Lifestyle and spine

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<ul><li><p>.. </p></li><li><p>.. </p></li><li><p> | 1 </p><p>.. </p></li><li><p>2 | </p><p>(Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation) </p><p>.. </p><p> 30-50 </p><p> (Life time prevalence) </p><p> 1.6 </p><p> (Annulus fibrosus) </p><p> 1 (Nucleus pulposus) </p></li><li><p> | 3 </p><p> 1 </p><p> 1 </p><p> 1. </p><p> (Posture) McKenzie 2 </p><p> , (valsava), </p></li><li><p>4 | </p><p> ( 2) </p><p> 2 (Intradiscal </p><p>pressure of lumbar spine) 2 </p><p> 3 </p><p> (Nucleus pulposus) </p><p> 3 </p></li><li><p> | 5 </p><p> 2. </p><p> 1 </p><p> Kirkady-Wiillis4 </p><p>(Herniated nucleus pulposus, HNP) </p><p> 1 4 </p></li><li><p>6 | </p><p> / </p><p> (Obesity) (Obesity) </p><p> 25 </p><p>5,6 </p><p> (chronic constipation) </p><p>79 </p></li><li><p> | 7 </p><p>(chronic cough) </p><p> 10 </p><p> / </p><p> squat jump </p><p> / </p><p> / </p></li><li><p>8 | </p><p>1. (Lumbar axial back pain) </p></li><li><p> | 9 </p><p>2. (Radicular leg pain or sciatica pain) </p><p> (Inflammatory process) (Mechanically compressive process) </p><p> (Hip flexion) </p><p> (Knee extension) (Ankle dorsiflexion) </p></li><li><p>10 | </p><p> (Knee flexion) </p><p>3. (Neurological deficit) </p><p> / </p></li><li><p> | 11 </p><p> / </p><p> / </p></li><li><p>12 | </p><p> (Prognosis) </p><p> Hakelius 11 </p><p> (Bed rest) </p><p> 80 6 90 12 </p></li><li><p> | 13 </p><p> 93 24 </p><p> (Symptomatic treatment) (Bed rest) </p><p> 30 </p><p> 30 </p><p> (Sciatica) </p><p> (Conservative treatment) 90 </p><p> (Second recurrent sciatica) </p><p> 90 50 </p><p> (Third recurrent sciatica) </p><p> 90 </p><p>1. </p><p> (Bed rest) </p><p> (Lumbar support) </p></li><li><p>14 | </p><p> , </p><p> (Body stretching) </p><p> McKenzie (McKenzie extension exercise) ( 4) </p></li><li><p> | 15 </p><p> 4 McKenzie extension </p><p>exercise </p><p>2. </p><p> Lumbosacral support (LS support) </p><p>12 </p><p> (Warm) </p><p> (Muscle atrophy) </p></li><li><p>16 | </p><p> 3. : </p><p> (Neurostabilized drug) </p><p> Gabapentin Pregabalin </p><p> Paracetamol, NSAIDs, Opioids </p><p>Steroid </p><p> Steroid Steroid Steroid </p><p> steroid </p><p>4. </p><p> 1. (Bed rest) </p><p> 3-6 </p></li><li><p> | 17 </p><p> 2. </p><p> 3. </p><p> (Endoscopic discectomy), </p><p> (Microscopic discectomy) </p><p> 1. (Obesity) </p></li><li><p>18 | </p><p> 25 </p><p> 2. (Smoking) </p><p> 3. (Occupation) </p><p> 4. (Chronic cough) </p></li><li><p> | 19 </p><p> 5. (Constipation) </p></li><li><p>20 | </p><p>1. Google Image Result for http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Cervical_vertebra_english.png [Internet]. [cited 2014 Aug 12]. Available from: http://www.google.co.th/imgres </p><p>2. Nachemson A. In vivo discometry in lumbar discs with irregular nucleograms. Some differences in stress distribution between normal and moderately degenerated discs. Acta Orthop Scand 1965;36:41834. </p><p>3. McFarlane DB. Notes on Anatomy and Physiology: The Intervertebral Discs [Internet]. [cited 2014 Aug 12]. Available from: http://ittcs.wordpress.com/2010/06/01/anatomy-and-physiology-the-intervertebral-discs/ </p><p>4. Kirkaldy-Willis WH, Wedge JH, Yong-Hing K, Reilly J. Pathology and pathogenesis of lumbar spondylosis and stenosis. Spine 1978;3:31928. </p><p>5. Helivaara M. Body height, obesity, and risk of herniated lumbar intervertebral disc. Spine. 1987;12:46972. </p></li><li><p> | 21 </p><p> 6. Bstman OM. Body mass index and height in patients requiring surgery for </p><p>lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Spine 1993;18:8514. </p><p>7. Batti MC, Videman T, Gill K, Moneta GB, Nyman R, Kaprio J, et al. 1991 Volvo Award in clinical sciences. Smoking and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration: an MRI study of identical twins. Spine 1991;16:101521. </p><p>8. Fogelholm RR, Alho AV. Smoking and intervertebral disc degeneration. Med Hypotheses. 2001;56:5379. </p><p>9. Akmal M, Kesani A, Anand B, Singh A, Wiseman M, Goodship A. Effect of nicotine on spinal disc cells: a cellular mechanism for disc degeneration. Spine 2004;29:56875. </p><p>10. Helivaara M, Knekt P, Aromaa A. Incidence and risk factors of herniated lumbar intervertebral disc or sciatica leading to hospitalization. J Chronic Dis. 1987;40:2518. </p><p>11. Hakelius A. Prognosis in sciatica. A clinical follow-up of surgical and non-surgical treatment. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl 1970;129:176. </p><p>12. Snijders CJ, Hermans PFG, Niesing R, Spoor CW, Stoeckart R. The influence of slouching and lumbar support on iliolumbar ligaments, intervertebral discs and sacroiliac joints. Clin Biomech Bristol Avon. 2004;19:3239. </p></li><li><p> | 23 </p><p>.. </p></li><li><p>24 | </p><p>(Lumbar spinal stenosis) .. </p><p> 50-60 50-60 </p><p> (Vertebral body of first lumbar) (Vertebral body of first sacrum) (Dura matter) ( 1) </p></li><li><p> | 25 </p><p> 1 13 </p></li><li><p>26 | </p><p> 3 Kirkady-Wiillis 1. (Dysfunction phase) (Facet joint) (Intervertebral disc) 2. (Instability phase) 3. (Restabilization phase) (Ligament) (Facet capsule) (Osteophyte) (Spinal canal) </p></li><li><p> | 27 </p><p> (Spinal canal stenosis) (Neurogenic claudication) 1 Kirkady-Wiillis4 </p><p> 1 4 </p><p> (Genetic) (Trefoil) (Congenital lumbar spinal canal stenosis) 2 </p><p> 2 (Axial view)5 </p></li><li><p>28 | </p><p> (Elderly) </p><p> 7 </p><p> / </p><p> (Obesity) (Obesity) 25 6,7 (Smoking) (Intervertebral disc) 810 (Facet joint) </p><p> (Floor activities) </p></li><li><p> | 29 </p><p> 11 28 10 15 2 10 </p><p> / </p><p> / / </p></li><li><p>30 | </p><p> (Occupation) </p><p> (Dysfunction </p></li><li><p> | 31 </p><p> phase) (Core muscle) (Instability phase) (Restabilization phase) (Lumbar spinal stenosis) 300 - 500 (Neurogenic claudication) ( 3) </p></li><li><p>32 | </p><p> 3 12 </p><p> / </p></li><li><p> | 33 </p><p> / </p><p> / </p></li><li><p>34 | </p></li><li><p> | 35 </p><p> (Prognosis) 15 45-50 20-30 13 </p><p>1. 1.1. 1.2. (Hyperlordosis) (Hyperlordosis) (Normal lordosis) (Hypolordosis) </p></li><li><p>36 | </p><p> 1.3. (Hypolordosis) 1.4. (Hyperlordosis) (Normal lordosis) (Hypolordosis) pelvic tilt exercise ( 4) 14 10 </p></li><li><p> | 37 </p><p> 4 Pelvic tilt exercise14 1.5. 15 (Knee to chest exercise) - ( 5) </p><p> 5 Knee to chest exercise15 </p><p>2. : (Neurostabilized drug) </p></li><li><p>38 | </p><p> Gabapentin Pregabalin Paracetamol, NSAIDs, Opioids Steroid Steroid Steroid Steroid steroid </p><p>3. 1. 3-6 2. 3. 2 1. (Decompression alone) </p></li><li><p> | 39 </p><p> (Direct vision) (Microscope) (Endoscope) 2. (Decompression with fusion and fixation) </p><p> 1. (Obesity) 25 2. (Smoking) 3. (Occupation) </p></li><li><p>40 | </p><p> 4. (Floor activities) </p></li><li><p> | 41 </p><p> (Floor activities) 2 1. 2. </p></li><li><p>42 | </p><p> 7 / / </p></li><li><p> | 43 </p><p> 1. Lumbar Spine - Neuroradiology [Internet]. [cited 2014 Aug 12]. Available </p><p>from:https://sites.google.com/a/wisc.edu/neuroradiology/anatomy/spine/slide-5---cervical-spine-oblique-view </p><p>2. McFarlane DB. Notes on Anatomy and Physiology: Spinal Stenosis [Internet]. [cited 2014 Aug 12]. Available from: http://ittcs.wordpress.com/2010/06/10/anatomy-and-physiology-spinal-stenosis/ </p><p>3. Parts of the Spine Anatomy, Picture, Spinal Column, Backbone | Healthhype.com [Internet]. [cited 2014 Aug 12]. Available from: http://www.healthhype.com/parts-of-the-spine-anatomy-picture-spinal-column-backbone.html </p><p>4. Kirkaldy-Willis WH, Wedge JH, Yong-Hing K, Reilly J. Pathology and pathogenesis of lumbar spondylosis and stenosis. Spine 1978;3:31928. </p><p>5. Eisenstein S. The trefoil configuration of the lumbar vertebral canal. A study of South African skeletal material. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1980;62B:737. </p><p>6. Liuke M, Solovieva S, Lamminen A, Luoma K, Leino-Arjas P, Luukkonen R, et al. Disc degeneration of the lumbar spine in relation to overweight. Int J Obes 2005 2005;29:9038. </p><p>7. Samartzis D, Karppinen J, Chan D, Luk KDK, Cheung KMC. The association of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration on magnetic resonance imaging with body mass index in overweight and obese adults: a population-based study. Arthritis Rheum 2012;64:148896. </p></li><li><p>44 | </p><p> 8. Batti MC, Videman T, Gill K, Moneta GB, Nyman R, Kaprio J, et al. 1991 </p><p>Volvo Award in clinical sciences. Smoking and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration: an MRI study of identical twins. Spine. 1991 Sep;16(9):101521. </p><p>9. Akmal M, Kesani A, Anand B, Singh A, Wiseman M, Goodship A. Effect of nicotine on spinal disc cells: a cellular mechanism for disc degeneration. Spine 2004;29:56875. </p><p>10. Fogelholm RR, Alho AV. Smoking and intervertebral disc degeneration. Med Hypotheses. 2001;56:5379. </p><p>11. Wajanavisit W, Woratanarat P, Wattanawong T, Laohacharoensombat W. Floor activities and degenerative spinal diseases. J Med Assoc Thai Assoc 2009;92 Suppl5:S8894. </p><p>12. Google Image Result for http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7147/6540049663_f7fcc6a97d_m.jpg [Internet]. [cited 2014 Aug 12]. Available from: http://www.google.co.th/imgres </p><p>13. Sengupta DK, Herkowitz HN. Lumbar spinal stenosis. Treatment strategies and indications for surgery. Orthop Clin North Am. 2003;34:28195. </p><p>14. Google Image Result for http://www2.nau.edu/~mtl8/images 15. Google Image Result for http://morganmassage.com/wp-</p><p>content/uploads/2013/05/Single_knee_to_chest_stretch.jpg [Internet]. [cited 2014 Aug 12]. Available from: http://www.google.co.th/imgres </p></li><li><p>.. </p></li></ul>