Intelligent building project report

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  • 1 AIETM/CE/2016-2017

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Abstract ....i

    Acknowledgement.. ii

    Table of Contents 1

    Table of Figures...3

    Abbreviations...4

    1. Introduction .....................................................................................................................6

    1.1 Definition..6

    1.2 History...7

    1.3 Overview...8

    2. Construction process of building.9

    2.1 Sub Structure.9

    2.1.1 Raft Foundation....9

    2.2 Super Structure10

    3. Eco-friendly building materials..11

    3.1 Why Eco-Friendly material.....11

    3.2 Conventional Eco-Friendly materials..11

    4. Building Automation..12

    5. Intelligent Building Systems..........................................................................................14

    5.1 Controllers...14

    5.2 Occupancy...14

    5.3 Lighting...14

    5.4 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning.15

    5.5 Elevators and Escalators..15

  • 2 AIETM/CE/2016-2017

    5.6 Distributed Building Control.....15

    5.7 Intelligent Controllers16

    6. Major Aspects of Intelligent Building .........................................................................17

    6.1 Security..17

    6.1.1 Access Control...17

    6.1.2 Finger Print Lock...19

    6.1.3 Voice and Video Intercom.19

    6.1.4 Code Based Access System...19

    6.1.5 Swipe Card Access System...19

    6.1.6 Biometric Access System..19

    6.2 Life Safety and Surveillance.20

    6.2.1 Surveillance...20

    6.2.2 Safety.20

    6.3 Telecommunication...21

    6.3.1 Cabling..22

    6.3.2 Consolidated Communication...22

    7. Management System ...................................................................................................24

    7.1 Energy Management.24

    7.1.1 Electrical Demand Control24

    7.1.2 Program Scheduling..25

    8. Water management system...26

    8.1 Rain Water Harvesting..26

    8.2Water Efficient plumbing...26

    8.3 Drainage System...26

    8.4 Water Recycling27

    9. Components of intelligent building..28

  • 3 AIETM/CE/2016-2017

    9.1 Landscaping.28

    9.2 Orientation...28

    9.3 Use of low embodied energy materials...29

    10. Advantages and Disadvantages of Intelligent Building ..........................................30

    11. Environmental Benefits of Intelligent Building ......................................................31

    12. Economy Consideration ..........................................................................................31

    13. Difference between Ordinary Building and Intelligent Building.32

    14. Intelligent Building in India.33

    15. Future Direction of Intelligent Building..34

    16. Challenges Facing Intelligent Building35

    17. Lifespan of Intelligent Building...36

    18. Conclusion....37

    19. References38

  • 4 AIETM/CE/2016-2017

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure 1: project view....8

    Figure 2: Major aspects of intelligent building....17

    Figure 3: Components of intelligent building..19

    Figure 4: Swipe Card Access System..20

    Figure 5: Fire alarm..21

    Figure 6: NIIT Building in India..33

  • 5 AIETM/CE/2016-2017

    ABBREVIATIONS

    1. IB - Intelligent Building

    2. LAN - Local Area Network

    3. BAS - Building Automaton System

    4. HVAC - Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

    5. UPS - Unlimited Power Supply

    6. CAD - Computer Aided Design

    7. IBMS - Intelligent Building Management System

    8. PWAC - Present Worth of Annual Charge

    9. NPV - Net Present Value

  • 6 AIETM/CE/2016-2017

    1. INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Definition

    An intelligent building is one that provides a productive and cost-effective environment through

    optimization of its four basic elements - structure, systems, services and management - and the

    interrelationships between them. Intelligent buildings help business owners, property managers

    and occupants to realize their goals in the areas of cost, comfort, convenience, safety, long-term

    flexibility and marketability. Intelligent Buildings are equipped with robust telecommunication

    infrastructure, allowing for more efficient use of resources and increasing the comfort and

    security of its occupants.

    1.2 History

    The Intelligent Building concept surfaced in the early 1980s and generally advocated extensive

    use of elaborate centralized electronic systems to facilitate control of building support and

    communication systems for voice and data. The initial concept promoted communication

    networks to allow centralized word processing services and limited interaction between

    individual occupants and the Building Automation System. Builders and owners were pressured

    to develop intelligent buildings, in spite of high premium costs, at that time, for prestige reasons

    and for enhanced rental potential. The Building Automation System and the Communication

    System industry as well as other specialized interest group soon developed specific products and

    applications to meet and facilitate the implementation of Intelligent Building Concept. The high

    technology concept of intelligent building systems was introduced in United States. The IB

    concept is now well developed and applied in Europe, Asia and North America.

    1.3 Overview

    The following attributes indicates the need for various technology and management systems. The

    successful integration of these systems will produce three dimensions of building intelligence.

  • 7 AIETM/CE/2016-2017

    1. Building should know what is happening inside and immediately outside.

    2. Building should decide the most effective way of providing a convenient, comfortable and

    productive environment for its occupants.

    3. Building should respond as quickly as possible to the occupants requests.

    Most intelligent-building systems are characterized by:

    1. Standardized building wiring systems that permit full building control over a single

    Infra structure.

    2. Higher building value and leasing potential via increased individual environmental control.

    3. Consumption costs that are managed through zone control on a time-of-day schedule.

    4. Tenant control over building systems via computer or telephone interface.

    5. Comprehensive tracking of tenant after-hour use for chargeback purposes.

    6. A single human-resources interface that modifies telephone, security, parking, local-area.

    network, wireless devices, building directories, etc.

    Three Dimensions of Intelligent Building:

    1. Building Automation System

    Building Automation System enables the building to respond to external factors and conditions

    (like climatic variations, fire etc.), simultaneous sensing, control and monitoring of the internal

    environment and the storage of the data generated.

    2. Office Automation System and Local Area Network

    It provides management information and decision support aids with link to the central computer

    system.

    3. Advanced Telecommunication

    It enables rapid communication with outside world, via the central computer system using optical

    fiber installations, microwave and conventional satellite links. Increasingly, intelligent-building

    technologies are noted for their capacity to concurrently carry both a tenant's voice and data

    communications over the same wiring infrastructure that carries building control data. Many

    industry insiders say that an intelligent building should have high speed wiring, real-time

  • 8 AIETM/CE/2016-2017

    communications, real-time information, real-time services, and real-time integration. Generally,

    an intelligent building also should be flexible.

  • 9 AIETM/CE/2016-2017

    2.CONSTRUCTION PROCESS OF BUILDING

    A building has two basic parts:

    (i) Substructure or foundations, and

    (ii) Superstructure.

    Sub-structure or Foundation is the lower portion of the building, usually located below the

    ground level, which transmits the loads of the super-structure to the supporting soil. A

    foundation is therefore that part of the structure which is in direct contact with the ground to

    which the loads are transmitted.

    Super-structure is that part of the structure which is above ground level, and which serves the

    purpose of its intended use. A part of the super-structure, located between the ground level and

    (he floor level is known as plinth.

    Plinth is therefore defined as the portion of the structure between the surface of the surrounding

    ground and surface of the floor, immediately above the ground. The level of the floor is usuatly

    known as the plinth level The built-up covered area measured al ihe floor level is known as

    plinth area.

    2.1 Sub structure

    2.1.1 Raft foundation :-

    Raft foundation slab generally covers entire contact area of structure like a floor and foundation

    slab projects 30 cm to 45 cm distance from outer wall/basement wall of the structure towards all

    sides. But when property line merges with basement wall, the projections are sometimes

    avoided. excavation protection for raft foundation slab with steel arrangement. If the bearing area

    exceeds the above defined area, the projection may be changed and depending on the eccentricity

    due to lateral load moment and unsymmetrical axial loads on column and shear wall the

    symmetry of projection may be changed. The excavation is done around the area defined above

  • 10 AIETM/CE/2016-2017

    to designed depth and necessary protections are taken to excavation related hazard and to give

    safety to neighbor buildings. steel arrangement for inverted beam in raft foundation slab.

    The excavated area is well consolidated and if required necessary treatment is applied to soil to

    achieve desired bearing capacity depending on soil investigation data. The consolidated and

    treated surface is the base upon which raft slab will cast. In case of inverted foundation beams

    (both main and secondary beams) as discussed in previous post, the beams are cast after the slab

    with necessary precaution to provide construction joints. Further continuation is commenced

    after the proper curing of the raft slab and beams.

    2.2 Super structure

    Frame: Loadbearing framework. Main floor and roof beams, ties and roof trusses of framed

    buildings; casing to stanchions and beams for structural or protective purposes.

    Upper floors: Suspended floors over, or in basements, service floors, balconies, sloping floors,

    walkways and top landings, where part of the floor rather than part of the staircase.

    Roof: Roof structure, roof coverings, roof drainage, rooflights and roof features.

    Stair and ramps: Construction of ramps, stairs, ladders, etc. connecting floors at different

    levels.

    External walls: External enclosing walls including walls to basements but excluding walls

    to basements designed as retaining walls.

    Windows, doors and openings in external walls.

    Internal walls, partitions, balustrades, moveable room dividers, cubicles and the like.

    Doors, hatches and other openings in internal walls and partitions.

  • 11 AIETM/CE/2016-2017

    3. ECO-FRIENDLY BUILDING MATERIALS

    Today many people that are building or remodeling their houses choose to use eco-friendly

    building materials. An eco-friendly building material is one that increases the efficiency of

    energy used and reduces impact on human well-being and the environment. There are many

    different materials that can be used that are eco-friendly; from foundation, to insulation, to

    interior and exterior wall finishes, flooring, and countertop materials.

    3.1 Why eco-friendly materials?

    Phenomenal growth in the construction industry that depends upon depletable resources.

    Production of building materials leads to irreversible environmental impacts.

    Using eco-friendly materials is the best way to build a eco-friendly building.

    Stone quarrying leads to eroded hills, like this picture showing the site of makarana marble

    quarry, brick kilns in the fringes of the city lead to denudation of topsoil, dredging for sand

    damage the river biodiversity etc.

    3.2 Conventional Eco-friendly materials

    1. Bamboo, Bamboo Based Particle Board & Ply Board, Bamboo Matting

    2. Bricks sun dried

    3. Pre-cast cement concrete blocks, lintels, slab. Structural and non-structural modular elements

    4. Calcined Phospho-Gypsum Wall Panels

    5. Calcium silicate boards and Tiles

    6. Cellular Light Weight Concrete Blocks

    7. Cement Paint

    8. Clay roofing tiles

  • 12 AIETM/CE/2016-2017

    9. Water, polyurethane and acrylic based chemical admixtures for corrosion removal, rust

    prevention, water proofing

    10. Epoxy Resin System, Flooring, sealants, adhesives and admixtures

    11. Ferro-cement boards for door and window shutters

    12. Ferro-cement Roofing Channels

    13. Fly-ash Sand Lime Bricks and Paver Blocks

    14. Gypsum Board, Tiles, Plaster, Blocks, gypsum plaster fibre jute/sisal and glass fibre

    composites

    15. Laminated Wood Pl...

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