Ecological Corridor in Thailand

  • Published on
    16-Jul-2015

  • View
    384

  • Download
    26

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

  • 1

    Ecological Corridor in ThailandEcological Corridor in Thailand

  • 2

    1 1 2557 2557ISBN 978-616-316-163-5ISBN 978-616-316-163-5 1,000 1,000

    //

    2

    1032/203-208 . 1032/203-208 . 10900 10900

    2

  • 3 3

    : :

  • 4 4

    4

    (corridor) (Inbreeding)

    (Ecosystem Management)

    (Core Area)

  • 5 5 5

    (Integrity) (Ecological Corridor)

    (Ecosystem Service)

  • 6 6

    8 : (GMS - BCI) 12

    16 16 19 21 22 27

    30 30 32 34 36 38

    46 46 48 49

    53 53 53 53 54 55 57 57 58 58 59

  • 7 7

    60 63 - 69 - 78 - 83 - 87 - 94 100 - 104 - 108 5 114 120 128 134 - 139 145 150 - 155 159 161 163 165

    (Transboundary Protected Area) 169

    184 185 193 304 . 196

    199

    208

  • 8

    1.1

    (Harris, 1984)

    (Habitat fragmentation) ( 1 2)

    (Metapopulation) (Gene flow)

  • 9

    20

    (Biodiversity Corridor)

    .. 2010

    .. 2002 Ecological corridor area

    (Island Biogeography)

    (Wildlife - Human conflict)

    (Ecological Corridor WildlifeCorridor) (Inbreeding)

  • 10

    1 .. 2551

    :

  • 11

    2 Landsat -

    : (2556)

    .. 2516 .. 2519

    .. 2543 .. 2544

  • 12

    1.2 : (GMS - BCI)

    ( ) Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) (ecosystem services)

    (The BiodiversityConservation Corridors)

    (species movement)

    (GMS)

    (Gross Domestic Product: GDP)

    (The Asian Development Bank : ADB) (Non Government Organizations : NGOs)

    5 () 6 GMS

    2

  • 13

    () / ( ) 1

    The Cardamom and Elephant Mountains Koh Kong (protected forest) (wildlife sanctuary) () (Xishuangbanna) 9

    (National Biodiversity Conservation Area : NBCA) (Quang Nam)

    3 (Ngoc Linh) (Song Thanh) (Ba Na)

    (Xe Sap) 2 19 5 (landscape) (regional scale)

  • 14

    3

    : Asian Development Bank (2005)

  • 15

    4

    : ()

  • 16

    2.1

    (corridor)

    Corridor: narrow strips of land which differ from the matrix on either side or maybe isolated strips, but are usually attached to a patch of somewhat similar vegetation (Forman & Gordon, 1986) Corridor: a linear landscape element that provides for movement between habitat patches, but not necessarily reproduction. Thus, not all life history requirements of a species may be met in a corridor (Rosen-berg et al. 1997).

    Corridor: a swath of land that is best expected to serve movement needs of an individual species after the remaining matrix has been converted to other uses (Beier et al. 2005).

    (habitat)

  • 17

    Ecologicalcorridor 4 ( 5) (core areas) (stepping stones) (buffer zones) (sustain able use areas)

    Tischendorf & Fahrig (2000, , 2554) landscape connectivity

    (specialist)

    / (amplitude of tolerance)

    5

    : Sicirec Group (http://www.sicirec.org)

  • 18

    Ecological corridor area

    18

  • 19

    2.2 (Forest Fragmentation)

    (SCBD, 2001)

    (habitat loss)

    (fragmentation) (patches)

    (landscape pattern)

    Bennett (2003)

    ( landscapeconfiguration)

    Fahrig (2003)

    (edge)

  • 20

    (edge contrast) (Forman, 1995; Bennett, 2003; Fahrig, 2003) (proximity) /

    (island biogeography theory) McArthur and Willis (1967) (metapopulation) Levins (1969)

    (inbreeding)

    (

    Saunders et al., 1991)

    (conservation biodiversity)

    Beier (1993); Laurance and Laurance (1999); Meegan and Maehr(2002)

  • 21

    (basic needs)

    Bennett (2003)

    3 (habitat loss)

    (habitat reduction)

    (habitat isolation) (local landscape) (regional landscape) (structure) (function) Hunter (2002)

    1) (dissection)

    2) (perforation)

    3) (fragmentation)

    2.3 (Fragentation Process)

  • 22

    (matrix) 4) (attrition)

    2.4

    2.4.1 2 1) (structural perspective)

    (structural connectedness) 2) (functional perspective)

    (connectivity)

    (Hess and Fischer, 2001)

    Bennett (2003)

    (functional connectivity)

    (physical connectivity)

    Forman and Gordon (1986)

  • 23

    (habitat) (conduit) (filter) (barrier) (source) (sink) Hess and Fischer (2001) 2 1) 2) (corridor dwellers)

    landscape linkage Bennett (2003)

    2.4.2 Bennett (2003) (2555) 3 1). (Habitat mosaics) (Habitat mosaics or Landscape corr idor )

  • 24

    ( 6)

    /

    2). (Habitat corridor)

    6 (Habitat mosaics or Landscape corridor)

    ( 7)

  • 25

    7 (Habitat corridor)

    (a) (natural habitat corridor) (b) (remnant habitat corridor) (c)

    8 Stepping stones

    (regenerated habitat corridor) (d) (planted habitat corridor) (e)

    (disturbance habitat corridor)

    3). (Stepping stones) ( 8)

  • 26

    1.

    2. (potential corridors) habitat patches

  • 27

    Hilty et al. (2006)

    1) (unplanned corridor)

    (generalist)

    2) (planed corridor)

    2.5 (2555)

    Walker and Craighead (1997) umbrel la spec ies

    GIS (Analyzing Wildlife Movement Corridors

  • 28

    in Montana Using GIS) (Grizzly Bear), (Elk), (Mountain Lion) Walker and Craighead (1997) Umbrella Species

    Wieren and Worm (2001) 6

    40 - 50 Harris and Scheck (1991)

    Metapopulation

    100 1,000

    1

  • 29

    (Felis concolor) 0.5 1 (Beier, 1993) 6 12

    Harrison (1992)

    Lindenmayer and Nix (1993)

    (Arboreal Marsupials) Lindenmayer and Nix (1993) 1.

    2.

    3.

  • 30

    3.1

    (2555)

    (Landscape ecology) (Theory of Island Biogeography) (ecosystem based management) 3 (matrix) (patch)

  • 31

    (landscape ecology) (ecologicalprocess) (biodiversity) (landscape connectivity)

    (landscape) (habitat) (mosaic) (Landscape)

    (linear habitat) (stream system)

    (inbreeding)

  • 32

    2 1) (key species)

    wildlife corridor 2)

    (ecological corridor)

    (enhance) (connectivity)

    ()

    (keystone resources)

    3.2

  • 33

    (systematic conservation planning)

    (Forman, 1995; Haddad et. al., 2003) 1)

    2)

    3) (cover) 4)

    5)

    6) (greenway or green belt)

    7) () Hilty et al. (2006)

    1) (individual of a species) (Population) (species) (community) (landscape)

    2) (spatial scale of linkage)

  • 34

    3) (dai ly movement) (seasonalmovement) (dispersal) (habitat)

    (long-term species persistence)

    3.3

    (SCBD, 2001)

    20

    (ecosystem management)

    (wildlife corridor design)

    (WildlifeHabitat)

  • 35

    1.

    2.

    3.

  • 36

    (Asian Development Bank, 2005)

    1

    -

    1. - 1. 2. 2. 3. 4. 3. 5. 4. 6. 7. 8. 5. 6.

    3.4

    (core area)

  • 37

    Bentrup (2008)

    1) 2)

    3) 4)

    (landscape ecology)

  • 38

    3.5.1.

    3.5

    (Mt.Kilimanjaro)

  • 39

    3.5.2.

    3.5.3.

  • 40

    9

  • 41

    3.5.4.

    3.5.5.

    3.5.6

  • 42

    10 20 30

    2

    1. 2. 3.

  • 43

    4. 5. 6.

  • 44

    7. 8. 9.

  • 45

    10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

  • 46

    3

    4.1

  • 47

    4.1.1.

    4.1.2.

  • 48

    4.1.3.

    4.1.4.

    4.2 1. (Zoning)

    2.

    3.

    4.2.1

  • 49

    4.2.2

    (Protected Area Integration)

    4.3

  • 50

    4.3.1.

    4.3.2.

  • 51

    4.3.3.

    (Wetland)

    4.3.4.

  • 52

    4.3.5. (Landscape Integretion)

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    5.

  • 53

    5.2

    5.3

    5.1

  • 54

    (linked system)

    2

    5.4

  • 55

    1.

    2.

    (Ecotourism)

    1.

    2.

    3.

    5.5

  • 56

    3

    - -

    - -

    -

    -

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    5.

    6.

  • 57

    5.6

    5.7 3 1.

    2.

    3.

  • 58

    5.8

    5.9

  • 59

    5.10

  • 60

    20 (Forest complex)

    (corridor)

    .. 2010 .. 2002

    (2555)

    17 174 48 8 106 12 120 49 5 6 76 1 2 10 8 ( 10 11)

  • 61

    10

  • 62

    11

  • 63

    6,701,923.55 10,723.08 12 8

    150 2,565 1,000 1,200

    400 100 (Minla strigula) (Rhipidura hypoxantha) (Ficedula hyperythra) (Stachyris rodolphei) (Syrmaticus humiae) (Garrulax erythrocephalus) (Bos gaurus) (Elephas maximus) (Panthera tigris) (Catopuma temminckii) (Panthera pardus) (Naemorhedus caudatus) (Capricornis milneedwardsi) (Ratufa bicolor) (Ursus thibetanus) (Helarctos malayanus) (Muntiacus vaginalis) (Cuon alpines) (Canis anureus) (Rusa unicolor) - (Indo Burmese elements)

    (Lum Num Pai Salawin Forest Complex)

  • 64

    (Tectona grandis L. f.) (Nageia wallichiana (C. Presl) kuntze) (Rhododendron ludwigianum Hoss.) (Exbucklandia populnea(R. Br. ex Griff.) R.W.Br.) (Pedicularis siamensis Tsoong) (Clematis buchananiana DC.) (Gentiana leptoclada Balf. f. & Forrest) (Ophiorrhiza ripicola Craib) (Luculia gratissima (Wall.) Sweet) (Swertia striata Collett & Hemsl.) (Pterocephalodes siamensis (W. G. Craib) V. Mayer & Ehrend.) (Impatiens psittacina Hk. f.) (Bulbophyllum albibracteum Seidenf.) (Paphiopedilum insigne (Wall. ex Lindl.) Pfitze)

    19 ( 12 15) 5

    . - . .

    . . -

  • 65

    12

  • 66

    13

    : TM Mosaic Landsat 8 2532/25 2537, The Global Land Cover Facility (www.landcover.org)

  • 67

    14

    : TM Mosaic Landsat 8 2532/25 2537, The Global Land Cover Facility (www.landcover.org)

  • 68

    15

    : TM Mosaic Landsat 8 2532/25 2537, The Global Land Cover Facility (www.landcover.org)

  • 69

    5,932,948.50 9,492.72 15 1 3 35 40

    800 1,200 0 10 17

    (Cuon alpinus) (Canis aureus) (Rusa unicolor) (Capricornis milneedwardsi) (Panthera tigris) (Ursus thibetanus) (Bos gaurus) 100 200 (Pericrocotus flammeus) (Aviceda leuphotes ) (Milvus migrans) (Ficedula albicilla) (Chaimarrornis leucocephalus) (Terpsiphone paradisi) (Ch ry soco lap tes luc idus ) (Eumyias thalassina ) (Saxicola ferrea) (Indo Burmese elements) (Tectona grandis L. f.) (Ptero-carpus macrocarpus Kurz) (Xylia xylo-carpa (Roxb.) Taub. var. kerri (Craib & Hutch.) I.C.Nielsen) (Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss.) (Hopea

    (Sri Lanna Khun Tan Forest Complex)

  • 70

    odorata Roxb.) (Impatiens jurpia Buch.-Ham.) (Trigonobalanus doichangensis (A.Camus) Forman)

    7 ( 16 23)

    . . . 2 . .

    .

  • 71

    16

  • 72

    17

    : TM Mosaic Landsat 8 2532/25 2537, The Global Land Cover Facility (www.landcover.org)

  • 73

    18

    : TM Mosaic Landsat 8 2532/25 2537, The Global Land Cover Facility (www.landcover.org)

  • 74

    19

    : TM Mosaic Landsat 8 2532/25 2537, The Global Land Cover Facility (www.landcover.org)

  • 75

    20

    : TM Mosaic Landsat 8 2532/25 2537, The Global Land Cover Facility (www.landcover.org)

  • 76

    21

    : TM Mosaic Landsat 8 2532/25 2537, The Global Land Cover Facility (www.landcover.org)

  • 77

    22

    23

  • 78

    6,157,162.37 9,851.46 11 5

    300 1,980

    3 1,000 15 -17 28 (Semnopithecus phayrei) (Hylobates lar) (Macaca assamens i s ) (Capricornis milneedwardsi) (Rusa unicolor) (Panthera tigris) (Ursus thibetanus) (Helarctos malayanus) 200 3 (Alcippe rufogularis) (Acrocephalus stentoreus) (Pavo muticus) ( Indo Burmese elements) (Indo - chinese)

    (Tectona grandis L. f.) (Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz) Craib) (Pterocarpus macrocarpus Kurz) (Lagerstroemia cuspidata Wall.)

    (Doi Phuka Mae Yom Forest Complex)

  • 79

    (Shorea roxburghii G. Don) (Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss.) (Lagerstroemia tomentosa C. Presl) ( Irvingia malayana Oliv. ex A. W. Benn.) (Shorea obtusa Wall. ex Blume) (Shorea siamensis Miq.) (Prunus cerasoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) (Acer oblongum Wall. ex DC.) (Thunbergia coccinea Wall.) (Bretschneidera sinensis Hemsl) (Caryota maxima Blume ex Mart.) 1,500 1,700 -

    7 ( 24 25) 1 ( 26)

  • 80

    24

  • 81

    25

    : TM Mosaic Landsat 8 2532/25 2537, The Global Land Cover Facility (www.landcover.org)

  • 82

    26 : TM Mosaic Landsat 8 2532/25 2537, The Global Land Cover Facility (www.landcover.org)

  • 83

    (Mae Ping Om Koi Forest Complex)

    4,082,039 6,531.26 9 3 200 1,000 2 1,100 600 -1,200 3

    1,132.42

    43 192 32 13 94 (Naemorhedus caudatus) (Capricornis milneedwardsi) (Helarctos malayanus) (Elephas maximus) (Bos javanicus) (Bos gaurus) (Panthera pardus) (Catopuma temminckii) (Arborophila chloropus) (Manouria emys) - (Indo Burmese elements) (Tectona grandis L. f.) (Pterocapusmacrocarpus Kurz) (Pinus merkusii Jungh. & de Vriese) (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon) (Anisoptera costata Korth.) -

    3 ( 27 28) 1 ( 29)

  • 84

    27

  • 85

    28

    : TM Mosaic Landsat 9 2531/25 2537, The Global Land Cover Facility (www.landcover.org)

  • 86

    29

    : TM Mosaic Landsat 9 2531/25 2537, The Global Land Cover Facility (www.landcover.org)

  • 87

    (Phu Meang Phu Thong Forest Complex)

    3,208,689 5,133.90 8 3

    900 2,102 3 32 1,375 19

    300 (Elephas maximus) (Bos gaurus) (Bos javanicus ) (Capr icornis milneedwardsii) (Panthera pardus) (Cuon alpinus) (Ursus thibetanus) (Helarctos malayanus) (Atherurus macrourus) (Hylobates lar) (Chloropsis cochinchinensis) (Lophura Nycthemera) (Pericrocotus flammeus ) (Serilophus lunatus) (Muelleripicus pulverulentus) (Francolinus pintadeanus) (Megalaima asiatica) (Indo Burmese elements) (Indo Chinese elements)

    (Fagaceae) (Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz Craib) (Pterocarpus macrocarpus Kurz) (Mangifera sp.) (Dalbergia cultrata Benth.) (Dalbergia oliveri Pra in) (Tectona grandis L. f . ) (Rhododendron ludwigianum Hoss.) (Impatiens griffithii Hook. f...