatthesametime.Afterdiscussion,itwasagreedthatwewillrunthiscourseforasemesterusingaweeklytwohourslot.Forreasonsofpracticality,aweeklycourseisconsideredmoremanageableandthetimeinbetweencouldthenbeusedforclassroompractices.Theparticipants,ofwhom80%wereexperiencedtrainers,wouldtaketurntobethefacilitatorfortheweekandsharehis/herexperience.ThecoursestructurewouldfollowtheframeworksuggestedbytheIMOModelCourse6.09andparticipantwouldthencriticallyevaluateandreflectontheappropriatenessofthecontent,presentationstyleandalsothemethodsfordemonstratingcompetence.Thus,thecoursewastorunasacollaborativeactivityamongcolleaguessearchingforwaystoimprovethecoursecontentaswellasthedeliveryandassessmentmethodsandassociatedprocedures.

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    Thewaythecoursewasruncouldbereferredtoasactionresearch.Lewin(1948)isgenerallyacceptedtohavecoinedthetermactionresearchtodescribeworkthatdidnotseparatetheinvestigationfromtheactionneededtosolvetheproblem(McFarland&Stansell,1993,p.14).Insteadoftheoreticalapproaches,actionresearchpermitspractitionerstodealwithconcernsthatareimportanttothemandwheretheycanhaveinfluencetomakechanges(Eileen,2000,p.6).Theprocessesfollowedare(1)generalplan,(2)intervention,(3)observationandfinally(4)reflectionandrevision.QuotingDadds(1998,p.41)

    practitionerresearch[refers]toformsofenquirywhichpeopleundertakeintheirownworkingcontextsand,usually,ontheirprofessionalwork,inwhateverspheretheypractice.Themainpurposeoftheenquiryistoshedlightonaspectsofthatworkwithaviewtobringingaboutsomebenevolentchange.

    Thisisfrequentlyreferredtoasactionresearch.WefollowedtheactionresearchprotocolafterKemmis,whichiscitedinHopkins,1985andisexplainedindetaillater.Wehavecompleted12weeksofthesereflectivesessionsandthepapersharestheongoingfindingsofthisnovelwayofcollaborativecoursedevelopment,whereeachsessionisreviewedthroughacommunitybasedreflectivepracticeinaprocessofdemocraticenquiry.Inthenextsections,wefirstdescribethemethodologyofourprocessusingtheKemmisprotocolandfollowupwithsomedetailsofthe12sessions.Anemergingdraftoftheproposedcourseoutlinereplacingtheexistingtable(IMOCourseModel6.09,p.8)isalsoincluded.

    2. ActionResearchProtocolafterKemmis(citedinHopkins,1985)

    Figure1.DepictsthenatureofActionResearch

    (afterKemmis)ABeforeClassB,C,DInClass

    Figure1displaysthenatureofactionresearchalongwiththemajorstepsofplanning,action,observationandreflectionbeforerevisingtheplan.Mostoftheplanning(A)wasdonebeforetheclassroomsessions,whilethepresentation(action),observationandreflectionweredonecollaborativelyduringeachclassroomsession.AccordingtoPanitz(1996),asreportedbyFandio(2007),collaborationisaphilosophyofinteractionandpersonallifestylewhereindividualsareresponsiblefortheiractions,includinglearningaboutandrespectingtheabilitiesandcontributionsoftheirpeers.Itsuggestsawayofdealingwithpeople,whichrespectsandhighlightsindividualgroupmembersabilitiesandcontributions.Thereisasharingofauthorityandacceptanceofresponsibilityamonggroupmembersforthegroupactions.Collaborationtiesintothesocialmovement,assertingthatgroup

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    membersshouldbasebothknowledgeandauthorityofknowledgeuponconsensusbuildingthroughcooperation.Here,wereportsomeofthedetailsoftheweeklysessions,whichwerelivelyandenjoyableandovertheweeksweincreasedthenumberofactiveparticipants,whocameforwardtotakepartintheseacademicexchanges.

    3. WeeklyReflectiveSessions

    AtablefromtheIMOModelCourseisextractedattherightforreadyreference.Oursessionsfollowthegeneralstructureasindicatedbythistable.However,therewasdebateattheverystart.Someoftheparticipantsfeltthattherewasaneedforstratingtheprogrammewithanintroductiontolearningtheories,whileotherswantedtoemphasizeoncompetencies.ThesecondgrouparguedthatmaritimetrainingisaboutoutcomebasedapproachesasspecifiedunderSTCWdocumentationandonemaynotneedtheoriestoimplementthisIMOModelCourse.However,itwasfinallyagreedtocontinuewithasessiononlearningtheories.QuotingSzuberla(1997)couldperhapsshedsomelighttothisdilemma,Thesummerprecedingmypreserviceteachertraining,arecentlyretiredschoolsuperintendentofferedmeabitoffatherlyadvicehewas,afterall,myfather,I'lltellyouthesamethingItoldallofmyadministrativeinterns.Studytheworksofthefinestacademictheoreticiansandserveyourapprenticeshipunderthebestpractitionersinthefieldyoucanfind.Hewascommunicatingtomethattheoryandpracticeeachholdapositionofcentralimportanceintheeducativeprocess.Theyarenotseparatepillarsuponwhicheducationispoised;rather,theyareintertwinedroots,eachnecessaryforgrowth.AsIembarkedonmyteachingcareerintheTeachersForAlaskaprogramattheUniversityofAlaskaFairbanksacombinedregimenofpractical,lecture,discussionandprofessionalreadingIfoundhisadvicefirmlysupportedintheliterature(e.g.Knowlesetal.,1994,pp.58andreferencestherein).

    ExistingTable(IMOModelCourse6.09.p.8.)SubjectArea Hours

    Lecture Activity1. Understandanddescribehow

    STCW95requirescompetencebasedtraining

    1.1 DescribethecompetencebasedtrainingrequirementsofSTCW95

    2. Plananeffectiveteachingenvironment

    2.1 Planthelearningprocess2.2 Demonstrateaknowledgeofthe

    factorswhichaffectstudentlearning

    3. Usearangeofteachingmethodseffectively

    3.1 Demonstratearangeofteachingmethodsappropriatetotheneedsofthetraineeseafarers

    4. Useappropriatetrainingaids4.1 Demostratearangeofteaching

    aids4.2 Selectappropriatetrainingaids

    5. Producearelevantlessonplan5.1 Identifyoutcomesforalesson5.2 Recognisefactorstoconsider

    whenplanningalesson6. Evaluateteaching&learning

    6.1 Analysetheusesofevaluation6.2 Identifymeasurementsof

    performance6.3 Selectappropriateevaluation

    methods6.4 Identifytheneedforquality

    management7. Designacourseofstudy

    7.1 Identifythefactorstobeconsideredwhendesigningalearningprogramme

    7.2 Deliveranewcourseofstudy

    2563323

    4109643

    TotalHours

    24 36

    Thepointemphasizedattheclassroomsessionwasthefactthatalookatadulteducationwouldnotbecompletewithoutaviewofthetheoriesshapingthewaywelearnandthewayweteach.Whileourtrainersmayhaveheardthatvariouslearningtheoriesexist,fewareawareofthedifferencesbetweenthetheoriesandhowtheyaffectthewaywelearn

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    andalsoteach.Anoverviewintothedifferenttheorieshighlightsthecharacteristicdifferences,andimplicationsofeachapproach,whichcouldbehelpfulforanewteacherinsettingouthisstrategiesforteachingasdiscussedbyDubin,S.S.andM.Okun(1973).Withthisknowledge,wecanidentifywhichtheoryisappropriateforourneedsandwhichweshouldlooktowhenevaluatinginstructionalprograms.

    Wedebatedthetheoriesandtheirimplicationsforteachingandlearningformaritimestudents.Weconcurredthatthattheexistingpracticeofperformancemeasurementofatrainerinclassispredominantlybasedonlearningtheoryofbehaviourism.Thismeasurementindirectlyshapesthenewtrainertohaveabiasedviewoflearningbasedonbehaviourismandmostlyteachercentredactivities.Itwasarguedthatlearningtheoriessuchascognitivismandconstructivismshouldbeaddedtothenewtrainersskillsets,whichwillopentheirmindandenablethemtoselectthebestapproachwhenfacilitatingthesessions.Itwasalsodiscussedthatthefeedbacksfromstudentsareveryimportantregardingthevariouslearningtheories.However,itbecameclearthatwithoutpreparingtheclassforstudentcentredactivities,constructivistapproachesmaynotbearfruitasthestudentsmaybemoreusedtotopdowninstructionistwaysandcouldbewaryofotherapproachesinatimecriticalcurriculum.Onscrutiny,wealsofoundthattheseaspectsarecoveredin6.09withoutthespecificmentionofthelearningtheories(IMOModelCourse6.09,p.23ourobservationsareinitalics):

    Whenteachingacompetencebasedcoursetoadulttraineesaninstructorshouldtryto:

    Helpthemtodecidehowtheylearnbest{referstoindividuallearningstyle} Usemethodswhichmakelearningasactive,i.e.practicalaspossible{constructivismisoftenassociated

    withpedagogicapproachesthatpromoteactivelearning,orlearningbydoing}

    Encouragethemtoparticipateasmuchaspossible{wheninlearningthereisassistancesoughtthroughsocialconstructivism(VygotskyasreferencedinWilhelmetal.,2001),e.g.throughcapablepeersandfacilitator,learningpotentialisrealisedlearningintheZoneofProximalDevelopment}

    Helpthemtotakeresponsibilityfortheirownlearning{refersagaintoconstructivistpracticesinlearning} Encouragethemtothinkaboutwhattheyhavelearned{referstocognitivism,whichfocusesontheinner

    mentalactivitiesopeningtheblackboxofthehumanmindisvaluableandnecessaryforunderstandinghowpeoplelearn.Mentalprocessessuchasthinking,memory,knowing,andproblemsolvingneedtobeexplored.}

    ThesessiononcompetencybasededucationandintroductiontoSTCWtonewtrainersdidnotposemuchproblem.IntheModelCourse6.09,thesectionDescribethecompetencebasedtrainingrequirementsofSTCW95(p.12)providesthedetailsandthisisfurtherexplainedunderSession2:TrainingrequirementsunderSTCW95andNotesforSession2.Theextractofthetable(ModelCourse6.09,p.12)isshownbelowleftwiththeobservationsofthegroupgivenattheright.

    Knowledge,understandingandproficiency Observations1.1 Describethecompetencebasedtrainingrequirements

    ofSTCW95.1explaintheoutcomebasedapproachtomaritime

    training.2 explainhowskillsrequiredtooperateashiphave

    beenidentifiedas"competences"groupedtogetheras"functions"

    Generally,thegroupagreedwiththesuggesteddetailedsyllabus.However,thereweresomecautionaryremarksexpressedbysomemembersofthegroupwithrespecttoactualimplementationoftheoutcomebasedapproachtotraining,whichwasnotelaboratedunderNotesfortheSession2(p.17).

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    section7.ThisisalsoseenintheModelCourse6.09,e.g.Session3,whichhascomponentsfromSection2,3aswellas4andagainSession6,whichhascomponentsfromSections2aswellas3.So,asequentialapproachisnotfollowedbasedontheFrameworkTableshownintheModelCourse(p.8)orthedetailedteachingsyllabus(pp.1214).

    UsearangeofteachingmethodseffectivelyunderSection3(seetheextractbelow),posedconsiderabledebateamonggroupmembers.Ourreflectiveobservationsareattherightofthetable.

    Knowledge,understandingandproficiency Observations3 Usearangeofteachingmethodseffectively

    3.1Demonstratearangeofteachingmethodsappropriatetotraineeseafarersneeds

    .1 deliverteachingsessionsusingvarietyofteachingstyles

    .2 manageandleadgrouplearning

    .3 relatestylestosizeofgroups

    TheGuidancenotesforthesesessionsarenotexplicitintheModelCourse6.09.ItisfirstcoveredunderSession4,whenInformaltalkswerementioned.LaterunderSession6thereismentionof...