B5 presentation

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IB Chemistry III B5 presentation

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<ul><li>1.B5 Micronutrients and Macronutrients <ul><li>Preston Sluder and Logan Stern </li></ul></li></ul> <p>2. </p> <ul><li>There is no difference in importance </li></ul> <ul><li>Micronutrients </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Required in small amounts (mg or g) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Mainly co-factors (non-protein parts) in enzymes </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>0.005% body weight </li></ul></li></ul> <p>B.5.1 Outline the differences between micronutrients and macronutrients 5. </p> <ul><li>Macronutrients examples: </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Fats </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Minerals including: </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Sodium (Na) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Magnesium (Mg) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Potassium (K) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Calcium (Ca) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Phosphorous (P) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Sulfur (S) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Chlorine (Cl) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p>B.5.1 Outline the differences between micronutrients and macronutrients 6. </p> <ul><li>Retinol (vitamin A) </li></ul> <p>B.5.2 Compare the structures of retinol (vitamin A), calciferol (vitamin D), and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) 7. </p> <ul><li>Calciferol (vitamin D) </li></ul> <ul><li>Cholecalciferol (D 3 ) Ergocalciferol (D 2 ) </li></ul> <p>B.5.2 Compare the structures of retinol (vitamin A), calciferol (vitamin D), and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) 8. </p> <ul><li>Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) </li></ul> <p>B.5.2 Compare the structures of retinol (vitamin A), calciferol (vitamin D), and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) 9. </p> <ul><li>Functional groups </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Vitamin A </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>1 hydroxyl group </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Vitamin D </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>3 hydroxyl groups (cholecalciferol) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>1 hydroxyl group (ergocalciferol) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Vitamin C </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>4 hydroxyl groups </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>cyclic ester (lactone) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p>B.5.2 Compare the structures of retinol (vitamin A), calciferol (vitamin D), and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) 10. </p> <ul><li>Shape </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Vitamin A </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>1 6-carbon ring </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>5 double bonds </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Generally straight chain </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Vitamin D </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>2 6-carbon rings, 1 5-carbon ring </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>3 double bonds (cholecalciferol) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>4 double bonds (ergocalciferol) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Vitamin C </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>1 5-carbon ring </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>2 double bonds </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p>B.5.2 Compare the structures of retinol (vitamin A), calciferol (vitamin D), and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) 11. </p> <ul><li>Look at any non-carbon/hydrogen </li></ul> <ul><li>Order of polarity </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Amide (most polar) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Acid </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Amine </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Ether </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Alkane (non-polar) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Many polar groups </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Water-soluble </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Few to no polar groups </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Fat-soluble </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p>B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 12. </p> <ul><li>Vitamin A </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Fat-soluble </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Vitamin C </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Water-soluble </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Vitamin D </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Fat-soluble </li></ul></li></ul> <p>B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 13. </p> <ul><li>Vitamin B 1(thiamine) </li></ul> <p>B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 14. </p> <ul><li>Vitamin B 2(riboflavin) </li></ul> <p>B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 15. </p> <ul><li>Vitamin B 3(niacin) </li></ul> <p>B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 16. </p> <ul><li>Vitamin B 5(pantothenic acid) </li></ul> <p>B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 17. </p> <ul><li>Vitamin B 6(pyridoxine) </li></ul> <p>B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 18. </p> <ul><li>Vitamin B 7(biotin) </li></ul> <p>B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 19. </p> <ul><li>Vitamin B 9(folic acid) </li></ul> <p>B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 20. </p> <ul><li>Vitamin B 12(cobalamin) </li></ul> <p>B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 21. </p> <ul><li>What do all of the B-vitamins have in common? </li></ul> <ul><li>They are all polar! </li></ul> <ul><li>Water-soluble </li></ul> <p>B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 22. </p> <ul><li>Vitamin E </li></ul> <ul><li>Fat-soluble </li></ul> <p>B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 23. </p> <ul><li>Vitamin K </li></ul> <ul><li>Fat-soluble </li></ul> <p>B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 24. </p> <ul><li>To recap </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Water-soluble </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Vitamin B </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Vitamin C </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Fat-soluble </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Vitamin A </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Vitamin D </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Vitamin E </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Vitamin K </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p>B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water or fat soluble from its structure 25. </p> <ul><li>Micronutrient Deficiencies </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Iron anemia </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Iodine goiter </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Vitamin A (retinol) xerophthalmia, night blindness </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Niacin (vitamin B 3 ) pellagra </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Thiamin (Vitamin B 1 ) beriberi </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) scurvy </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Calciferol (Vitamin D) rickets </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Selenium (rare) uncertain, but linked to chronicdisease risk, slower immune response </li></ul></li></ul> <p>B.5.4 Discuss the causes and effects of nutrient deficiencies in different countries and suggest solutions 26. </p> <ul><li>Macronutrient deficiencies </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Protein marasmus and kwashiorkor </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Calcium weak bones, rickets </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Sodium/Chlorine (salt) hyponatremia </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Potassium hypokalemia </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Magnesium hypomagnesemia, rickets </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Phosphorous - rickets </li></ul></li></ul> <p>B.5.4 Discuss the causes and effects of nutrient deficiencies in different countries and suggest solutions 27. </p> <ul><li>Mainly in developing countries, often in Africa, developing parts of Asia, or rural South America </li></ul> <ul><li>Examples of developing countries: </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Kenya </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Haiti </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Rwanda </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Nigeria </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Ethiopia </li></ul></li></ul> <p>B.5.4 Discuss the causes and effects of nutrient deficiencies in different countries and suggest solutions 28. </p> <ul><li>Possible solutions: </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Provide food rations with fresh vitamin and mineral rich foods </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Add missing nutrients to commonly eaten foods </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Genetically modify foods </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Provide nutritional supplements </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Provide Se supplements for people eating food grown in Se-deficient soil (NZ) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Provide iodized salt </li></ul></li></ul> <p>B.5.4 Discuss the causes and effects of nutrient deficiencies in different countries and suggest solutions </p>