Ecological Corridor in Thailand

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    Ecological Corridor in ThailandEcological Corridor in Thailand

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    1 1 2557 2557ISBN 978-616-316-163-5ISBN 978-616-316-163-5 1,000 1,000

    //

    2

    1032/203-208 . 1032/203-208 . 10900 10900

    2

  • 3 3

    : :

  • 4 4

    4

    (corridor) (Inbreeding)

    (Ecosystem Management)

    (Core Area)

  • 5 5 5

    (Integrity) (Ecological Corridor)

    (Ecosystem Service)

  • 6 6

    8 : (GMS - BCI) 12

    16 16 19 21 22 27

    30 30 32 34 36 38

    46 46 48 49

    53 53 53 53 54 55 57 57 58 58 59

  • 7 7

    60 63 - 69 - 78 - 83 - 87 - 94 100 - 104 - 108 5 114 120 128 134 - 139 145 150 - 155 159 161 163 165

    (Transboundary Protected Area) 169

    184 185 193 304 . 196

    199

    208

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    1.1

    (Harris, 1984)

    (Habitat fragmentation) ( 1 2)

    (Metapopulation) (Gene flow)

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    20

    (Biodiversity Corridor)

    .. 2010

    .. 2002 Ecological corridor area

    (Island Biogeography)

    (Wildlife - Human conflict)

    (Ecological Corridor WildlifeCorridor) (Inbreeding)

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    1 .. 2551

    :

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    2 Landsat -

    : (2556)

    .. 2516 .. 2519

    .. 2543 .. 2544

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    1.2 : (GMS - BCI)

    ( ) Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) (ecosystem services)

    (The BiodiversityConservation Corridors)

    (species movement)

    (GMS)

    (Gross Domestic Product: GDP)

    (The Asian Development Bank : ADB) (Non Government Organizations : NGOs)

    5 () 6 GMS

    2

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    () / ( ) 1

    The Cardamom and Elephant Mountains Koh Kong (protected forest) (wildlife sanctuary) () (Xishuangbanna) 9

    (National Biodiversity Conservation Area : NBCA) (Quang Nam)

    3 (Ngoc Linh) (Song Thanh) (Ba Na)

    (Xe Sap) 2 19 5 (landscape) (regional scale)

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    3

    : Asian Development Bank (2005)

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    4

    : ()

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    2.1

    (corridor)

    Corridor: narrow strips of land which differ from the matrix on either side or maybe isolated strips, but are usually attached to a patch of somewhat similar vegetation (Forman & Gordon, 1986) Corridor: a linear landscape element that provides for movement between habitat patches, but not necessarily reproduction. Thus, not all life history requirements of a species may be met in a corridor (Rosen-berg et al. 1997).

    Corridor: a swath of land that is best expected to serve movement needs of an individual species after the remaining matrix has been converted to other uses (Beier et al. 2005).

    (habitat)

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    Ecologicalcorridor 4 ( 5) (core areas) (stepping stones) (buffer zones) (sustain able use areas)

    Tischendorf & Fahrig (2000, , 2554) landscape connectivity

    (specialist)

    / (amplitude of tolerance)

    5

    : Sicirec Group (http://www.sicirec.org)

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    Ecological corridor area

    18

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    2.2 (Forest Fragmentation)

    (SCBD, 2001)

    (habitat loss)

    (fragmentation) (patches)

    (landscape pattern)

    Bennett (2003)

    ( landscapeconfiguration)

    Fahrig (2003)

    (edge)

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    (edge contrast) (Forman, 1995; Bennett, 2003; Fahrig, 2003) (proximity) /

    (island biogeography theory) McArthur and Willis (1967) (metapopulation) Levins (1969)

    (inbreeding)

    (

    Saunders et al., 1991)

    (conservation biodiversity)

    Beier (1993); Laurance and Laurance (1999); Meegan and Maehr(2002)

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    (basic needs)

    Bennett (2003)

    3 (habitat loss)

    (habitat reduction)

    (habitat isolation) (local landscape) (regional landscape) (structure) (function) Hunter (2002)

    1) (dissection)

    2) (perforation)

    3) (fragmentation)

    2.3 (Fragentation Process)

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    (matrix) 4) (attrition)

    2.4

    2.4.1 2 1) (structural perspective)

    (structural connectedness) 2) (functional perspective)

    (connectivity)

    (Hess and Fischer, 2001)

    Bennett (2003)

    (functional connectivity)

    (physical connectivity)

    Forman and Gordon (1986)

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    (habitat) (conduit) (filter) (barrier) (source) (sink) Hess and Fischer (2001) 2 1) 2) (corridor dwellers)

    landscape linkage Bennett (2003)

    2.4.2 Bennett (2003) (2555) 3 1). (Habitat mosaics) (Habitat mosaics or Landscape corr idor )

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    ( 6)

    /

    2). (Habitat corridor)

    6 (Habitat mosaics or Landscape corridor)

    ( 7)

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    7 (Habitat corridor)

    (a) (natural habitat corridor) (b) (remnant habitat corridor) (c)

    8 Stepping stones

    (regenerated habitat corridor) (d) (planted habitat corridor) (e)

    (disturbance habitat corridor)

    3). (Stepping stones) ( 8)

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    1.

    2. (potential corridors) habitat patches

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    Hilty et al. (2006)

    1) (unplanned corridor)

    (generalist)

    2) (planed corridor)

    2.5 (2555)

    Walker and Craighead (1997) umbrel la spec ies

    GIS (Analyzing Wildlife Movement Corridors

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    in Montana Using GIS) (Grizzly Bear), (Elk), (Mountain Lion) Walker and Craighead (1997) Umbrella Species

    Wieren and Worm (2001) 6

    40 - 50 Harris and Scheck (1991)

    Metapopulation

    100 1,000

    1

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    (Felis concolor) 0.5 1 (Beier, 1993) 6 12

    Harrison (1992)

    Lindenmayer and Nix (1993)

    (Arboreal Marsupials) Lindenmayer and Nix (1993) 1.

    2.

    3.

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    3.1

    (2555)

    (Landscape ecology) (Theory of Island Biogeography) (ecosystem based management) 3 (matrix) (patch)

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    (landscape ecology) (ecologicalprocess) (biodiversity) (landscape connectivity)

    (landscape) (habitat) (mosaic) (Landscape)

    (linear habitat) (stream system)

    (inbreeding)

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    2 1) (key species)

    wildlife corridor 2)

    (ecological corridor)

    (enhance) (connectivity)

    ()

    (keystone resources)

    3.2

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    (systematic conservation planning)

    (Forman, 1995; Haddad et. al., 2003) 1)

    2)

    3) (cover) 4)

    5)

    6) (greenway or green belt)

    7) () Hilty et al. (2006)

    1) (individual of a species) (Population) (species) (community) (landscape)

    2) (spatial scale of linkage)

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    3) (dai ly movement) (seasonalmovement) (dispersal) (habitat)

    (long-term species persistence)

    3.3

    (SCBD, 2001)

    20

    (ecosystem management)

    (wildlife corridor design)

    (WildlifeHabitat)

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    1.

    2.

    3.

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    (Asian Development Bank, 2005)

    1

    -

    1. - 1. 2. 2. 3. 4. 3. 5. 4. 6. 7. 8. 5. 6.

    3.4

    (core area)

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    Bentrup (2008)

    1) 2)

    3) 4)

    (landscape ecology)

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    3.5.1.

    3.5

    (Mt.Kilimanjaro)

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    3.5.2.

    3.5.3.

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    9

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    3.5.4.

    3.5.5.

    3.5.6

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    10 20 30

    2

    1. 2. 3.

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    4. 5. 6.

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    7. 8. 9.

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    10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

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    3

    4.1

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    4.1.1.

    4.1.2.

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    4.1.3.

    4.1.4.

    4.2 1. (Zoning)

    2.

    3.

    4.2.1

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    4.2.2

    (Protected Area Integration)

    4.3