He tuan hoan tham khao 2

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    10-Jul-2015

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  • Figure 20.20b

  • Figure 20.20c

  • Figure 20.20d

  • Figure 20.21b

  • Figure 20.22b

  • Figure 20.22c

  • Figure 20.22d

  • Figure 18.1a

  • Figure 18.1b

  • Figure 18.3

  • Figure 18.4a

  • Figure 18.4b

  • Figure 18.4c

  • Figure 18.5

  • Figure 18.6

  • Figure 18.7

  • Figure 18.3

  • Figure 20.1ab

  • Figure 20.1c

  • Figure 20.2

  • Figure 20.3

  • Figure 20.3

  • Figure 20.4a

  • Figure 20.4b

  • Figure 20.4c

  • Figure 20.7

  • Figure 20.9

  • Figure 20.12

  • Figure 20.17a

  • Figure 20.18b

  • Why do we need a circulatory system?supplies infuel (sugars)digestive systemoxygenrespiratory systemwaste outCO2respiratory systemneed to pick up & deliver the supplies & wastes around the bodycirculatory systemFeeding Energy Needs

  • Simple organismsWhen your body is only 2-cell layers thick, you can get supplies in and waste out just through diffusion all cells within easy reach of fluidHydraJellyfish

  • Complex organismsCirculatory system made up of 3 partsorganhearttissues & cellsblood vesselsarteriesveinscapillaries bloodred blood cellsplasma

  • Vertebrate Heart4-Chambered heartatria (atrium)thin wallcollection chamberreceive bloodventricles thick wall pumppump blood outright atriumleft atriumright ventricleleft ventricle

  • Evolution of circulatory systemfishamphibianreptilesbirds & mammalsAAVVVVVAAAAAV2 chamber3 chamber3 chamber4 chamberNot everyone has a 4-chambered heart

  • AVSLAVLub-dub, lub-dub4 valves in the heartflaps of connective tissueprevent backflowHeart sounds closing of valvesLubforce blood against closed AV valvesDubforce of blood against semilunar valvesHeart murmurleaking valve causes hissing sound blood squirts backward through valve

  • Blood vesselsarteriesarteriolescapillariesvenulesveinsarteryarteriolesvenulesveins

  • Major arteriespulmonary arterypulmonary artery = to lungsaortacarotid = to headto brain & left armto right armcoronary arteriesto body

  • Coronary artery bypassbypass surgery

  • Electrical signalsallows atria to empty completely before ventricles contractstimulates ventricles to contract from bottom to top, driving blood into arteriesheart pumping controlled by electrical impulses signal also transmitted to skin = EKG

  • Structure-function relationshipCapillariesvery thin walls allows diffusion of materials across capillaryO2, CO2, H2O, food, wastebody cellO2foodwasteCO2

  • HemoglobinProtein which carries O2250,000 hemoglobins in 1 red blood cellO2O2O2O2

  • Cardiovascular healthbypass surgeryRisk Factorsgeneticsdiethigh animal fatexercise & lifestylesmokinglack of exercise

  • Figure 21.1Figure 21.1 A Comparison of a Typical Artery and a Typical Vein

  • Figure 21.4 Capillary StructureFigure 21.4

  • Figure 21.5 The Organization of a Capillary BedFigure 21.5a, b

  • Figure 21.6Figure 21.6 The Function of Valves in the Venous System

  • Figure 21.7Figure 21.7 The Distribution of Blood in the Cardiovascular System

  • Figure 21.8Figure 21.8 An Overview of Cardiovascular Physiology

  • Figure 21.10Figure 21.10 Pressures within the Cardiovascular System

  • Figure 21.10Figure 21.10 Pressures within the Cardiovascular System

  • Figure 21.12 Capillary FiltrationFigure 21.12

  • Figure 21.12 Capillary FiltrationFigure 21.12

  • Figure 21.13Figure 21.13 Forces Acting across Capillary Walls

  • Figure 21.14Figure 21.14 Homeostatic Adjustments that Compensate for a Reduction in Blood Pressure and Blood Flow

  • Figure 21.14Figure 21.14 Homeostatic Adjustments that Compensate for a Reduction in Blood Pressure and Blood Flow

  • Figure 21.15Figure 21.15 Baroreceptor Reflexes of the Carotid and Aortic Sinuses

  • Figure 21.16 The Chemoreceptor ReflexesFigure 21.16

  • Figure 21.17aFigure 21.17 The Regulation of Blood Pressure and Blood Volume

  • Figure 21.17bFigure 21.17 The Regulation of Blood Pressure and Blood Volume

  • Figure 21.35a, bFigure 21.35 Fetal Circulation

    *********************************A powerful fourchambered heart was an essential adaptation in support of the endothermic way of life characteristic of mammals and birds. Endotherms use about ten times as much energy as equalsized ectotherms; therefore, their circulatory systems need to deliver about ten times as much fuel and O2 to their tissues (and remove ten times as much CO2 and other wastes). This large traffic of substances is made possible by separate and independent systemic and pulmonary circulations and by large, powerful hearts that pump the necessary volume of blood. Mammals and birds descended from different reptilian ancestors, and their fourchambered hearts evolved independentlyan example of convergent evolution.

    Why is it an advantage to get big?Herbivore:can eat more with bigger gut.lowers predation (but will push predators to get bigger as well, although no one east elephant s.)

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