Citizen Engagement in Smart Cities

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  • D1.16 Report on Innovative Citizen Engagement Strategies

    REMOURBAN - GA No. 646511

    Extract from REMOURBAN (REgeneration MOdel for accelerating smart URBAN transformation) deliverable 1.16 Report on Innovative Citizen Engagement Strategies

    In this document, you will find an overview of:

    Smart city and energy efficiency related citizen engagement Identified levels of citizen engagement Practical examples, tips and tools for each level Existing frameworks for citizen engagement Future perspectives

    Content by Alec Walker-Love, commsalec@gmail.com, twitter: @ac_wlove

    Part of the work presented in this paper is based on the research conducted within the project Regeneration Model for Accelerating the Smart Urban Transformation REMOURBAN, which has received funding from the European Union Horizon 2020 Framework Programme (H2020/2014-2020) under Grant Agreement no. 646511.

    Particular thanks to:

    youris.com, youris@youris.com, REMOURBAN partner contracted for D1.16

    Christelle Degard, AREBS, City of Seraing, Belgium

    Istvn Nagy, Miskolc Holding Plc. Miskolc, Hungary

    Expert witness testimonials and sources

  • D1.16 Report on Innovative Citizen Engagement Strategies

    REMOURBAN - GA No. 646511

    Table of Content

    1 Development of a Model for Citizens and Consumers Engagement ...................................... 3 Building best practice: expert views and experience from Europe and beyond in 1.1

    citizen engagement ............................................................................................................. 71.1.1 Inform and consult .................................................................................................. 81.1.2 Include and collaborate ........................................................................................ 121.1.3 Empower and co-create ....................................................................................... 161.1.4 Evaluating engagement and social acceptance ................................................... 25

    Better understanding and targeting the citizens we engage with ...................................... 311.21.2.1 Segmenting actors within the community ............................................................. 311.2.2 Identifying behaviours, motivations and patterns of engagement ........................ 34

    Ladders, Spectrums, Toolboxes and Tactics: a model for citizen engagement? .............. 381.31.3.1 International Association of Public Participation (IAP2) ....................................... 401.3.2 European Innovation Partnership on Smart Cities and Communities (EIP-

    SCC) 411.3.3 Citizen Driven Innovation: World Bank and Living Labs ...................................... 431.3.4 Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning ................................................................... 451.3.5 Urban and Community Planning .......................................................................... 471.3.6 Selected additional frameworks and resources ................................................... 48

    Citizens as consumers? Tensions and opportunities ........................................................ 501.42 Conclusions .......................................................................................................................... 52

    Citizen engagement in the REMOURBAN Model ............................................................. 582.13 References ........................................................................................................................... 59

  • D1.16 Report on Innovative Citizen Engagement Strategies

    REMOURBAN - GA No. 646511

    1 Development of a Model for Citizens and Consumers Engagement

    Objective: The development of a model or framework - for citizens and consumers engagement based on innovative current practices developed by cities and stakeholders and further enriched. The result is a set of principles and resources that aims to consider citizens as actors of the regeneration model and involving them to improve and customize it to their specific needs. The engagement and empowerment approach adopted towards citizens is intended to accentuate the benefits brought by citizens to the regeneration model and ensuring energy efficiency targets and smart city development are reachedi.

    Introduction

    Citizen engagement, participatory democracy and budgeting, social and citizen-driven innovation, accountable governance, co-creation the number of terms are multiplying to try and capture the emerging and significant shift towards a more balanced approach to actively engaging with citizens to define the issues we face, to identify the solutions, and manage their delivery together.

    Within the scope of public policy, governance and urban development one can globally refer to processes by which public concerns, needs and values are incorporated into decision-makingii. Processes through which, citizens at some stage of the process and development find themselves on equal footing as the person in power.

    Of the many international and governmental institutions now focusing on social accountability and citizen engagement, particularly active is the World Bank, whose President Jim Yong Kim, put it that, "the citizen voice can be pivotal in providing the demand-side pressure on government, service providers, and organizations such as the World Bank that is needed to encourage full and swift response to citizen needs". For many this has a direct equation with good governance and worldwide there is increasing recognition that citizen involvement is critical for enhancing democratic governance, improving service delivery, and fostering empowerment. It is the ability of citizens, civil society organizations and other non-state actors to hold the state accountable and make it responsive to their needs.

    For local authority officials and city projects, engaging effectively with citizens a way to build trust and relationships and a source of democratic legitimacy and transparency. It is an opportunity to listen and understand communities and individuals; crowd source and prioritise ideas; and to inform and educate others about challenges, constraints and ambitions. Last, but certainly not least, it is an effective way to ensure a more sustainable project, by not building or creating something the community doesnt want.

    A two way dialogue with benefits for both:

    For Officials For Citizens Listen to and work with citizens directly Have a voice make a change Inform & educate about project(s) and

    local government Develop understanding and community

    contact points Increase transparency Accountability

    Make a tangible commitment Gain trust and implication Help realise a vision through sustainable,

    successful projects Foster a sense of community and civic

    pride Make local government work and finance

    better Smarter understanding of services and

    how much they cost

  • D1.16 Report on Innovative Citizen Engagement Strategies

    REMOURBAN - GA No. 646511

    For example, in lighthouse city Nottingham, the goal is to transform the environment and the economy; and citizens are a partner in achieving this. Corporate Director of Development, David Bishop stated the following at the second project meeting: We are striving to transform our economy within the framework of urban regeneration and sharing that with our citizens and communities. Elsewhere in REMOURBAN cities and across Europe, a new generation of urban leadership attempting to embrace the opportunities of a sustainable, healthy and prosperous twenty-first century and using citizen engagement actions to deliver solutions and achieve it. From crowdsourcing and prioritising an entire city vision in Hamburg, to participatory budgeting in Paris, this part of the report will explore these further.

    These notions of citizen engagement, shared power and involvement travel particularly well beyond the public policy sphere, and are remarkable in a multitude of contexts especially in a digital age of social media. Indeed, in the world of business to consumer, fast paced electronics and personalised services, the key driver of citizen expectations and action in engagement could easily be cited as a major high street brand, electronics company or internet website. Across the board, our expectations to be solicited and engaged by whichever organisation, community or persons we interact with are up.

    For businesses, understanding a customers needs, values and desires is critical to commercial success and brands are harnessing online and offline customer experiences to interact with clients increasing the expectations of citizens and society at large to be engaged with. Companies today spend a huge amount of resources to help create and improve engagement, not for a single interaction, but over timeiii. Our favourite products and services are based on extensive consumer research, testing, and revision; conceived with specific needs and desires in mind. Brands seek to drive an emotional attachment, where we love it! and tell our family and friends to love it as well.

    Increasingly powerful communication technologies are driving a more open, transparent, and collaborative relationship between them and their customers. In the commercial sphere, consumers also have the possibility to research, review and plan a purchase or service with peer-to-peer exchange and input. They will likely also have a series of performance guarantees, right to return or exchange, give feedback and review the product and company publicly.

    Growing expectation gap in service delivery of public services

  • D1.16 Report on Innovative Citizen Engagement Strategies

    REMOURBAN - GA No. 646511

    City authorities and decision-makers responsible for delivering smarter cities must be aware of the escalating expectations of citizens as consumers and the growing division between them in a fast paced and consumer driven world. People appreciate having a voice, with the possibility to make a change with evidence to show a sense of satisfaction in being consulted, even if the final decision is a different one.

    In terms of citizen engagement delivery and effectiveness, initiatives from across the content are fortunately growing in number and sophistication. Creatively speaking citizen engagement is principally strong, using a mix of media, messages and delivery to reach public audiences. Even if the conviction to address the topic is present, operational and tactical maturity in the delivery and evaluation of citizen engagement however, yet to be fully established.

    From a managerial standpoint, local authorities must add definition to issues of accountability, financing and resources, data privacy, legality, ethics and ownership amongst other issues. Tactically, leaders of citizen engagement are still learning to navigate some common pitfalls. These can include special interest groups taking over the process, perpetual indecision, data management, concerns over time and money spent and, ultimately, long-term effectiveness and outcome changes. Precise evaluation indicators and performance measure of citizen engagement effectiveness are also not set in stone yet. It is therefore important to plan and propose strong visions of success and failure to be able to share internally and with the community. For city officials, a future set of key behaviour indicators and measures of social cohesion and happiness may be a future set of measure.

    For REMOURBAN specifically, it is important to recognise this context and expectations when considering citizen engagement in the public sphere and urban regeneration. Difficult to make a housing resident create an emotional attachment and affinity to a deep renovation that may disturb their home and community for months. Difficult to have a trusting, transparent relationship with precise deadlines and clear performance guarantees with local authorities, housing trusts and engineering contractors. Informing, consulting, creating urban regeneration projects with a deeper support from the community is a time-consuming, intellectual (rather than emotional), transactional and tricky task.

    In social housing, successful transition to low carbon communities requires and eco-orientated neighbourhood development process in which residents are full partners. Deep renovation energy efficiency measures, new mobility options and smarter appliances and applications will only achieve their targeted carbon reductions if the tenants are conscious consumers of energy and adopters of measures and technology. When privately owned, the same applies; but with potentially more complex investment requests and diverse financing mechanisms. In private housing owners may only decide to invest if others do too, or the whole row of housing must all invest if the work is to be done at all.

    The immediacy and impact on daily lives particularly in the energy renovations of this and other similar projects places particular challenges for citizen engagement. The Not In My Back Yard (NIMBY) phenomena characterised by opposition of residents to a proposal for a new development because it is close to them, often with the connotation that such residents believe that the developments are needed in society but should be further away. Nimbies may even support the environmental and mobility improvements proposed; but oppose implementing it in a way that would require sacrifice on their part. Additional investment in time, resources, planning and clarity as well as a range of tools and methods to engage is needed when, literally, this close to home.

  • D1.16 Report on Innovative Citizen Engagement Strategies

    REMOURBAN - GA No. 646511

    With greater implication required from local authority, partners and residents on urban transformation projects set to happen in the near future, citizen engagement initiatives need to be highly developed and well executed.

    Levels of implication, investment & proximity may dictate concerns, how engaged with and urban transformation initiatives proposed: (illustrative)

    Implications and investments requested from citizens in REMOURBAN and similar projects might not only be financial or a disturbance successful urban transformation may request fundamental and long lasting changes to behaviour, adoption of new technologies. Put this against a potential context of say, high-unemployment, low voter turnout, non-native speakers and newcomers, low density, high motorization, significant ageing population, social or privately owned housing and any number of combinations of these and the challenges are significant.

    By examining a variety of best practices designed to achieve different levels of engagement and feedback across projects with a range of scopes and objectives, this report hopes to guide REMOURBAN cities and beyond. Originally tasked in ST1.3.3 in the development of a model for citizens and consumer engagement, it was feared...