Ecological and Sustainable Development

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    13-Feb-2017

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Ecological and Sustainable DevelopmentTecomella undulata(Rohida)

Introduction

Botanical Name-Tecomella undulataLocal Name- RohidaTrade Name- Desert Teak or Marwar teak

Tecomella is a large shrub or small tree.Height: 2.5m. - 5m.

Leaves: Greyish- green leaves. 5 to 12.5cm in length and 1 to 3.2cm in width, narrowly oblong, obtuse, and entire with undulating margins.

Flowers are large, orange-red and odourless.Flower is considered as the State flower of Rajasthan.The tree blooms in the month of April-May.

Habitat

The Plant is originated in India and Arabia.

Distribution of Tecomella undulata is restricted to the drier parts of the Arabia, southern Pakistan and northwestern India.

The species is mainly found to occur in western parts of Rajasthan.Tecomella is widely adapted to the arid regions.The tree occurs on flat as well as undulating areas including gentle hill slopes.Rohida can tolerate drained loamy to sandy loam soil.It can withstand extreme low temperature (0C to 2C) during winter and high temperature (48C to 50C) in summers.The tree is a strong light demander. It is drought, frost, fire and wind hardy.

Ecological importance

Tecomella undulataplays an important role inecology. It acts as a soil-binding tree by spreading a network of lateral roots on the top surface of the soil. It acts as a windbreak and helps in stabilizing shiftingsand dunes. It is considered as the home of birds and provides shelter for otherdesertwildlife. Shade oftree crownis shelter for the cattle, goats and sheep during summer days.

Application

It is an important medicinal tree .

It is an excellent blood purifier .

Wood obtained from the tree is known as desert teak. It is soft, durable and takes a good polish it is therefore highly valued for engraved furniture .

Ecological and Sustainable DevelopmentRhesus macaque

Habitat

NorthernIndia,Bangladesh,Pakistan,Nepal,Burma,Thailand,Afghanistan,Vietnam, southernChina, and some neighboring areas.

Rhesus macaques are noted for their tendency to move from rural to urban areas, coming to rely on handouts or refuse from humans.

Physical DescriptionThe rhesus macaque is brown or grey in color and has a pink face.

Length varies in this species, ranging between 45 and 64 cm.

The tail adds an additional 19 to 32 cm to the total length.

Males are somewhat heavier than females, weighing between 6.5 and 12 kg. Females weigh a mere 5.5 kg on average.Rhesus macaques interact using a variety of facial expressive, vocalizations and body postures, and gestures.Communication

ReproductionRange age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)2.5 to 4 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)4.5 to 7 years.

Breeding interval - 1 year

Average gestation period - 165 days

Rhesus monkeys can live up to 30 years.

Use in sciencemedical breakthroughs facilitated by the use of the rhesus macaque include:

development of therabies,smallpox, andpoliovaccinescreation of drugs to manageHIV/AIDSunderstanding of the female reproductive cycle

Ecological and Sustainable DevelopmentRed Velvet Mite

Name- Red Velvet MitesorRain BugsScientific name- Trombidiidae

Habitat- Generally, the red velvet mites are found in dry environment such as deserts. But, they are also found in soil litter as well as on plant leaves and logs of decaying wood.

Adult size- 3mm to 17mm.Identifying description- Red, hairy, tiny, spider-like.

Food- The several instars of larvae generally are parasitic on insects such as grasshoppers, beetles, and aphids, but adults are free-living predators of small arthropods and their eggs. Because of their feeding habits, velvet mites have been considered as possible biological control agents for invertebrate pest species.

Life cycle- The pattern of stages : egg, pre-larva, larva, protonymph, deutonymph, tritonymph and adult (male or female). They usually have only one breeding cycle per year.

The oil from the red velvet miteis used in traditional Indian medicine to treat paralysis. Extracts from red velvet mites are used for the treatment of male infertility in traditional eastern medicine.

Role in ecosystem:- In their larval stage, they infest those insects, which are otherwise harmful pests for the crops. Therefore, these mites help to a great extent in controlling the population of the pests.They are also vital to the rate of soil decomposition and greatly help maintain balance in soil ecosystems.

Life cycle- The pattern of stages : egg, pre-larva, larva, protonymph, deutonymph, tritonymph and adult (male or female). They usually have only one breeding cycle per year.

The oil from the red velvet miteis used in traditional Indian medicine to treat paralysis. Extracts from red velvet mites are used for the treatment of male infertility in traditional eastern medicine.

Role in ecosystem:- In their larval stage, they infest those insects, which are otherwise harmful pests for the crops. Therefore, these mites help to a great extent in controlling the population of the pests.They are also vital to the rate of soil decomposition and greatly help maintain balance in soil ecosystems.

Reproduction :- The breeding season is between the months of March and July. However, some species of the red velvet mites also lay eggs during autumn.

Depending on the species, the number of eggs laid at a time differs. Usually, 60 to 100,000 eggs are laid.

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